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Nutrient requirements in cattle are dependent on physiological stage, breed and environmental conditions. In Holstein × Gyr crossbred dairy heifers, the lack of data remains a limiting factor for estimating energy and protein requirements. Thus, we aimed to estimate the energy and protein requirements of Holstein × Gyr crossbred heifers raised under tropical conditions. Twenty-two crossbred (½ Holstein × ½ Gyr) heifers with an average initial BW of 102.2 ± 3.4 kg and 3 to 4 months of age were used. To estimate requirements, the comparative slaughter technique was used: four animals were assigned to the reference group, slaughtered at the beginning of the experiment to estimate the initial empty BW (EBW) and composition of the animals that remained in the experiment. The remaining animals were randomized into three treatments based on targeted rates of BW gain: high (1.0 kg/day), low (0.5 kg/day) and close to maintenance (0.1 kg/day). At the end of the experiment, all animals were slaughtered to determine EBW, empty body gain (EBG) and body energy and protein contents. The linear regression parameters were estimated using PROC MIXED of SAS (version 9.4). Estimates of the parameters of non-linear regressions were adjusted through PROC NLIN of SAS using the Gauss–Newton method for parameter fit. The net requirements of energy for maintenance (NEm) and metabolizable energy for maintenance (MEm) were 0.303 and 0.469 MJ/EBW0.75 per day, respectively. The efficiency of use of MEm was 64.5%. The estimated equation to predict the net energy requirement for gain (NEg) was: NEg (MJ/day) = 0.299 × EBW0.75 × EBG0.601. The efficiency of use of ME for gain (kg) was 30.7%. The requirement of metabolizable protein for maintenance was 3.52 g/EBW0.75 per day. The equation to predict net protein requirement for gain (NPg) was: NPg (g/day) = 243.65 × EBW−0.091 × EBG. The efficiency of use of metabolizable protein for gain (k) was 50.8%. We observed noteworthy differences when comparing to ME and protein requirements of Holstein × Gyr crossbred heifers with other systems. In addition, we also observed differences in estimates for NEm, NEg, NPg, kg and k. Therefore, we propose that the equations generated in the present study should be used to estimate energy and protein requirements for Holstein × Gyr crossbred dairy heifers raised in tropical conditions in the post-weaning phase up to 185 kg of BW.
The objective of this meta-analysis study was to develop and validate equations estimated from in situ and in vitro methods to predict in vivo ruminal digestibility of organic matter (OM) of beef cattle diets. The database was composed of individual data of 23 diets from six experiments. Information collected from these studies was: in vivo digestibility and degradation parameters of OM calculated from in situ and in vitro incubations. The values of estimated times for the in situ and in vitro incubations to access in vivo digestibility of OM, and differences between degradation at 24, 48 and 72 h (in situ and in vitro) and in vivo digestibility were analysed in a model that included the fixed effects of forage neutral detergent fibre level. Thereafter, a multiple stepwise regression was carried out using OM digestibility as a dependent variable and degradation parameters (A = water-soluble fraction; B = potentially degradable water-insoluble fraction; and kd = degradation rate of fraction B) as independent variables. Equation validation was performed using data from a seventh experiment that have the same methods than previous studies. Stepwise regression results showed that the kd contributed significantly in most of the algorithms derived to predict in vivo digestibility. Validation analysis showed that equations developed from both in vitro and in situ incubations accurately estimated the in vivo digestibility of OM (P > 0.05). Our results suggest that equations developed to estimate OM digestibility showed both precision and accuracy; however, in situ method presented better results than in vitro.
The current study aimed to select the strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from forage cactus plants and silage and assess their effects on silage fermentation and aerobic stability. Forty wild isolates from plant and cactus silage, classified as LAB, were evaluated for metabolite production and identified by 16S ribosomal DNA sequencing. These wild isolates were identified as Lactobacillus plantarum, Weissella cibaria, Weissella confusa and Weissella paramesenteroides and the LAB populations differed among the silage. The use of microbial inoculants did not influence gas or effluent losses in forage cactus silage. The silage inoculated with the microbial strain GP15 showed the highest number of LAB populations. The amounts of water-soluble carbohydrates (WSC) and ammonia nitrogen differed among the silage. The silage inoculated with the GP1 strain presented the highest WSC. Populations of enterobacteria and yeasts and moulds were below the minimum detection limit (<2.0 log cfu/g silage) in all the silage studied. The predominant action of inoculants was to maximize dry matter recovery of the silage, which could be the criterion adopted to select the strains of LAB for use as inoculants in Opuntia silage.
Daily use of high-potency cannabis has been reported to carry a high risk for developing a psychotic disorder. However, the evidence is mixed on whether any pattern of cannabis use is associated with a particular symptomatology in first-episode psychosis (FEP) patients.
We analysed data from 901 FEP patients and 1235 controls recruited across six countries, as part of the European Network of National Schizophrenia Networks Studying Gene-Environment Interactions (EU-GEI) study. We used item response modelling to estimate two bifactor models, which included general and specific dimensions of psychotic symptoms in patients and psychotic experiences in controls. The associations between these dimensions and cannabis use were evaluated using linear mixed-effects models analyses.
In patients, there was a linear relationship between the positive symptom dimension and the extent of lifetime exposure to cannabis, with daily users of high-potency cannabis having the highest score (B = 0.35; 95% CI 0.14–0.56). Moreover, negative symptoms were more common among patients who never used cannabis compared with those with any pattern of use (B = −0.22; 95% CI −0.37 to −0.07). In controls, psychotic experiences were associated with current use of cannabis but not with the extent of lifetime use. Neither patients nor controls presented differences in depressive dimension related to cannabis use.
Our findings provide the first large-scale evidence that FEP patients with a history of daily use of high-potency cannabis present with more positive and less negative symptoms, compared with those who never used cannabis or used low-potency types.
The current study was carried out to examine the effect of cottonseed processing and chitosan supplementation on lamb performance, digestibility and nitrogen digestion. Eighty uncastrated Santa Inês lambs (23 ± 2.2 kg average weight, 4 months old) were distributed in a completely randomized design in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement that consisted of two cottonseed processing forms (whole or ground) and two chitosan levels (0 or 136 mg/kg live weight). Higher dry matter and organic matter apparent digestibility coefficient (ADC) was achieved with the diets containing the whole cottonseed. Ether extract ADC was higher in the animals fed the chitosan-containing diet. There was an interaction effect on the ADC of neutral detergent fibre corrected for ash and protein, which increased with chitosan inclusion associated with the whole cottonseed. The lambs that received the treatment containing the whole cottonseed showed higher microbial protein synthesis. Chitosan addition increased nitrogen retention. The animals fed chitosan-containing diets showed higher microbial protein synthesis. There was an interaction effect on microbial protein synthesis. Whole cottonseed associated with chitosan in lamb diets increases ether extract ADC and microbial protein synthesis.
Ethnic minority groups in Western countries face an increased risk of psychotic disorders. Causes of this long-standing public health inequality remain poorly understood. We investigated whether social disadvantage, linguistic distance and discrimination contributed to these patterns.
We used case–control data from the EUropean network of national schizophrenia networks studying Gene-Environment Interactions (EU-GEI) study, carried out in 16 centres in six countries. We recruited 1130 cases and 1497 population-based controls. Our main outcome measure was first-episode ICD-10 psychotic disorder (F20–F33), and exposures were ethnicity (white majority, black, mixed, Asian, North-African, white minority and other), generational status, social disadvantage, linguistic distance and discrimination. Age, sex, paternal age, cannabis use, childhood trauma and parental history of psychosis were included as a priori confounders. Exposures and confounders were added sequentially to multivariable logistic models, following multiple imputation for missing data.
Participants from any ethnic minority background had crude excess odds of psychosis [odds ratio (OR) 2.03, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.69–2.43], which remained after adjustment for confounders (OR 1.61, 95% CI 1.31–1.98). This was progressively attenuated following further adjustment for social disadvantage (OR 1.52, 95% CI 1.22–1.89) and linguistic distance (OR 1.22, 95% CI 0.95–1.57), a pattern mirrored in several specific ethnic groups. Linguistic distance and social disadvantage had stronger effects for first- and later-generation groups, respectively.
Social disadvantage and linguistic distance, two potential markers of sociocultural exclusion, were associated with increased odds of psychotic disorder, and adjusting for these led to equivocal risk between several ethnic minority groups and the white majority.
The current study evaluated the effects of dietary roughage:concentrate (R:C) ratios and water supply on the carcass characteristics and yield of lambs. Forty Santa Inês crossbred lambs with an average body weight (BW) of 19 ± 2.8 kg were evaluated in a completely randomized design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement consisting of two proportions of roughage and concentrate (30:70 and 70:30) and two levels of water supply (ad libitum and restricted to 0.5). The animals were slaughtered at an average weight of 28 ± 31 kg. Centesimal composition, colour parameters (L*, a* and b*), shear force, cooking losses and pH were determined on the Longissimus lumborum muscle. There was no interaction effect between the R:C ratio and water supply on the evaluated variables. Total BW gain, average daily gain and final BW were affected by water restriction and R:C ratio. Water restriction reduced total BW gain, average daily gain and final BW. No effect of water restriction was detected on slaughter weight, centesimal composition, colour variations, shear force, pH, weight or yield of carcass. No effect of water restriction and diets was observed on the cuts, except for neck weight. Carcass weight and yield were affected by the R:C ratios. Restricting the water supply to 0.5 does not affect the carcass weight or yield of Santa Inês crossbred lambs or their meat quality characteristics (centesimal composition, colour, shear force and pH measurements). A higher proportion of concentrate in the diet results in heavier hot and cold carcass weights.
To (1) confirm whether the Habit, Reward, and Fear Scale is able to generate a 3-factor solution in a population of obsessive-compulsive disorder and alcohol use disorder (AUD) patients; (2) compare these clinical groups in their habit, reward, and fear motivations; and (3) investigate whether homogenous subgroups can be identified to resolve heterogeneity within and across disorders based on the motivations driving ritualistic and drinking behaviors.
One hundred and thirty-four obsessive-compulsive disorder (n = 76) or AUD (n = 58) patients were assessed with a battery of scales including the Habit, Reward, and Fear Scale, the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale, the Alcohol Dependence Scale, the Behavioral Inhibition/Activation System Scale, and the Urgency, (lack of
) Premeditation, (lack of
) Perseverance, Sensation Seeking, and Positive Urgency Impulsive Behavior Scale.
A 3-factor solution reflecting habit, reward, and fear subscores explained 56.6% of the total variance of the Habit, Reward, and Fear Scale. Although the habit and fear subscores were significantly higher in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and the reward subscores were significantly greater in AUD patients, a cluster analysis identified that the 3 clusters were each characterized by differing proportions of OCD and AUD patients.
While affective (reward- and fear-driven) and nonaffective (habitual) motivations for repetitive behaviors seem dissociable from each other, it is possible to identify subgroups in a transdiagnostic manner based on motivations that do not match perfectly motivations that usually described in OCD and AUD patients.
We report a novel strategy to render stainless steel (SS) a more versatile material that is suitable to be used as the substrate for preparing electrodes for efficient hydrogen evolution by interface engineering. Our strategy involves the growth of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) by atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition (APCVD) as the interface material on the surface of SS. We optimized the procedure to prepare CNTs/SS and demonstrate a higher activity of the CNTs/SS prepared at 700 °C for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) when compared to samples prepared at other temperatures. This can be attributed to the higher number of defects and the higher content of pyrrolic N obtained at this temperature. Our strategy offers a new approach to employ SS as a substrate for the preparation of highly efficient electrodes and has the potential to be widely used in electrochemistry.
Birthweight (BW) has been associated with anthropometry, body composition and physical fitness during growth and development of children. However, less is known about the mediation effect of those variables on the relationship between BW and basal metabolic rate (BMR) in children.
To analyse the mediation effect of anthropometry, body composition and physical fitness on the association between BW and BMR in children.
In total, 499 children (254 boys, 245 girls) aged 7–10 years were included. Anthropometry (weight, height, head, waist and hip circumferences), body composition (skinfolds thickness, body fat percentage), physical fitness (handgrip strength, flexibility, muscular endurance, muscular explosive power, agility, running speed) and BMR were evaluated. The analyses were conducted by: single-mediator analysis (SMA) and multi-mediator analysis (MMA).
The SMA indicates height, head, waist and hip circumferences and handgrip strength as significant mediators of BW on BMR for boys and height, hip circumference and handgrip strength as significant mediators of BW on BMR for girls. In MMA for girls, there were significant indirect effects for height, hip circumference and handgrip strength, with 79.08% of percent mediation. For boys, the head and waist circumferences mediation had a significant indirect effect, with 83.37% of percent mediation.
The anthropometric variables associated with BW were body height, head, hip and waist circumferences for boys and body height and hip circumference for girls. The current study provides new evidence that height and handgrip strength during childhood mediated the relationship between BW and BMR.
The rocky shores of the north-east Atlantic have been long studied. Our focus is from Gibraltar to Norway plus the Azores and Iceland. Phylogeographic processes shape biogeographic patterns of biodiversity. Long-term and broadscale studies have shown the responses of biota to past climate fluctuations and more recent anthropogenic climate change. Inter- and intra-specific species interactions along sharp local environmental gradients shape distributions and community structure and hence ecosystem functioning. Shifts in domination by fucoids in shelter to barnacles/mussels in exposure are mediated by grazing by patellid limpets. Further south fucoids become increasingly rare, with species disappearing or restricted to estuarine refuges, caused by greater desiccation and grazing pressure. Mesoscale processes influence bottom-up nutrient forcing and larval supply, hence affecting species abundance and distribution, and can be proximate factors setting range edges (e.g., the English Channel, the Iberian Peninsula). Impacts of invasive non-native species are reviewed. Knowledge gaps such as the work on rockpools and host–parasite dynamics are also outlined.
The dietary inclusion of feed additives to improve the carcass characteristics of the final product is of great importance for the pork production chain. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effects of the association of ractopamine (RAC) and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on the performance traits of finishing pigs during the last 26 days prior to slaughter. In total, 810 commercial hybrid barrows were used. Animals were distributed among treatments according to a randomised block design in a 3 × 3 factorial arrangement, with three RAC levels (0, 5 or 10 ppm) and three CLA levels (0, 0.3 or 0.6%). Pigs fed the diet with 5 ppm RAC had higher average daily feed intake (ADFI) (2.83 kg; P < 0.05) when compared with those fed 10 ppm RAC and the control diet (2.75 and 2.74 kg, respectively). Lower ADFI values (P < 0.01) were observed with the diets containing CLA compared with the control diet with no CLA (2.73 and 2.75 v. 2.85 kg/day, respectively). The average daily weight gain of pigs fed 5 and 10 ppm RAC was +148 and +173 g/dayhigher (P < 0.001), respectively, than those fed the control diet. Dietary RAC levels influenced (P < 0.001) feed conversion ratio (FCR), which was reduced as RAC levels increased, with the pigs fed 10, 5 and 0 ppm RAC presenting FCR values of 2.57, 2.71 and 3.05, respectively. FCR also improved (P < 0.05) with the inclusion of 0.6% CLA relative to the control diet (2.70 v. 2.84, respectively). There was a significant interaction between CLA × RAC levels (P < 0.01) for final BW, loin eye area (LEA) (P < 0.05) and backfat thickness (BT) (P < 0.05). The treatments containing 10 ppm RAC + 0.6% or 0.3% CLA increased LEA and reduced BT. In conclusion, the level of 10 ppm inclusion of RAC increased the overall performance parameters of pigs and therefore improved production efficiency. The combined use of RAC and CLA promoted a lower feed conversion ratio as well as better quantitative carcass traits, as demonstrated by the higher LEA and lower BT. The dietary inclusion of CLA at 0.3% improved feed efficiency, however, without affecting LEA or BT yields.
Item 9 of the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) queries about thoughts of death and self-harm, but not suicidality. Although it is sometimes used to assess suicide risk, most positive responses are not associated with suicidality. The PHQ-8, which omits Item 9, is thus increasingly used in research. We assessed equivalency of total score correlations and the diagnostic accuracy to detect major depression of the PHQ-8 and PHQ-9.
We conducted an individual patient data meta-analysis. We fit bivariate random-effects models to assess diagnostic accuracy.
16 742 participants (2097 major depression cases) from 54 studies were included. The correlation between PHQ-8 and PHQ-9 scores was 0.996 (95% confidence interval 0.996 to 0.996). The standard cutoff score of 10 for the PHQ-9 maximized sensitivity + specificity for the PHQ-8 among studies that used a semi-structured diagnostic interview reference standard (N = 27). At cutoff 10, the PHQ-8 was less sensitive by 0.02 (−0.06 to 0.00) and more specific by 0.01 (0.00 to 0.01) among those studies (N = 27), with similar results for studies that used other types of interviews (N = 27). For all 54 primary studies combined, across all cutoffs, the PHQ-8 was less sensitive than the PHQ-9 by 0.00 to 0.05 (0.03 at cutoff 10), and specificity was within 0.01 for all cutoffs (0.00 to 0.01).
PHQ-8 and PHQ-9 total scores were similar. Sensitivity may be minimally reduced with the PHQ-8, but specificity is similar.
There is a long history of exploitation of the South American river turtle Podocnemis expansa. Conservation efforts for this species started in the 1960s but best practices were not established, and population trends and the number of nesting females protected remained unknown. In 2014 we formed a working group to discuss conservation strategies and to compile population data across the species’ range. We analysed the spatial pattern of its abundance in relation to human and natural factors using multiple regression analyses. We found that > 85 conservation programmes are protecting 147,000 nesting females, primarily in Brazil. The top six sites harbour > 100,000 females and should be prioritized for conservation action. Abundance declines with latitude and we found no evidence of human pressure on current turtle abundance patterns. It is presently not possible to estimate the global population trend because the species is not monitored continuously across the Amazon basin. The number of females is increasing at some localities and decreasing at others. However, the current size of the protected population is well below the historical population size estimated from past levels of human consumption, which demonstrates the need for concerted global conservation action. The data and management recommendations compiled here provide the basis for a regional monitoring programme among South American countries.
The VISCACHA (VIsible Soar photometry of star Clusters in tApii and Coxi HuguA†) Survey is an ongoing project based on deep and spatially resolved photometric observations of Magellanic Cloud star clusters, collected using the SOuthern Astrophysical Research (SOAR) telescope together with the SOAR Adaptive Module Imager. So far we have used >300h of telescope time to observe ∼150 star clusters, mostly with low mass (M < 104M⊙) on the outskirts of the LMC and SMC. With this high-quality data set, we homogeneously determine physical properties using deep colour-magnitude diagrams (ages, metallicities, reddening, distances, mass, luminosity and mass functions) and structural parameters (radial density profiles, sizes) for these clusters which are used as a proxy to investigate the interplay between the Magellanic Clouds and their evolution. We present the VISCACHA survey and its initial results, based on our first two papers. The project’s long term goals and expected legacy to the community are also addressed.
To assess iodine status and its effects on maternal thyroid function throughout pregnancy.
In the present prospective cohort study, three urinary samples were requested for urinary iodine concentration (UIC) determinations in both the first and third gestational trimesters. Serum thyrotropin (TSH) and free thyroxine (FT4) were analysed in both trimesters and thyroid antibodies were assessed once.
Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
First-trimester pregnant women (n 243), of whom 100 were re-evaluated during the third trimester.
Iodine sufficiency was found in the studied population (median UIC=216·7 µg/l). The first- and third-trimester median UIC was 221·0 and 208·0 µg/l, respectively. TSH levels (mean (sd)) were higher in the third trimester (1·08 (0·67) v. 1·67 (0·86) mIU/l; P<0·001), while FT4 levels decreased significantly (1·18 (0·16) v. 0·88 (0·12) ng/dl; P<0·001), regardless the presence of iodine deficiency (UIC<150 µg/l) or circulating thyroid antibodies. UIC correlated (β; 95% CI) independently and negatively with age (–0·43; –0·71, –0·17) and positively with multiparity (0·15; 0·02, 0·28) and BMI (0·25; 0·00, 0·50). Furthermore, median UIC per pregnant woman tended to correlate positively with TSH (0·07; –0·01, 0·14). Women with median UIC≥250 µg/l and at least one sample ≥500 µg/l throughout pregnancy had a higher risk of subclinical hypothyroidism (OR=6·6; 95% CI 1·2, 37·4).
In this cohort with adequate iodine status during pregnancy, excessive UIC was associated with an increased risk of subclinical hypothyroidism.
Buffalo milk production has become of significant importance on the world scale, however, there are few studies involving biotechnological tools specifically for buffalo. To verify the effects caused by subclinical mastitis on the components of milk and to study the innate immune system in the udder of dairy buffaloes with subclinical mastitis, we evaluated the levels of expression of the lactoferrin (LTF), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), interleukin-8 (IL-8), and toll-like receptors 2 (TLR-2) and 4 (TLR-4) genes in buffaloes with and without subclinical mastitis. Milk samples were collected for the determination of milk components: somatic cell score (SCS), fat, protein, lactose, total solids and solids-not-fat (SNF), as well as for RNA extraction of milk cells, complementary DNA synthesis, and expression profile quantification by quantitative real-time PCR. For gene expression, the ΔΔCt was estimated using contrasts of the target genes expression adjusted for the expression of the housekeeping genes between both groups. Linear regression analysis was performed to determine the relationship between the genes studied and the milk components. Subclinical mastitis induced changes in the fat, lactose and SNF in milk of buffaloes, and the messenger RNA abundance was upregulated for TLR-2, TLR-4, TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-8 genes in milk cells of buffaloes with subclinical mastitis, whereas the LTF gene was not differentially expressed. Results of linear regression analysis showed that TLR-2 gene expression most explains the variation in SCS, and the change in a unit of ΔCt of the TNF-α gene would result in a higher increase in SCS. The study of these immune function genes that are active in the mammary gland is important to characterize the action mechanism of the innate immunity that occurs in subclinical mastitis in dairy buffaloes and may aid the development of strategies to preserve the health of the udder.
Urbanization and intense vessel traffic in coastal areas are obstacles for right whales when selecting breeding and calving grounds. Human activities might be the main cause for the recently observed drop in right whale sightings along the south-eastern coast of Brazil. Information concerning the biology and the activities that can potentially affect the presence of individuals along the coast are essential for management purposes, as well as for the recovery of the species stocks after a period of whaling pressure. This study correlated the occurrence of right whales in the northern limit of the breeding ground in the South-western Atlantic Ocean with local geomorphology, degree of urbanization and oceanographic features to better identify suitable areas for use by these whales. The study area was divided into 14 sub-areas based on local coastal geomorphology and discharge of large rivers. The following five ranking criteria were applied to each sub-area: presence of whaling stations and whaling activity in the past; presence and activity of ports; protection from swell, coastal slope and composition of the bottom substrate. The sub-areas that offered conditions conducive to the presence of right whales received higher scores. The proposed criteria were validated by overlapping the ranking scores with the records of right whales sighted in each sub-area. In south-eastern Brazil, protected areas with sandy bottom and gentle slope were associated with more sightings of female-calf pairs. The criteria can be used as a primary diagnostic indicating suitable sub-areas for right whales in poorly known breeding grounds.