We sought to determine the prevalence and associated characteristics of hepatitis A, B, C and D viruses and HIV infections in a prison in Durango, Mexico. Sera from 181 inmates were analysed for HAV antibody, hepatitis B core antibody (HBcAb), hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), HCV antibody, HDV antibody, HIV antibody and HCV genotypes. Prevalence of HAV antibody, HBcAb, HBsAg, HCV antibody, HDV antibody and HIV antibody were 99·4, 4·4, 0·0, 10·0, 0·0 and 0·6% respectively. HCV genotype 1a predominated in HCV-infected inmates (62·5%), followed by HCV genotype 1b (25%) and HCV genotype 3 (12·5%). An association between HBV infection and age >30 years was found. HCV infection was associated with being born in Durango City, history of hepatitis, ear piercing, tattooing, drug abuse history, intravenous drug use and lack of condom use. We concluded that the prevalence of HAV, HBV, HDV and HIV infections in inmates in Durango, Mexico were comparable to those of the Mexican general population and blood donors, but lower than those reported in other prisons around the world. However, HCV infection in inmates was higher than that reported in Mexican blood donors but lower than those reported in other prisons of the world. These results have implications for the optimal planning of preventive and therapeutic measures.