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Compulsory admission procedures of patients with mental disorders vary between countries in Europe. The Ethics Committee of the European Psychiatric Association (EPA) launched a survey on involuntary admission procedures of patients with mental disorders in 40 countries to gather information from all National Psychiatric Associations that are members of the EPA to develop recommendations for improving involuntary admission processes and promote voluntary care.
The survey focused on legislation of involuntary admissions and key actors involved in the admission procedure as well as most common reasons for involuntary admissions.
We analyzed the survey categorical data in themes, which highlight that both medical and legal actors are involved in involuntary admission procedures.
We conclude that legal reasons for compulsory admission should be reworded in order to remove stigmatization of the patient, that raising awareness about involuntary admission procedures and patient rights with both patients and family advocacy groups is paramount, that communication about procedures should be widely available in lay-language for the general population, and that training sessions and guidance should be available for legal and medical practitioners. Finally, people working in the field need to be constantly aware about the ethical challenges surrounding compulsory admissions.
To evaluate acceptability, compliance and attitude towards the use of iron pots compared with aluminium pots, for cooking in a community that traditionaly did not use iron pots.
Two rural Malawian villages.
Fifty-two households received iron pots and 61 aluminium pots.
Pot characteristics were assessed by a questionnaire after 3, 6, 11 and 20 weeks of use. Within households using iron pots there was a significant decrease in acceptability score with usage, from an initial value of 13.7 to 11.4 (range 1–20) (P = 0.01). Answers to questions concerning cooking characteristics showed that after 3 weeks' use the aluminium pot scored better, whereas after 20 weeks fewer answers differed between the iron and aluminium pot groups. Almost a third of the households planned to continue using iron pots daily after 20 weeks, although they had ready access to their former aluminium pot. The presence of a group of consistent pot users suggests that if households were convinced about daily use, then they were likely to maintain consistent use. Some householders considered that iron pots required less firewood for cooking than aluminium pots. The main problems related to lower acceptability were rusting and pot weight. About 25% of problems with iron pots were unrelated to their cast iron characteristics. Overall 23.4% of the households indicated they would buy an iron pot.
The low acceptability of iron pots for cooking could limit their value as an intervention to control iron-deficiency anaemia. Design modifications and better instructions on pot use should improve acceptability. The study highlights the need to assess the acceptability of interventions in order to facilitate their adoption in traditional communities.
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