Introduction: Current guidelines do not recommend the routine use of urinary cultures in the management of uncomplicated urinary tract infection (UTI) in premenopausal, non-pregnant women. Complicating factors include atypical presentation, structural abnormalities or recent recurrent infection/antibiotic use. The objective of this study was to determine the number of urine cultures ordered for women who presented to the emergency department (ED) with symptoms of uncomplicated UTI, and whether a culture result impacted subsequent management. Methods: This was a retrospective chart review of women aged 18-39 presenting to one of two academic EDs with a discharge diagnosis of uncomplicated UTI from Jan-Dec 2014. Patients were excluded if any of the following were documented: pregnancy, fever, immunocompromised state, diabetes mellitus, absence of lower urinary tract symptoms, ED administration of intravenous antibiotics, a previous UTI treated with antibiotics in the last 90 days, two weeks post-partum or post-instrumentation. Results: Of the 512 charts included in the analysis, 494 (96.5%) patients had a urinalysis, of which 463 (93.7%) had positive leukocyte esterase and 90 (18.2%) had positive nitrites. 370 patients (72.3%) had urine cultures performed, of which 236 (63.8%) were positive. 505 (98.6%) patients received antibiotics (53.9% Macrobid; 22.6% Ciprofloxacin; 15.0% Septra; 6.7% other; 1.8% not documented). 7 (1.9%) cultures grew organisms resistant to the prescribed antibiotic; 2 (0.5%) patients received new prescriptions. Conclusion: For the majority of young female patients with uncomplicated UTI, urine cultures did not change management. Almost all of these patients had a positive leukocyte esterase and were treated with antibiotics, yet approximately 40% of the patients tested did not return positive urine cultures, suggesting that better algorithms for the diagnosis of UTI in the ED are required. Unnecessary treatment with antibiotics is expensive, contributes to the development of multidrug resistant organisms, and exposes the patient to the unnecessary risks of possible allergic reactions, drug interactions and side effects.