In order to study the influence of heredity on resting metabolic rate (RMR), 20 monozygotic and 19 dizygotic male twin pairs aged 20.6 (SD 2.9) and 21.4 (SD 3.1) years, gave their consent to participate in the experiment. Fat free weight (FFW) was estimated from underwater weighing. RMR was measured by indirect calorimetry using an open circuit system. RMR was expressed as kJ · min−1, kJ/m2 · h−1, kJ/kg · h−1 and kJ/kgFFW · h−1. Significant intraclass coefficients were observed in MZ twins for the different expressions of RMR. The values ranged from r = 0.45 (P < 0.05) to r = 0.81 (P < 0.01). However, DZ twins demonstrated lower intraclass coefficients for RMR, with a range from r = 0.21 to r = 0.44. Significant (P < 0.05) DZ resemblance was revealed only when RMR was expressed as kJ · min−1 and kJ/kg · h−1. Results of the present study suggest that variations in RMR may have a genetic component. Implications for human energy balance and body fat are discussed.