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Haemonchus contortus is a haematophagous gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) that causes severe anaemia and even death in small ruminants, negatively impacting the economic viability of farms. Traditionally, this parasite has been controlled with chemical compounds; however, inadequate use of these types of products has favoured the emergence of anthelmintic resistance. Therefore, it is necessary to search for alternatives for GIN control. Previous studies have reported the anthelmintic activity of edible mushroom extracts against H. contortus. A recent study reported that a fraction constituted of different fatty acids and β-sitosterol isolated from the basidiomata of the edible mushroom Pleurotus djamor ECS-123 has ovicidal and larvicidal activity against H. contortus. Thus, this study aimed to assess the anthelmintic activity of the pure molecules: pentadecanoic acid, palmitic acid, β-sitosterol, stearic acid and linoleic acid. For this purpose, an egg-hatching inhibition test was carried out in which the compounds were evaluated individually and in combination at a final concentration of 20 mg mL−1. Furthermore, larval mortality was assessed using a combination of the five commercial compounds previously mentioned at different concentrations (1.25–20 mg mL−1). Palmitic acid and stearic acid, in some combinations, inhibited H. contortus egg hatching by 100%. On the other hand, in the larval mortality test, the combination of the five compounds showed dose-dependent behaviour, and 100% mortality was obtained 24 h post-incubation. Pure molecules and their combinations have anthelmintic-like activity against the eggs and larvae of H. contortus.
Predation by Engytatus varians (Distant) adults on different development stages of the prey species Bactericera cockerelli (Sulcer) (egg, second, and third nymphal instars), Spodoptera exigua (Hübner) and Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (egg, first, and second larval instars) was evaluated using tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) leaflets or plants. These insects are the primary pest of several agriculturally important crops. The influence of E. varians age on the predation capacity was also analysed. Engytatus varians females consumed significantly more B. cockerelli eggs and nymphs than males. Additionally, female predators consumed significantly more second than third instar prey at two predator ages, while males consumed significantly more the second instar than third instar prey at all predator ages. In most of the cases, females also consumed significantly more S. exigua and S. frugiperda eggs than males; however, in terms of larvae consumption, this difference was observed only in some predator ages. Females consumed more the first than second instar S. exigua than males, whereas this behaviour was only observed in males when the predators were 15 and 17 days old. No significant differences were observed in the consumption of first and second instar of S. frugiperda for both sexes of the predators. Predator age did not cause any systematic effects on the predation rates of any prey species. Based on these results, we confirmed that E. varians has potential as a biological control agent for B. cockerelli and also for the Spodoptera species bioassayed.
The objective of the study reported in this Research Communication was to evaluate graded levels of ruminally protected methionine (RPM) in dairy goat rations on milk production and live weight changes during 155 d of lactation. Twenty-five primiparous dairy goats (crosses of Toggenburg, French Alpine and Saanen; 45·4 ± 1·0 kg BW) were fed a basal diet (10·10% CP, 6·13 DP and 2·34 Mcal/kg ME) of corn silage, oat hay, alfalfa hay and concentrate (80% forage, 20% concentrate). After kidding, the treatments, which consisted of four oral doses of ruminally protected methionine (RPM) at 0, 1, 2 and 3 g/d, were randomly assigned to the goats. The experiment was conducted for 110 d with measurements of milk production and composition, body weight and dry matter intake. No treatment effects were detected in milk production and composition. However, goats with RPM showed a positive live weight changes during lactation which were improved as dose was increased (linear P < 0·01) whereas goats without RPM showed weight loss during the experiment.
I deficiency is still a worldwide public health problem, with children being especially vulnerable. No nationwide study had been conducted to assess the I status of Spanish children, and thus an observational, multicentre and cross-sectional study was conducted in Spain to assess the I status and thyroid function in schoolchildren aged 6–7 years. The median urinary I (UI) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels in whole blood were used to assess the I status and thyroid function, respectively. A FFQ was used to determine the consumption of I-rich foods. A total of 1981 schoolchildren (52 % male) were included. The median UI was 173 μg/l, and 17·9 % of children showed UI<100 μg/l. The median UI was higher in males (180·8 v. 153·6 μg/l; P<0·001). Iodised salt (IS) intake at home was 69·8 %. IS consumption and intakes of ≥2 glasses of milk or 1 cup of yogurt/d were associated with significantly higher median UI. Median TSH was 0·90 mU/l and was higher in females (0·98 v. 0·83; P<0·001). In total, 0·5 % of children had known hypothyroidism (derived from the questionnaire) and 7·6 % had TSH levels above reference values. Median TSH was higher in schoolchildren with family history of hypothyroidism. I intake was adequate in Spanish schoolchildren. However, no correlation was found between TSH and median UI in any geographical area. The prevalence of TSH above reference values was high and its association with thyroid autoimmunity should be determined. Further assessment of thyroid autoimmunity in Spanish schoolchildren is desirable.
The transmission of parasites can be influenced by their co-occurrence with other parasites, in some cases increasing or reducing transmission. Trypanosoma cruzi, aetiologic agent of Chagas disease, often co-occurs with Trypanosoma rangeli, a parasite not pathogenic for mammal hosts. Both parasites can reduce the fitness of their insect vectors (the triatomine bugs; Hemiptera: Reduviidae), with T. rangeli being more pathogenic for some species. Here, we study the prevalence of T. cruzi and T. rangeli in the triatomine Rhodnius pallescens across a heterogeneously transformed landscape in Panamá. We found that single T. rangeli infections were more common in contiguously forested habitats, while single T. cruzi infections predominated in anthropogenically disturbed habitats. Trypanosoma cruzi–T. rangeli co-infections were more common in contiguous forests and in peridomiciliary areas. Furthermore, adult insects were more likely to be co-infected than nymphs. Our results suggest that human-mediated landscape transformation might have increased the predominance of single infections with T. cruzi within vectors. An important mechanism driving changes in trypanosome infection patterns in triatomines at a landscape scale includes alterations in host species composition that may vary with different degrees of deforestation. Trypanosome co-infection may also confer a survival advantage for R. pallescens to and/or throughout adulthood.
American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) is a complex disease with a rich diversity of animal host species. This diversity imposes a challenge, since understanding ACL transmission requires the adequate identification of reservoir hosts, those species able to be a source of additional infections. In this study we present results from an ACL cross-sectional serological survey of 51 dogs (Canis familiaris), where we used diagnostic tests that measure dog's exposure to Leishmania spp. parasites. We did our research in Panamá, at a village that has undergone significant ecosystem level transformations. We found an ACL seroprevalence of 47% among dogs, and their exposure was positively associated with dog age and abundance of sand fly vectors in the houses of dog owners. Using mathematical models, which were fitted to data on the proportion of positive tests as function of dog age, we estimated a basic reproductive number (R0 ± s.e.) of 1·22 ± 0·09 that indicates the disease is endemically established in the dogs. Nevertheless, this information by itself is insufficient to incriminate dogs as ACL reservoirs, given the inability to find parasites (or their DNA) in seropositive dogs and previously reported failures to experimentally infect vectors feeding on dogs with ACL parasites.
The present paper shows the applicability of the Dual Boundary Element Method to analyze plastic, visco-plastic and creep behavior in fracture mechanics problems. Several models with a crack, including a square plate, a holed plate and a notched plate are analyzed. Special attention is taken when the discretization of the domain is done. In Fact, for the plasticity and viscoplasticity cases only the region susceptible to yielding was discretized, whereas, the creep case required the discretization of the whole domain. The proposed formulation is presented as an alternative technique to study this kind of non-linear problems. Results from the present formulation are compared to those of the well-established Finite Element Technique, and they are in good agreement. Important fracture mechanic parameters such as KI, KII, J- and C- integrals are also included. In general, the results, for the plastic, visco-plastic and creep cases, show that the highest stress concentrations are in the vicinity of the crack tip and they decrease as the distance from the crack tip is increased.
Functional imaging studies in relatives of schizophrenic patients have had inconsistent findings, particularly with respect to altered dorsolateral prefrontal cortex activation. Some recent studies have also suggested that failure of deactivation may be seen.
A total of 28 patients with schizophrenia, 28 of their siblings and 56 healthy controls underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging during performance of the n-back working memory task. An analysis of variance was fitted to individual whole-brain maps from each set of patient–relative–matched pair of controls. Clusters of significant difference among the groups were then used as regions of interest to compare mean activations and deactivations among the groups.
In all, five clusters of significant differences were found. The schizophrenic patients, but not the relatives, showed reduced activation compared with the controls in the lateral frontal cortex bilaterally, the left basal ganglia and the cerebellum. In contrast, both the patients and the relatives showed significant failure of deactivation compared with the healthy controls in the medial frontal cortex, with the relatives also showing less failure than the patients. Failure of deactivation was not associated with schizotypy scores or presence of psychotic-like experiences in the relatives.
Both schizophrenic patients and their relatives show altered task-related deactivation in the medial frontal cortex. This in turn suggests that default mode network dysfunction may function as a trait marker for schizophrenia.
Because of the natural adaptation of Mexican sheep, the aim of the present study was to identify the presence or absence of gastrointestinal parasitic nematodes (GIN) resistant to benzimidazole (BZ) in both Chiapas and Pelibuey sheep breeds on local farms. Both male and female GIN-infected grazing sheep of the two breeds were selected. Sheep faecal samples were collected to obtain infective larvae (L3). This evolving stage of the parasite was used for taxonomic identification of the genus, based on its morphological characteristics. BZ anthelmintic resistance was evaluated using a nematode–compound in vitro interaction bioassay and the allele-specific polymerase chain reaction technique to detect mutations of residues 198 and 200 on isotype 1 of the β-tubulin gene. Three BZ-based compounds (febendazole (FBZ), tiabendazole (TBZ) and albendazole (ABZ)) at concentrations of 1, 0.5, 0.25, 0.125, 0.062 and 0.03 mg/ml were used to estimate the anthelmintic efficacy and lethal dose (LD50, LD90 and LD99) of the drugs. Two parasitic nematodes, Haemonchus and Teladorsagia, were identified in both isolates. Also, the proportions of anthelmintic resistance identified in GIN of the two sheep breeds were 68% in isolates from the Chiapas breed and 71.8% in the Pelibuey breed. The specific lethal activity obtained with FBZ was higher than 90%. However, TBZ and ABZ showed a lethal activity lower than 50%. High variability in the discriminating dose values was found among the BZ drugs. For example, FBZ LD ranged from 0.01 to 1.20 mg/ml; on the other hand, TBZ and ABZ required a dose ranging from 0.178 to 759 mg/ml. In addition, amino acid changes of Phe (TTC) to Tyr (TAC) at codon 200 of the β-tubulin gene, showing resistance to BZ, and no changes at codon 198 Glu (GAA) to Ala (GCA) were observed for both isolates. These results confirmed the presence of a genetic mutation associated with BZ in both Chiapas and Pelibuey nematode isolates.
A thermodynamically-based work potential theory for modelling progressive damage and failure in fibre-reinforced laminates is presented. The current, multiple-internal state variable (ISV) formulation, enhanced Schapery theory, utilises separate ISVs for modelling the effects of damage and failure. Damage is considered to be the effect of any structural changes in a material that manifest as pre-peak non-linearity in the stress versus strain response. Conversely, failure is taken to be the effect of the evolution of any mechanisms that results in post-peak strain softening. It is assumed, matrix microdamage is the dominant damage mechanism in continuous, fibre-reinforced, polymer matrix laminates, and its evolution is captured with a single ISV. Three additional ISVs are introduced to account for failure due to mode I transverse cracking, mode II transverse cracking, and mode I axial failure. Using the stationarity of the total work potential with respect to each ISV, a set of thermodynamically consistent evolution equations for the ISVs is derived. Typically, failure evolution (i.e. post-peak strain softening) results in pathologically mesh dependent solutions within a finite element method numerical setting. Therefore, consistent characteristic element lengths are introduced into the formulation of of the three failure potentials. The theory is implemented into commercial FEM software. The model is verified against experimental results from a laminated, quasi-isotropic, T800/3900-2 panel containing a central notch. Global load versus displacement, global load versus local strain gauge data, and macroscopic failure paths obtained from the models are compared to the experiments. Finally, a sensitivity study is performed on the failure parameters used in the model.
Research and development activities in organic solar cells have been intensified in the last two decades, and the reported energy conversion efficiency in small cell samples is rapidly increased. However, the relation between cell performance and material preparation conditions is not fully understood. In this work charge carrier recombination processes in hybrid poly-3-octylthiophene (P3OT)/cadmium sulfide (CdS) photovoltaic cells were analyzed as a function of structural and optoelectronic properties of chemical bath deposited CdS thin films. The temperature of the bath solution varied between 60 and 80 °C, and the deposition time from 1 to 3 h. Charge carrier recombination times in CdS films were measured with photoconductance decay technique, whereas the same time in P3OT films was estimated by Time-of-Flight method. Charge carrier recombination rates at CdS/P3OT interface were determined by transient photovoltage technique. It is found that CdS films grown at lower solution temperature (60 °C) give a higher charge carrier recombination rate at CdS/P3OT interface and larger short-circuit current density and energy conversion efficiency values in the corresponding solar cells, in comparison with the 80 °C deposited ones. This improvement could come from the reduction of charge carrier trap density inside grains as well as at grain boundaries in lower temperature deposited CdS films.
Development of sustainable agricultural production systems in the tropics is challenging in part because the local and external conditions that affect sustainability are constantly in flux. The Quesungual agroforestry system (QSMAS) was developed in response to these changing conditions. The history and potential future of the QSMAS provide an opportunity to consider the factors affecting small-scale agricultural production systems on marginal lands throughout the world. We evaluated the QSMAS in Honduras in the context of the five principles of the Drylands Development Paradigm (DDP) during three periods: pre-QSMAS, QSMAS adoption and the future. The first two periods provided lessons that could be relevant to other regions. The QSMAS system in Honduras must continue to evolve, if long-term benefits are to be realized. We conclude that while the DDP was a useful framework for systematically identifying the critical drivers and processes determining the sustainability of QSMAS in Honduras, it is ultimately no more able to predict the future than the collective knowledge of those who choose to apply it. The DDP, however, can facilitate the integration and application of knowledge.
In Colombia, Plasmodium resistance to antimalarials such as chloroquine and antifolates is a serious problem. As a result, the national Colombian health authorities are monitoring the efficacy of alternative drugs and schemes. The study of genetic polymorphisms related with drug resistance is required in the region. In vitro responses to chloroquine, quinine, mefloquine, amodiaquine, desethylamodiaquine, artesunate and dihydroartesunate were carried out by HRP ELISA. SNP analysis in Pfcrt and Pfmdr1 genes was performed by PCR-RFLP in 77 samples from the North West region of Colombia. In vitro resistance to chloroquine was high (74%), followed by mefloquine (30%) and desethylamodiaquine (30%). A positive correlation between the IC50 of paired drugs was also detected. The allele Pfmdr1 N86 (wild) was present in 100% of the samples and 1246Y (mutant) in 92%. However, their presence did not correlate with in vitro drug resistance. Presence of the mutations K76T and N75E in Pfcrt was confirmed in all samples. Analysis of 4 codons (72, 74, 75 and 76) in pfcrt confirmed the presence of the haplotypes CMET in 91% and SMET in 9% of the samples.
The objective of this study was to compare five methods of forage preservation (ice, dry ice, liquid-N, drying in newspaper, and sundried) on the concentration of the n-alkane C31 in Medicago sativa cv Puebla 76 (lucerne/alfalfa), Trifolium repens latum (white clover), Lolium perenne (perennial ryegrass), Pennisetum clandestinum (kikuyu grass) and Dactylis glomerata (orchardgrass/cocksfoot). The sampled forages in ice and dry ice were kept in hermetically sealed plastic bags in a plastic cooler. The deep frozen samples were put into small plastic bags and submerged in liquid-N. The samples dried in newspaper were placed between sheets of newspaper, and put into hermetically sealed plastic bags. All these samples were taken to the laboratory and freeze-dried approximately 24 h later. The sun-dried samples were taken to the laboratory in newspaper and sun-dried for 48 h. The forage samples were ground and worked on in triplicate, extracted by the Soxhlet method (C34 n-alkane was used as standard and n-heptane as solvent), saponified, separated, purified and injected into a gas chromatograph. The data were analysed for variance as a randomised factorial (n=74). The comparison between means was by the Boneferroni test (P<0.05). The interaction between forage and method of conservation was significant P<0.0001). There were no differences between methods of conservation for white clover (mean 26mg C31/kg DM) or orchardgrass/cocksfoot (mean 31 mgC31/ kgDM). In comparison with liquid-N, (261 mgC31/kgDM), the other methods reduced the concentration of n-alkane in kikuyu grass by 27-35%. Sun and newspaper dried samples increased the concentration of C31 in alfalfa/lucerne by 6 and 15% respectively in comparison with freezing with liquid-N (291 mgC31/kgDM), while that frozen on ice reduced C31 by about 8%. This method, however, increased the ryegrass n-alkane by 12% in relation to liquid-N (169 mgC31/kgDM), but sun drying reduced it by about 40%. It is concluded that drying in liquid-N is the most reliable method for the conservation of samples for n-alkane analysis.
To determine whether a short set of questions about foods in the household can provide information about the fat-related dietary behaviour of individual household members in less-acculturated Chinese populations.
The study population included 244 adult females of Chinese ethnicity in Seattle, WA, and Vancouver, BC, Canada.
Bilingual interviewers collected information on the presence of 14 high-fat foods and seven reduced-fat foods in the household. Respondents were also asked about the consumption of foods and behaviour reflective of adoption of Western dietary practices, fat-related dietary behaviour, changes in consumption of high-fat foods since immigration, and sociodemographic characteristics.
Although this was a less-acculturated sample, many households had Western foods such as butter (58%), lunchmeats (36%), snack chips (43%), and 1% or skim milk (48%). Households with respondents who were younger, married, employed outside the home, and lived with young children had significantly more high-fat foods, while high education and longer percentage of life in North America were significantly associated with having more reduced-fat foods (P ≤ = 0.05). Participants living in households with more high-fat foods had higher-fat dietary behaviour than those with fewer high-fat foods (fat-related dietary behaviour score, 1.54 versus 1.28; P < 0.001). Women in households with more reduced-fat foods had a significantly decreased consumption of high-fat foods since immigration compared with those in households with fewer reduced-fat foods (P < 0.001). Western dietary acculturation was higher among women in households both with more high-fat foods and more reduced-fat food counterparts (P ≤ 0.05).
Our inventory of household foods was strongly associated with current dietary behaviour, changes in food consumption, and westernization of dietary patterns. This simple, practical measure may be a useful alternative dietary assessment tool in less-acculturated Chinese populations.
The Boston Diagnostic Aphasia Examination Battery
(BDAE) is one of the most widely used aphasia tests worldwide.
Information about general population performance, however,
is limited. This paper analyzes the effects of gender,
age, socioeconomic status (SES), academic achievement,
and occupation on the BDAE Spanish version. The BDAE was
administered to a randomized sample of 156 occupationally
active 19–60-year-old participants (75 male and 81
female) from two SES groups. Gender and age had a significant
effect on some reading and writing subtests. Body-part
naming and mechanics of writing scores were significantly
decreased in the low SES group. Education had a significant
impact over most of the BDAE subtests. A stepwise regression
model showed that academic achievement was best able to
predict the variance in BDAE scores with a low (<15%)
to modest (>17%) but significant capability (F
MANOVA p < .01). A factor analysis disclosed
7 factors that explained 67% of the total variance. (JINS,
2000, 6, 802–814.)
3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase deficiency is a severe but treatable disorder of serine synthesis, first described in 1996 (Jaeken et al. 1996a). The patient presented with West syndrome, severe psychomotor delay, failure to thrive, microcephaly, atypical ocular movements, and pyramidal signs. Treatment with oral L-serine abolished seizures and improved psychomotor development, hyperexcitability, head growth, cortical and subcortical hypotrophy, and hypomyelination of the brain on MRI scans. 3-phosphoglyce-rate dehydrogenase deficiency is a treatable congential error that probably leads to West syndrome.
The microstructure developed in primary crystallizations is studied under realistic conditions. The primary crystallization of an amorphous alloy is modeled by considering the thermodynamics of a metastable phase transition and the kinetics of nucleation and crystal growth under isothermal annealing. A realistic growth rate, including an interface controlled growth at the beginning of the growth of each single grain and diffusion controlled growth process with soft impingement afterwards is considered. The reduction in the nucleation rate due to the compositional change in the remaining amorphous matrix is also taken into account. The microstructures developed during the transformation are obtained by using the Populational KJMA method, from the above thermodynamic and kinetic factors. Experimental data of transformed fraction, grain density, average grain size, grain size distribution and other related parameters obtained from annealed metallic glasses are modeled.
Nitrogen deficiency severely limits production of the bean–maize association grown by small-scale farmers in upland Peru. Sixty-four bean Rhizobium isolates were evaluated for induction of a plant growth response in pots of soil from the area and 14 of the most promising strains of these were tested on farmers' fields in 13 trials over a three year period. Bean yields were increased by inoculation with at least one Rhizobium strain in seven of the trials, with increases ranging from 0.21 to 0.68 t ha−1. Bean yields were not increased by the application of 120 kg N ha−1 to the intercrop. Maize yields were increased by Rhizobium inoculation in nine of the 13 trials by between 0.34 and 1.85 t ha−1. Maize responded to nitrogen fertilizer on the same nine farms. This Rhizobium selection strategy, although laborious, was effective in identifying strains that can be recommended for use as inoculants by farmers in the region.
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