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Identifying youth who may engage in future substance use could facilitate early identification of substance use disorder vulnerability. We aimed to identify biomarkers that predicted future substance use in psychiatrically un-well youth.
LASSO regression for variable selection was used to predict substance use 24.3 months after neuroimaging assessment in 73 behaviorally and emotionally dysregulated youth aged 13.9 (s.d. = 2.0) years, 30 female, from three clinical sites in the Longitudinal Assessment of Manic Symptoms (LAMS) study. Predictor variables included neural activity during a reward task, cortical thickness, and clinical and demographic variables.
Future substance use was associated with higher left middle prefrontal cortex activity, lower left ventral anterior insula activity, thicker caudal anterior cingulate cortex, higher depression and lower mania scores, not using antipsychotic medication, more parental stress, older age. This combination of variables explained 60.4% of the variance in future substance use, and accurately classified 83.6%.
These variables explained a large proportion of the variance, were useful classifiers of future substance use, and showed the value of combining multiple domains to provide a comprehensive understanding of substance use development. This may be a step toward identifying neural measures that can identify future substance use disorder risk, and act as targets for therapeutic interventions.
We have embarked on a survey of ROSAT PSPC archival data searching for all detected surface brightness enhancements due to sources in the innermost R ≤ 15′ of the PSPC field of view in the energy band 0.5–2.0 keV. This project is part of the Wide Angle ROSAT Pointed Survey (WARPS) and is designed primarily to measure the low luminosity, high redshift, X-ray luminosity function of galaxy clusters and groups. Accurate measurements of the high redshift XLF would allow the form of the XLF evolution to be determined via the position of the Schechter function break. This would help discriminate between luminosity and density evolution, and discriminate between different hierarchical models, e.g., those including a different mix of fundamental particles, a flat power spectrum of the initial fluctuations, and reheating of the intracluster gas at high redshifts.
We present a high resolution polarimetry and variability study of the M87 jet using VLA and HST data taken during 2002 to 2008. Both data-sets have an angular resolution as high as 0.06”, which is 2-3 times better than previous observations. New morphological details are revealed in both the optical and radio, which can help to reveal the energetic and magnetic field structure of the jet. By comparing the data with previously published HST and VLA observations, we show that the jet's morphology in total and polarized light is changing significantly on timescales of ~1 decade. We compare the evolution of the inner jet (particularly the nucleus and knot HST-1), when our observations overlap with the multi-wavelength monitoring campaigns conducted with HST and Chandra. We use these data to comment on particle acceleration and main emission processes.
We have completed a Chandra snapshot survey of 54 radio jets that are extended on arcsec scales. These are associated with flat spectrum radio quasars spanning a redshift range z=0.3 to 2.1. X-ray emission is detected from the jet of approximately 60% of the sample objects. We assume minimum energy and apply conditions consistent with the original Felten-Morrison calculations in order to estimate the Lorentz factors and the apparent Doppler factors. This allows estimates of the enthalpy fluxes, which turn out to be comparable to the radiative luminosities.
Neuroimaging measures of behavioral and emotional dysregulation can yield biomarkers denoting developmental trajectories of psychiatric pathology in youth. We aimed to identify functional abnormalities in emotion regulation (ER) neural circuitry associated with different behavioral and emotional dysregulation trajectories using latent class growth analysis (LCGA) and neuroimaging.
A total of 61 youth (9–17 years) from the Longitudinal Assessment of Manic Symptoms study, and 24 healthy control youth, completed an emotional face n-back ER task during scanning. LCGA was performed on 12 biannual reports completed over 5 years of the Parent General Behavior Inventory 10-Item Mania Scale (PGBI-10M), a parental report of the child's difficulty regulating positive mood and energy.
There were two latent classes of PGBI-10M trajectories: high and decreasing (HighD; n = 22) and low and decreasing (LowD; n = 39) course of behavioral and emotional dysregulation over the 12 time points. Task performance was >89% in all youth, but more accurate in healthy controls and LowD versus HighD (p < 0.001). During ER, LowD had greater activity than HighD and healthy controls in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, a key ER region, and greater functional connectivity than HighD between the amygdala and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (p's < 0.001, corrected).
Patterns of function in lateral prefrontal cortical–amygdala circuitry in youth denote the severity of the developmental trajectory of behavioral and emotional dysregulation over time, and may be biological targets to guide differential treatment and novel treatment development for different levels of behavioral and emotional dysregulation in youth.
Individuals with bipolar disorder demonstrate abnormal social function. Neuroimaging studies in bipolar disorder have shown functional abnormalities in neural circuitry supporting face emotion processing, but have not examined face identity processing, a key component of social function. We aimed to elucidate functional abnormalities in neural circuitry supporting face emotion and face identity processing in bipolar disorder.
Twenty-seven individuals with bipolar disorder I currently euthymic and 27 healthy controls participated in an implicit face processing, block-design paradigm. Participants labeled color flashes that were superimposed on dynamically changing background faces comprising morphs either from neutral to prototypical emotion (happy, sad, angry and fearful) or from one identity to another identity depicting a neutral face. Whole-brain and amygdala region-of-interest (ROI) activities were compared between groups.
There was no significant between-group difference looking across both emerging face emotion and identity. During processing of all emerging emotions, euthymic individuals with bipolar disorder showed significantly greater amygdala activity. During facial identity and also happy face processing, euthymic individuals with bipolar disorder showed significantly greater amygdala and medial prefrontal cortical activity compared with controls.
This is the first study to examine neural circuitry supporting face identity and face emotion processing in bipolar disorder. Our findings of abnormally elevated activity in amygdala and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) during face identity and happy face emotion processing suggest functional abnormalities in key regions previously implicated in social processing. This may be of future importance toward examining the abnormal self-related processing, grandiosity and social dysfunction seen in bipolar disorder.
We investigate the variations of the magnetic field, Doppler factor, and relativistic particle density along the jet of a quasar at z=0.72. We chose 4C 19.44 for this study because of its length and straight morphology. The 18 arcsec length of the jet provides many independent resolution elements in the Chandra X-ray image. The straightness suggests that geometry factors, although uncertain, are almost constant along the jet. We assume the X-ray emission is from inverse Compton scattering of the cosmic microwave background. With the aid of assumptions about jet alignment, equipartition between magnetic-field and relativistic-particle energy, and filling factors, we find that the jet is in bulk relativistic motion with a Doppler factor ≈ 6 at an angle no more than 10∘ to the line of sight over de-projected distances ≈ 150–600 kpc from the quasar, and with a magnetic field ≈10 μGauss.
To compare the microbial contamination rate of infusate in the intravenous tubing of newborns receiving lipid therapy, replacing the intravenous delivery system at 72-hour versus 24-hour intervals.
Infants requiring intravenous lipid therapy were randomly assigned to have intravenous sets changed on a 72- or a 24-hour schedule, in a 3:1 ratio, in order to compare the infusate contamination rates in an equivalent number of tubing sets.
A 35-bed, teaching, referral, neonatal intensive-care unit (NICU).
All neonates admitted to the NICU for whom intravenous lipid was ordered.
Patients were randomized in pharmacy, on receipt of the order for intravenous lipid therapy, to either 72- or 24-hour administration set changes, and followed until 1 week after discontinuation of lipids or discharge from the NICU. Microbial contamination of the infusate was assessed in both groups at the time of administration set changes. Contamination rates were analyzed separately for the lipid and amino acid-glucose tubing sets. Patient charts were reviewed for clinical and epidemiological data, including birth weight, gestational age, gender, age at start of lipid therapy, duration of parenteral nutrition, and type of intravenous access.
During the study period, 1,101 and 1,112 sets were sampled in the 72- and 24-hour groups, respectively. Microbial contamination rates were higher in die 72-hour group than the 24-hour group for lipid infusions (39/1,101 [3.54%] vs 15/1,112 [1.35%]; P=.001) and for amino acid infusions (12/1,093 [1.10%] vs 4/1,103 [0.36%]; P=.076). Logistic regression analysis controlling for birth weight, gestational age, and type of venous access showed that only the tubing change interval was significanfly associated with lipid set contaminations (odds ratio, 2.69; P=.0013). The rate of blood cultures ordered was higher in die 72-versus the 24-hour group (6.11 vs 4.99 per 100 patient days of total parenteral nutrition; P=.017), and a higher proportion of infants randomized to the 72-hour group died (8% vs 4%; P=.05), although the excess deaths could not clearly be attributed to bacteremia.
Microbial contamination of infusion sets is significantiy more frequent with 72- than witii 24-hour set changes in neonates receiving lipid solutions. This may be associated with an increased mortality rate.
Electroencephalogram (EEG) alpha power has been
demonstrated to be inversely related to mental activity
and has subsequently been used as an indirect measure of
brain activation. The thalamus has been proposed as an
important site for modulation of rhythmic alpha activity.
Studies in animals have suggested that cortical alpha rhythms
are correlated with alpha rhythms in the thalamus. However,
little empirical evidence exists for this relation in humans.
In the current study, resting EEG and a fluorodeoxyglucose
positron emission tomography scan were measured during
the same experimental session. Over a 30-min period, average
EEG alpha power across 28 electrodes from 27 participants
was robustly inversely correlated with glucose metabolic
activity in the thalamus. These data provide the first
evidence for a relation between alpha EEG power and thalamic
activity in humans.
A technique by which the retina can be isolated from the turtle eye is described. Scanning electron microscopy revealed morphological variability between preparations and also between regions of the same one. Large areas were often totally free of any pigment epithelial cells, yet contained a high proportion of photoreceptors with complete outer segments. However, adjacent regions may contain photoreceptors without outer segments or with fragmented ones. The physiological properties of the horizontal cells also demonstrated large variability between different preparations. In all cases, lowering calcium concentration from 2 mM to 0.1−0.5 mM depolarized the horizontal cells and augmented the amplitude of the maximum photoresponses. However, these effects were accompanied by changes in the photoresponse kinetics and by a reduction in the horizontal cell sensitivity to light. Moreover, prolonged exposure to low calcium induced permanent damage to the retina as was indicated by the reduction in the response amplitude after superfusion with 2 mM calcium solution had been resumed. The toxic effects of low calcium were most apparent when superfusion with 0.1−1.0 μM calcium concentration was performed. These solutions induced complex time-dependent effects on the resting potential of horizontal cells and on the amplitude and kinetics of the photoresponses. We conclude from these observations that the normal concentration of extracellular calcium in the turtle retina is in the 2 mM range.
The literature of American economic history is replete with discussions of the crucial role of the ferrous industries in nineteenth-century economic development. Analysis of the internal wage structure in the industry, however, has been somewhat neglected in the historical treatment.
The Russian Socialist Federal Soviet Republic was proclaimed by the Third All-Russian Congress of Soviets in November, 1917, shortly after the Bolshevist party had overthrown the Kerensky government by the force of arms. Eight months later, the Fifth All-Russian Congress adopted a constitution. Since it was the party of Lenin and Trotzky that had invented the slogan “all power to the Soviets” and changed Russia from a prospective democracy to a soviet republic, American public opinion came to identify the soviet form of political organization with bolshevism and all the policies it stands for, including the dictatorship of the proletariat, and nationalization all along the line of economic life.
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