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Results are presented from our ongoing studies of Titan using ALMA during the period 2012-2015, including a confirmation of the previous detection of vinyl cyanide (C2H3CN), as well as the first spatial map for this species on Titan. Simultaneous mapping of HC3N, CH3CN and C2H5CN reveal characteristic abundance patterns for each species that provide insight into their individual photochemical lifetimes, and help inform our understanding of Titan’s unique, time-variable atmospheric chemistry and global circulation. A time-sequence of HC3N maps covering 38 months reveals a dramatic change in the distribution of this gas consistent with high-altitude photochemical production followed by advection towards the southern (winter) pole, combined with rapid loss in the north after Titan’s 2009 seasonal equinox. The 2015 C2H3CN and C2H5CN maps show abundance peaks in Titan’s southern hemisphere, similar to those observed for the short-lived HC3N molecule. The longer-lived CH3CN, on the other hand, remains more concentrated in the north.
The intensity ratios of HCO+/HCN and HNC/HCN (1-0) reveal the relative influence of star formation and active galactic nuclei (AGN) or black holes on the circum-nuclear gas of a galaxy, allowing the identification of X-ray dominated regions (XDRs) and Photon-dominated regions (PDRs). It is not always clear in the literature how this intensity ratio calculation has been, or should be performed. This paper discusses ratio calculation methods for interferometric data.
This audit cycle looked at details of antidepressants given in general practitioners’ (GPs) referral letters to Primary Mental Health Care (PMHC). With adequate information when patients are referred, time spent in clarifying details could be put into better use by clinicians and prompt effective treatment would help to reduce the direct and indirect costs of depression.
To evaluate how effective our intervention was 7 months after a previous audit and identify areas that need improvement.
Audit of 33 referral letters of patients referred for depression from GPs to a PMHC service in Northern Ireland, followed by the intervention (feedback and pro forma) and re-audit after 7 months.
The April audit showed 100% documentation of current antidepressant treatment and dose, but showed poor documentation of previous antidepressant use (33%), dose or duration (15%) and the reason for stopping the treatment (3%). Following intervention, the re-audit showed 25% and 24% rise in documenting previous antidepressant used and maximum dose reached, respectively, and 20% rise in documenting the reason for stopping.
Our interventions made modest improvement in providing relevant data in referral letters. This study adds to the existing evidence that relying mainly on feedback as a method of implementing change is ineffective. Lack of enthusiasm for using the newly introduced pro forma suggests that mental health services should obtain more effective ways of engaging GPs in service development. Using a systematic approach, which includes identifying local barriers to change and providing a supportive environment are important before the next re-audit.
The Millimetre Astronomy Legacy Team 90 GHz (MALT90) survey aims to characterise the physical and chemical evolution of high-mass star-forming clumps. Exploiting the unique broad frequency range and on-the-fly mapping capabilities of the Australia Telescope National Facility Mopra 22 m single-dish telescope1, MALT90 has obtained 3′ × 3′ maps towards ~2 000 dense molecular clumps identified in the ATLASGAL 870 μm Galactic plane survey. The clumps were selected to host the early stages of high-mass star formation and to span the complete range in their evolutionary states (from prestellar, to protostellar, and on to
regions and photodissociation regions). Because MALT90 mapped 16 lines simultaneously with excellent spatial (38 arcsec) and spectral (0.11 km s−1) resolution, the data reveal a wealth of information about the clumps’ morphologies, chemistry, and kinematics. In this paper we outline the survey strategy, observing mode, data reduction procedure, and highlight some early science results. All MALT90 raw and processed data products are available to the community. With its unprecedented large sample of clumps, MALT90 is the largest survey of its type ever conducted and an excellent resource for identifying interesting candidates for high-resolution studies with ALMA.
A survey of the Milky Way disk and the Magellanic System at the wavelengths of the 21-cm atomic hydrogen (H i) line and three 18-cm lines of the OH molecule will be carried out with the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder telescope. The survey will study the distribution of H i emission and absorption with unprecedented angular and velocity resolution, as well as molecular line thermal emission, absorption, and maser lines. The area to be covered includes the Galactic plane (|b| < 10°) at all declinations south of δ = +40°, spanning longitudes 167° through 360°to 79° at b = 0°, plus the entire area of the Magellanic Stream and Clouds, a total of 13 020 deg2. The brightness temperature sensitivity will be very good, typically σT≃ 1 K at resolution 30 arcsec and 1 km s−1. The survey has a wide spectrum of scientific goals, from studies of galaxy evolution to star formation, with particular contributions to understanding stellar wind kinematics, the thermal phases of the interstellar medium, the interaction between gas in the disk and halo, and the dynamical and thermal states of gas at various positions along the Magellanic Stream.
Defining the causal relationship between a microbe and encephalitis is complex. Over 100 different infectious agents may cause encephalitis, often as one of the rarer manifestations of infection. The gold-standard techniques to detect causative infectious agents in encephalitis in life depend on the study of brain biopsy material; however, in most cases this is not possible. We present the UK perspective on aetiological case definitions for acute encephalitis and extend them to include immune-mediated causes. Expert opinion was primarily used and was supplemented by literature-based methods. Wide usage of these definitions will facilitate comparison between studies and result in a better understanding of the causes of this devastating condition. They provide a framework for regular review and updating as the knowledge base increases both clinically and through improvements in diagnostic methods. The importance of new and emerging pathogens as causes of encephalitis can be assessed against the principles laid out here.
We have applied the unsharp-masking technique to the 24 μm image of the SMC, obtained with the Spitzer, to search for high-extinction regions. Fifty-five candidate regions of high-extincion (namely high-contrast regions, HCRs) have been identified from the decremental contrast image. HCRs have a size of 8 - 14 pc and a peak contrast at 24 μm of 2 - 2.5%. To constrain physical properties of HCRs, we have performed observations of NH3, N2H+, HNC, HCO+, and HCN toward one of the HCRs, HCR LIRS36–east, using the ATCA and the Mopra telescope. No molecular line emission detected, but upper limits to column densities of molecular species suggest that HCRs are moderately dense with n ~ 103 cm−3. Two interesting properties of HCRs are shown below.
Gyps vulture populations across the Indian subcontinent collapsed in the 1990s and continue to decline. Repeated population surveys showed that the rate of decline was so rapid that elevated mortality of adult birds must be a key demographic mechanism. Post mortem examination showed that the majority of dead vultures had visceral gout, due to kidney damage. The realisation that diclofenac, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug potentially nephrotoxic to birds, had become a widely used veterinary medicine led to the identification of diclofenac poisoning as the cause of the decline. Surveys of diclofenac contamination of domestic ungulate carcasses, combined with vulture population modelling, show that the level of contamination is sufficient for it to be the sole cause of the decline. Testing on vultures of meloxicam, an alternative NSAID for livestock treatment, showed that it did not harm them at concentrations likely to be encountered by wild birds and would be a safe replacement for diclofenac. The manufacture of diclofenac for veterinary use has been banned, but its sale has not. Consequently, it may be some years before diclofenac is removed from the vultures' food supply. In the meantime, captive populations of three vulture species have been established to provide sources of birds for future reintroduction programmes.
We have used the new broadband capabilities of the Mopra telescope
to map the distribution of 26 different molecular transitions in an
approximately 1 degree square region of the southern Galactic plane
(the G333/RCW106 giant molecular cloud complex). The aim is to
addresss observationally some of the key questions about the
dynamical processes surrounding massive star formation (e.g. massive
stellar winds and large-scale galactic flows) and their relative
importance in regulating the star formation process. These dynamical
processes help drive the turbulent motions, which are ubiquitous in
giant molecular clouds (GMCs). The multi-molecular line nature of
this survey is what distinguishes it from similar surveys and is
crucial for gaining a clear picture of the energetics and dynamics
of the gas. Investigating and understanding the chemistry of this
region is a necessary part of the project if the molecular line
observations are to be interpreted physically.
The Section and Board of Anaesthesiology of the European Union of Medical Specialists aims (EUMS/UEMS) at harmonization of training of anaesthesiologists and at improvement of patient care throughout Europe. Pain medicine is considered to be an area of expertise in anaesthesiology although exclusivity is not claimed. The Section and Board has approved both a core syllabus for pain medicine to be part of the specialist training in anaesthesiology and an additional qualification in pain medicine following the completion of a 5 yr basic specialty training in anaesthesiology. These proposals were prepared by the Working Party on Pain Medicine of the Section and Board. It considers a multidisciplinary approach to pain to contribute to quality in care and has taken the initiative to set up a Multidisciplinary Joint Committee on Pain Medicine within the EUMS/UEMS, for which these guidelines define the area of expertise of anaesthesiology.
We report the results of a blind search for 22 GHz water masers in two regions, covering approximately half a square degree, within the G 333.2–0.6 giant molecular cloud. The complete search of the two regions was carried out with the 26 m Mount Pleasant radio telescope and resulted in the detection of nine water masers, five of which are new detections. Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) observations of these detections have allowed us to obtain positions with arcsecond accuracy, allowing meaningful comparison with infrared and molecular data for the region. We find that for the regions surveyed there are more water masers than either 6.7 GHz methanol, or main-line OH masers. The water masers are concentrated towards the central axis of the star formation region, in contrast to the 6.7 GHz methanol masers which tend to be located near the periphery. The colours of the GLIMPSE point sources associated with the water masers are slightly less red than those associated with methanol masers. Statistical investigation of the properties of the 13CO and 1.2 mm dust clumps with and without associated water masers shows that the water masers are associated with the more massive, denser and brighter 13CO and 1.2 mm dust clumps. We present statistical models that can predict those 13CO and 1.2 mm dust clumps likely to have associated water masers.
We report efforts at enhancement of the surface area of a photonic crystal biosensor through incorporation of a porous titanium dioxide film into the device. The film possessing the structure of nanorods is deposited by the glancing angle deposition technique. Results for detection of polymer films, large proteins and small molecules indicate up to a four-fold enhancement of detected adsorbed mass density for high surface area sensors, compared with sensors without the high surface area coating.
We are studying the molecular clouds in the region around G333.6-0.2 in a number of 3-mm transitions from different molecular species, to probe, among other things, the turbulent properties. The observations are being made by on-the-fly mapping with the 22-m diameter single-dish Mopra radio telescope. See Bains et al. (2006) and Cunningham et al. (2006 in these proceedings) for more details. During 2004 and 2005 we obtained 13 CO (1 – 0), C18O, CS (2 – 1) and C34S data. Using the different molecular tracers gives complementary information about the gas density structure, due to the different critical densities, and different isotopomers allows correction for optical depth effects.
The role played by Cenozoic deformation in denudation and landscape development in Ireland has historically been difficult to assess because of the lack of widespread pre-glacial Cenozoic deposits onshore. Here we combine analysis of apatite fission-track data and geomorphic observations to place constraints on the timing, kinematics and magnitude of onshore deformation in southeastern Ireland. Relationships between apatite fission-track central age and elevation for samples from the Wicklow and Blackstairs Mountains and Tullow Lowland suggest that these rocks record an exhumed apatite partial annealing zone, which after cooling was dismembered by differential vertical displacements of up to several hundred metres. We use inverted models of sample thermal history to show that samples across the region experienced very similar thermal histories up to and including a cooling event in late Paleocene or early Eocene time. This effectively rules out strongly spatially heterogeneous denudation, and implies that differential rock uplift occurred in post-early Eocene time. The central age–elevation relationships define at least three spatial domains with internally consistent apatite fission-track data, separated by known faults or topographic escarpments. Geomorphic analysis of these structures shows that patterns of catchment incision and sinuosity, as well as the presence of antecedent drainage, are best explained by differential vertical displacements at or near the domain boundaries. The kinematics and magnitudes of these displacements are consistent with those implied by the apatite fission-track results, and are compatible with other examples of known Cenozoic deformation from Ireland and the adjacent continental margin.
In the developed world, the last fifty years has seen a great convergence of breeding objectives and strategies in all farmed species. This is part of the effects of globalisation, which has led to ever increasing specialisation of livestock producers. A general consequence is that breeding goals and structures of dairy, beef, pig and poultry production are now very similar throughout the developed world.
After some decades of successful concentration on narrow breeding goals (yield of milk solids in the dairy sector, growth, feed conversion and lean yield in meat animals) objectives have now broadened to take in product quality, reproduction and disease traits.