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Diet has a major influence on the composition and metabolic output of the gut microbiome. Higher-protein diets are often recommended for older consumers; however, the effect of high-protein diets on the gut microbiota and faecal volatile organic compounds (VOC) of elderly participants is unknown. The purpose of the study was to establish if the faecal microbiota composition and VOC in older men are different after a diet containing the recommended dietary intake (RDA) of protein compared with a diet containing twice the RDA (2RDA). Healthy males (74⋅2 (sd 3⋅6) years; n 28) were randomised to consume the RDA of protein (0⋅8 g protein/kg body weight per d) or 2RDA, for 10 weeks. Dietary protein was provided via whole foods rather than supplementation or fortification. The diets were matched for dietary fibre from fruit and vegetables. Faecal samples were collected pre- and post-intervention for microbiota profiling by 16S ribosomal RNA amplicon sequencing and VOC analysis by head space/solid-phase microextraction/GC-MS. After correcting for multiple comparisons, no significant differences in the abundance of faecal microbiota or VOC associated with protein fermentation were evident between the RDA and 2RDA diets. Therefore, in the present study, a twofold difference in dietary protein intake did not alter gut microbiota or VOC indicative of altered protein fermentation.
There is a requirement in some beef markets to slaughter bulls at under 16 months of age. This requires high levels of concentrate feeding. Increasing the slaughter age of bulls to 19 months facilitates the inclusion of a grazing period, thereby decreasing the cost of production. Recent data indicate few quality differences in longissimus thoracis (LT) muscle from conventionally reared 16-month bulls and 19-month-old bulls that had a grazing period prior to finishing on concentrates. The aim of the present study was to expand this observation to additional commercially important muscles/cuts. The production systems selected were concentrates offered ad libitum and slaughter at under 16 months of age (16-C) or at 19 months of age (19-CC) to examine the effect of age per se, and the cheaper alternative for 19-month bulls described above (19-GC). The results indicate that muscles from 19-CC were more red, had more intramuscular fat and higher cook loss than those from 16-C. No differences in muscle objective texture or sensory texture and acceptability were found between treatments. The expected differences in composition and quality between the muscles were generally consistent across the production systems examined. Therefore, for the type of animal and range of ages investigated, the effect of the production system on LT quality was generally representative of the effect on the other muscles analysed. In addition, the data do not support the under 16- month age restriction, based on meat acceptability, in commercial suckler bull production.
Stigma and social exclusion related to mental health are of substantial public health importance for Europe. As part of ROAMER (ROAdmap for MEntal health Research in Europe), we used systematic mapping techniques to describe the current state of research on stigma and social exclusion across Europe. Findings demonstrate growing interest in this field between 2007 and 2012. Most studies were descriptive (60%), focused on adults of working age (60%) and were performed in Northwest Europe—primarily in the UK (32%), Finland (8%), Sweden (8%) and Germany (7%). In terms of mental health characteristics, the largest proportion of studies investigated general mental health (20%), common mental disorders (16%), schizophrenia (16%) or depression (14%). There is a paucity of research looking at mechanisms to reduce stigma and promote social inclusion, or at factors that might promote resilience or protect against stigma/social exclusion across the life course. Evidence is also limited in relation to evaluations of interventions. Increasing incentives for cross-country research collaborations, especially with new EU Member States and collaboration across European professional organizations and disciplines, could improve understanding of the range of underpinning social and cultural factors which promote inclusion or contribute toward lower levels of stigma, especially during times of hardship.
The common C677T polymorphism in the MTHFR gene encoding the folate-metabolising enzyme methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase is implicated in hypertension and hypertension in pregnancy. Hypertension affects up to 15% of all pregnancies and has been identified as a leading cause of maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality worldwide. We previously reported higher systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP) in non-pregnant women with the variant MTHFR 677TT genotype compared to CT/CC genotypes. In addition, randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in non-pregnant hypertensive adults from our Centre demonstrated that supplemental riboflavin (co-factor for MTHFR) lowers BP specifically in those with the TT genotype. However, the role of this common folate polymorphism and its interaction with riboflavin during pregnancy remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of MTHFR genotype and riboflavin status on BP in pregnancy. Data were generated from the ongoing Optimal Nutrition for the Prevention of Hypertension (OptiPREG) project. Pregnant women were recruited at the end of the first trimester from antenatal clinics in Northern Ireland and in the Republic of Ireland. Participants were screened for MTHFR genotype and BP was measured according to current clinical guidelines. Biomarker status of riboflavin was determined using the erythrocyte glutathione reductase activation coefficient (EGRac), a functional assay with higher EGRac values representing a lower status. Overall, 117 (11.6%) participants were identified with the variant MTHFR 677TT genotype. Both systolic and diastolic BP decreased from 8th to 16th gestational week (GW), however, this typical BP pattern was not observed in the TT genotype group. After adjusting for maternal age, GW and body mass index, women with the TT genotype at 12th GW had higher mean systolic (P 0.035) and diastolic (P 0.034) BP. When the results at the 12th GW were stratified by riboflavin status, the BP phenotype owing to this polymorphism was evident only among women with lower status (i.e. EGRac > 1.30), with mean (SEM) systolic BP of 120.4 (3.1) mmHg compared to 112.6 (2.5) mmHg in those with higher status (EGRac ≤ 1.30) within the TT genotype group; in contrast, low versus high riboflavin status had no impact on BP in CT/CC genotype groups. These results suggest that MTHFR genotype influences BP during pregnancy and that riboflavin can exert an important modulating effect on BP in women with TT genotype. An RCT is required to fully investigate the role of MTHFR genotype and its interactive effect with riboflavin in BP during pregnancy.
Intimate kissing is often viewed as a preliminary or ancillary behaviour in studies exploring sexual interactions. There is a lack of research that focuses on differentiating the types of intimate kisses, including the contexts in which they occur, and desirable and undesirable features. The current study was designed to assess memories of first, best, forbidden and worst kisses. Participants were 691 U.S. adults (mean age 32.27 years; 55% identified as male) who completed an online survey addressing kissing attitudes and experiences using both structured and open-ended survey tools. Four themes emerged through content analysis: physical components, connection to the partner, context, and emotions evoked; and these are discussed for all four types of kissing memories. Findings are discussed in terms of embodiment that intimate kisses capture, their role as a metric of one's attraction to a partner, and the means by which kissing experiences might solidify a sense of oneself as a sexual person.
Numerous past review articles by scholars of German history share ideas produced by the religious turn in historiography since the 1970s and 1980s. Although highlighting a still growing groundswell of work focused on the German Catholic minority, these essays typically express discomfort with the relation of their subspecialty to the rest of the discipline. Bemoaning the marginalization of Catholic history and the self-inflicted ghettoization of research narrowly focused on regional traditions, past reviewers have worried about the integration of Catholicism within a larger framework. These past articles summarize phases of research on German Catholicism that produced much scholarship and multiple conceptual frameworks through which to understand the enduring impact of the church. Scholars of the 1970s and 1980s pushed against the grain of Hans-Ulrich Wehler's Bielefeld School to prove that Catholicism contributed more to the liberal democratic development of Germany than had been previously assumed, and by the 1990s German Catholic research focused primarily on the social history of Catholicism. The field of German Catholic history underwent a period of uncertain change during the early 2000s. Many of the German-language monographs on the topic remained wedded to the milieu model, but some younger scholars responded to critiques of German Catholic history by studying women's history or deploying poststructuralist analysis.
Current techniques for measuring the dry matter intake (DMI) of grazing lactating beef cows are invasive, time consuming and expensive making them impractical for use on commercial farms. This study was undertaken to explore the potential to develop and validate a model to predict DMI of grazing lactating beef cows, which could be applied in a commercial farm setting, using non-invasive animal measurements. The calibration dataset used to develop the model was comprised of 94 measurements recorded on 106 beef or beef–dairy crossbred cows (maternal origin). The potential of body measurements, linear type scoring, grazing behaviour and thermal imaging to predict DMI in combination with known biologically plausible adjustment variables and energy sinks was investigated. Multivariable regression models were constructed for each independent variable using SAS PROC REG and contained milk yield, BW, parity, calving day and maternal origin (dairy or beef). Of the 94 variables tested, 32 showed an association with DMI (P < 0.25) upon multivariable analysis. These variables were incorporated into a backwards linear regression model using SAS PROC REG. Variables were retained in this model if P < 0.05. Five variables; width at pins, full body depth, ruminating mastications, central ligament and rump width score, were retained in the model in addition to milk yield, BW, parity, calving day and maternal origin. The inclusion of these variables in the model increased the predictability of DMI by 0.23 (R2 = 0.68) when compared to a model containing milk yield, BW, parity, calving day and maternal origin only. This model was applied to data recorded on an independent dataset; a herd of 60 lactating beef cows two years after the calibration study. The R2 for the validation was 0.59. Estimates of DMI are required for measuring feed efficiency. While acknowledging challenges in applicability, the findings suggest a model such as that developed in this study may be used as a tool to more easily and less invasively estimate DMI on large populations of commercial beef cows, and therefore measure feed efficiency.
Introduction: Optimizing naloxone dosing in the context of increasing fentanyl and ultra-potent opioid (UPO) prevalence is an important consideration for emergency health care providers. The goal of this systematic review was to evaluate the association between initial and cumulative naloxone doses on effective reversal and adverse events in undifferentiated and fentanyl/UPO overdoses. Methods: We searched Embase, MEDLINE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, DARE, CINAHL, Science Citation Index, reference lists, toxicology websites, and conference proceedings from July to October 2018 and back to 1972. Our search included pertinent indexing terms for UPOs. We included interventional and observational studies reporting on naloxone administration for opioid toxicity reversal in people ≥12 years old. Additionally, we accessed non-traditional evidence sources (case reports and series) given this rapidly changing field. We conducted inclusion screens, data extraction and quality assessments in duplicate. We summarized study characteristics and where reported, analyzed number of patients with clinical response. Response was defined as not receiving further naloxone doses and remaining alive. Results: We included 174 studies (108 case reports and series, 55 observational, 9 interventional) with 26,660 subjects (median age 35.1; 74.2% male). We observed lower response among patients exposed to fentanyl/UPO versus heroin for initial naloxone doses ≤0.4mg (56.8% versus 80.2%) and > 0.4mg (27.0% versus 82.1%). Mean cumulative doses were higher for fentanyl/UPO (2.10 mg, SD 1.80 mg) versus heroin (1.48 mg, SD 1.68 mg) overdoses. In North American studies the median cumulative dose used was higher for fentanyl/UPO versus heroin overdoses. A dose-response curve for fentanyl/UPO studies showed marked variability in doses among responders, indicating heterogeneity. Adverse events reporting was inconsistent; 10% of subjects experienced withdrawal based on studies in which they were reported. Conclusion: This is the first systematic review to summarize proportion of patients with clinical response by naloxone dose provided. While variable reporting, study quality, heterogeneity, and our outcome definitions limit the conclusions we can draw, it appears that higher initial doses and in some cases, higher cumulative naloxone doses were used and may be necessary to reverse toxicity due to fentanyl/UPO compared to other opioids. High-quality prospective studies assessing effectiveness and safety are needed.
Unwanted pursuit behaviours (UPBs) comprise repeated and unwanted efforts to establish intimate contact in the form of harassing, tracking, and monitoring. These are common among young adults following the breakup of a romantic relationship, typically by the rejected partner. The relational goal pursuit theory (RGPT) proposes that UPB users overestimate the importance of a relationship to higher-order goals. This study assessed how well a new coping-based approach and the RGPT model predicted UPB frequency and scope. Two hundred participants (50% female; aged 19–24) completed an anonymous online survey. Ruminating was linked to both greater frequency and scope of UPB use. Higher levels of emotion-focused coping and perceived self-efficacy to re-establish intimacy were linked to the use of a wider scope of unwanted pursuit behaviours. Insights gained from UPB users are necessary for understanding mechanisms associated with the turbulent and distressing aftermath of a romantic breakup.
Since its introduction to the United States in 1852, Chinese privet (Ligustrum sinense Lour.) has spread throughout the Southeast, invading many natural areas. Manual control by cutting or shredding is one of the most common strategies many land managers employ. However, rapid sprouting from the root collar and lateral roots commonly results in poor control. Cutting followed by either glyphosate or triclopyr application to the stumps is generally effective, but the efficacy of these herbicides in relation to treatment timing and L. sinense root collar diameter has not been evaluated. The objective of this experiment was to determine the effectiveness of glyphosate and triclopyr cut stump treatments compared with cutting alone at spring and fall timings across a range of L. sinense size classes. Studies were conducted at two locations in Auburn, AL. Treatments included cut stump+no herbicide, cut stump+ glyphosate (120 g L−1), or cut stump+triclopyr (90 g L−1). Treatments were applied to at least 50 experimental units each at April and November timings. Root collar diameter was recorded for each stem, stems were cut 2.5 cm above the ground, and herbicide treatments were applied within 30 s. Ligustrum sinense mortality and sprouting were quantified 6, 12, and 18 mo after treatment. Both glyphosate and triclopyr amine were very effective in controlling L. sinense at both spring and fall timings. However, glyphosate provided slightly better results than triclopyr when lateral sprouting was included. Application timing also was significant, with a lower percentage of sprouting following November treatments than April treatments. Stem size influenced treatment success, as larger stumps tended to sprout more than smaller stumps. These results indicate L. sinense can be controlled with cut stump herbicide treatment using either glyphosate or triclopyr with spring or fall timings at concentrations much lower than typically used.
Accurate and reproducible patient positioning is a critical step in radiotherapy for breast cancer. This has seen the use of permanent skin markings becoming standard practice in many centres. Permanent skin markings may have a negative impact on long-term cosmetic outcome, which may in turn, have psychological implications in terms of body image. The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using a semi-permanent tattooing device for the administration of skin marks for breast radiotherapy set-up.
Materials and methods
This was designed as a phase II double-blinded randomised-controlled study comparing our standard permanent tattoos with the Precision Plus Micropigmentation (PPMS) device method. Patients referred for radical breast radiotherapy were eligible for the study. Each study participant had three marks applied using a randomised combination of the standard permanent and PPMS methods and was blinded to the type of each mark. Follow up was at routine appointments until 24 months post radiotherapy. Participants and a blind assessor were invited to score the visibility of each tattoo at each follow-up using a Visual Analogue Scale. Tattoo scores at each time point and change in tattoo scores at 24 months were analysed by a general linear model using the patient as a fixed effect and the type of tattoo (standard or research) as covariate. A simple questionnaire was used to assess radiographer feedback on using the PPMS.
In total, 60 patients were recruited to the study, of which 55 were available for follow-up at 24 months. Semi-permanent tattoos were more visible at 24 months than the permanent tattoos. Semi-permanent tattoos demonstrated a greater degree of fade than the permanent tattoos at 24 months (final time point) post completion of radiotherapy. This was not statistically significant, although it was more apparent for the patient scores (p=0·071) than the blind assessor scores (p=0·27). No semi-permanent tattoos required re-marking before the end of radiotherapy and no adverse skin reactions were observed.
The PPMS presents a safe and feasible alternative to our permanent tattooing method. An extended period of follow-up is required to fully assess the extent of semi-permanent tattoo fade.
Two highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) outbreaks have affected commercial egg production flocks in the American continent in recent years; a H7N3 outbreak in Mexico in 2012 that caused 70% to 85% mortality and a H5N2 outbreak in the United States in 2015 with over 99% mortality. Blood samples were obtained from survivors of each outbreak and from age and genetics matched non-affected controls. A total of 485 individuals (survivors and controls) were genotyped with a 600 k single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array to detect genomic regions that influenced the outcome of highly pathogenic influenza infection in the two outbreaks. A total of 420458 high quality, segregating SNPs were identified across all samples. Genetic differences between survivors and controls were analyzed using a logistic model, mixed models and a Bayesian variable selection approach. Several genomic regions potentially associated with resistance to HPAI were identified, after performing multidimensional scaling and adjustment for multiple testing. Analysis conducted within each outbreak identified different genomic regions for resistance to the two virus strains. The strongest signals for the Iowa H5N2 survivor samples were detected on chromosomes 1, 7, 9 and 15. Positional candidate genes were mainly coding for plasma membrane proteins with receptor activity and were also involved in immune response. Three regions with the strongest signal for the Mexico H7N3 samples were located on chromosomes 1 and 5. Neuronal cell surface, signal transduction and immune response proteins coding genes were located in the close proximity of these regions.
This experiment aimed to assess the effect of different indoor winter growth rates (WGR) followed by different concentrate supplementation levels at pasture on meat quality of 90 bulls. During the first winter, bulls were offered grass silage ad libitum and either 3 kg (WGR3) or 6 kg (WGR6) of concentrates. After turn-out to pasture, bulls were offered: grass without supplementation (PO), grass plus 0.2 predicted dry matter intake (DMI) as concentrates (PL) or grass plus 0.4 predicted DMI as concentrates (PH). After finishing, colour, chemical composition (unaged), instrumental texture and sensory characteristics (14 days of ageing) of longissimus thoracis were measured. WGR6 bulls had heavier carcasses than WGR3 bulls. There was an interaction between WGR and supplementation for instrumental texture and redness (a). Within WGR3, PO beef was the most tender, whereas within WRG6, PL was the most tender. However, these differences were not detected by the sensory panel. Within WGR3, redness was the lowest for PL, whereas within WRG6, PO was the least red. No differences were found for chemical composition. The multivariate analysis highlighted WGR as the main variable affecting meat quality characteristics. In conclusion, variations in growth path exerted minor effects on appearance and instrumental texture which did not affect the perception of bull beef by a trained sensory panel.
The effects of shape and thickness of a tin surface layer and of the energy of a 170 ps neodymium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser pulse on the conversion efficiency (CE) into extreme ultraviolet emission in the 13.5 nm region is investigated. Whereas a CE of up to 1.16% into the 2% reflection band of multilayer Mo/Si optics was measured for a bulk Sn target at a laser energy of 25 mJ, significant CE enhancement up to 1.49% is demonstrated for a 200-nm-thick Sn layer on a microstructured porous alumina substrate.
We present techniques developed to calibrate and correct Murchison Widefield Array low-frequency (72–300 MHz) radio observations for polarimetry. The extremely wide field-of-view, excellent instantaneous (u, v)-coverage and sensitivity to degree-scale structure that the Murchison Widefield Array provides enable instrumental calibration, removal of instrumental artefacts, and correction for ionospheric Faraday rotation through imaging techniques. With the demonstrated polarimetric capabilities of the Murchison Widefield Array, we discuss future directions for polarimetric science at low frequencies to answer outstanding questions relating to polarised source counts, source depolarisation, pulsar science, low-mass stars, exoplanets, the nature of the interstellar and intergalactic media, and the solar environment.
An adverse early life environment can increase the risk of metabolic and other disorders later in life. Genetic variation can modify an individual’s susceptibility to these environmental challenges. These gene by environment interactions are important, but difficult, to dissect. The nucleus is the primary organelle where environmental responses impact directly on the genetic variants within the genome, resulting in changes to the biology of the genome and ultimately the phenotype. Understanding genome biology requires the integration of the linear DNA sequence, epigenetic modifications and nuclear proteins that are present within the nucleus. The interactions between these layers of information may be captured in the emergent spatial genome organization. As such genome organization represents a key research area for decoding the role of genetic variation in the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease.
Sleep can affect quality of life (QoL) during cancer survivorship, and symptoms related to poor sleep can be exacerbated. We examined the prevalence, severity, and nature of subjective sleep complaints in women surviving stage I–III breast cancer who were 1–10 years posttreatment. We also examined the demographic, medical, physical, and psychosocial correlates of poor sleep in these women in order to identify the subgroups that may be most in need of intervention.
A total of 200 patients at a comprehensive cancer center who were 1–10 years posttreatment for primary stage I–III breast cancer with no evidence of disease at the time of enrollment completed a battery of questionnaires on demographics, sleep, physical symptoms, mood, cancer-specific fears, and QoL.
The women had a mean age of 57 years (SD = 10.0), with a mean of 63.3 months (SD = 28.8) of post-cancer treatment. Some 38% of these patients were identified as having poor-quality sleep. Women with poor sleep took longer to fall asleep, had more awakenings, and acquired 2 hours less sleep per night than those with good sleep. They also had a lower QoL, greater severity of pain, more concerns about health and recurrence, and increased vasomotor symptoms (p < 0.05). Daytime sleepiness and depression were found to be not significantly correlated with sleep quality.
Significance of results:
Many breast cancer survivors had severe subjective insomnia, and several breast cancer survivor subgroups were identified as having members who might be most in need of sleep-improvement interventions. Addressing physical symptoms (e.g., vasomotor symptoms and pain) and providing education about the behavioral, social, environmental, and medical factors that affect sleep could result in substantial improvement in the life course of breast cancer survivors.
Chinese privet is an invasive shrub that commonly infests roadsides and bottomland forests across the southeastern United States. Its aggressive growth and ability to prolifically sprout from the root collar and shallow lateral roots makes control very difficult. Individual plant treatment methods such as low-volume basal bark herbicide application with triclopyr are commonly used for Chinese privet control. However, little research has been done to examine optimal triclopyr concentrations and application timings for the low-volume basal bark method. Furthermore, little is known regarding basal bark treatment efficacy when plant size varies. To address these questions, field studies were conducted from 2009 to 2011 at two locations in east-central Alabama near Auburn and Opelika. The triclopyr butoxyethyl ester formulation was applied in January or March to Chinese privet shrubs across a range of sizes in a commercially available basal oil carrier at 24 (5% v/v−1), 48 (10% v/v−1), and 96 g L−1 (20% v/v−1). Additionally, a triclopyr butoxyethyl ester ready-to-use formulation (90 g L−1) was applied at 100% v/v−1. Canopy defoliation, sprout height, and mortality were quantified at 6, 12, and 18 mo after treatment. Triclopyr at all concentrations was highly effective in defoliating Chinese privet and reducing height of new basal sprouts. However, mortality was concentration dependent. The 90 and 96 g L−1 treatments resulted in 88 and 89% mortality across timings, while the 24 and 48 g L−1 treatments resulted in 63 and 76% mortality. March applications were less effective as basal diameter increased, especially at the lower triclopyr concentrations where mortality fell to less than 40%. These results indicate that triclopyr is an effective treatment for Chinese privet control, but efficacy is influenced by concentration, application timing, and plant size.