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(1) To study the prevalence and characteristics of large endolymphatic sac internal compartments on thin-section T2- and T2*-weighted magnetic resonance imaging, and to relate these to other large endolymphatic sac magnetic resonance imaging features, and (2) to correlate the compartment imaging features, endolymphatic sac size and labyrinthine anomalies with the patients' clinical and audiological data.
Magnetic resonance imaging studies for 38 patients with large endolymphatic sac anomalies were retrospectively reviewed in a tertiary referral centre. Endolymphatic sac compartment presence, morphology and imaging signal were assessed. Endolymphatic sac size and labyrinthine anomalies were also recorded. Endolymphatic sac compartments and other imaging features were correlated with clinical and audiological data.
Compartments were present in 57 per cent of the imaged endolymphatic sacs, but their presence alone did not correlate with other imaging features or clinical data. The endolymphatic sac : internal auditory meatus signal ratio was associated with a history of sudden or fluctuating hearing loss. Hearing loss correlated with opercular and extraosseous endolymphatic sac size measurements. A larger midpoint intraosseous endolymphatic sac size was associated with clear fluid loss at cochlear implantation.
The magnetic resonance imaging characteristics of large endolymphatic sac compartments have been defined. The endolymphatic sac size and distal compartment signal should be recorded, as these provide prognostic information and assist the planning of appropriate interventions.
In this work we have re-examined the classical problem of nucleation and growth. A new model considers the correlations among droplets and naturally incorporates the crossover from the early-stage, nucleation dominated regime to the scaling, late-stage, coarsening regime within a single framework.
In order to investigate the genetic and environmental antecedents of osteoarthritis (OA), self-report measures of joint pain, stiffness and swelling were obtained from a popula-tion-based sample of 1242 twin pairs over 50 years of age. In order to provide validation for these self-report measures, a subsample of 118 twin pairs were examined according to the American College of Rheumatology clinical and radiographic criteria for the classification of osteoarthritis. A variety of statistical methods were employed to identify the model derived from self-report variables which would provide optimal prediction of these standardised assessments, and structural equation modelling was used to determine the relative influences of genetic and environmental influences on the development of osteoarthritis. Significant genetic effects were found to contribute to osteoarthritis of the hands, hips and knees in women, with heritability estimates ranging from 30–46% depending on the site. In addition, the additive genetic effects contributing to osteoarthritis in various parts of the body were confirmed to be the same. Statistically significant familial aggregation of osteoarthritis in men was also observed, but it was not possible to determine whether this was due to genetic or shared environmental effects.
One hundred and sixteen new referrals who attended a psychosexual clinic and one hundred and twenty non-attenders are compared on characteristics derived from their referral letters. Only the widowed and divorced are more likely to attend. It is concluded that non-attendance cannot be predicted from the referral letter.
The use of a technique of Declining-dose Drug Desensitization (DDDD) in phobic patients is described. An anti-anxiety drug is used (diazepam), the blood level declining during each treatment session and the starting dose for each treatment session being gradually reduced. Some relevant animal work on state-dependent learaing in the drugged-state is briefly reviewed. Despite the multiplicity of other treatments available this method would appear to have some advantages.
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