Inclusion of feed efficiency traits into the dairy cattle breeding programmes will require considering early lactation energy status to avoid deterioration in health and fertility of dairy cows. In this regard, energy status indicator (ESI) traits, for example, blood metabolites or milk fatty acids (FAs), are of interest. These indicators can be predicted from routine milk samples by mid-IR reflectance spectroscopy (MIR). In this study, we estimated genetic variation in ESI traits and their genetic correlation with female fertility in early lactation. The data consisted of 37 424 primiparous Nordic Red Dairy cows with milk test-day records between 8 and 91 days in milk (DIM). Routine test-day milk samples were analysed by MIR using previously developed calibration equations for blood plasma non-esterified FA (NEFA), milk FAs, milk beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) and milk acetone concentrations. Six ESI traits were considered and included: plasma NEFA concentration (mmol/l) either predicted by multiple linear regression including DIM, milk fat to protein ratio (FPR) and FAs C10:0, C14:0, C18:1 cis-9, C14:0 * C18:1 cis-9 (NEFAFA) or directly from milk MIR spectra (NEFAMIR), C18:1 cis-9 (g/100 ml milk), FPR, BHB (mmol/l milk) and acetone (mmol/l milk). The interval from calving to first insemination (ICF) was considered as the fertility trait. Data were analysed using linear mixed models. Heritability estimates varied during the first three lactation months from 0.13 to 0.19, 0.10 to 0.17, 0.09 to 0.14, 0.07 to 0.10, 0.13 to 0.17 and 0.13 to 0.18 for NEFAMIR, NEFAFA, C18:1 cis-9, FPR, milk BHB and acetone, respectively. Genetic correlations between all ESI traits and ICF were from 0.18 to 0.40 in the first lactation period (8 to 35 DIM), in general somewhat lower (0.03 to 0.43) in the second period (36 to 63 DIM) and decreased clearly (−0.02 to 0.19) in the third period (64 to 91 DIM). Our results indicate that genetic variation in energy status of cows in early lactation can be determined using MIR-predicted indicators. In addition, the markedly lower genetic correlation between ESI traits and fertility in the third lactation month indicated that energy status should be determined from the first test-day milk samples during the first 2 months of lactation.