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Pre-school nutrition-related behaviours influence diet and development of lifelong eating habits. We examined the prevalence and congruence of recommended nutrition-related behaviours (RNB) in home and early childhood education (ECE) services, exploring differences by child and ECE characteristics.
Telephone interviews with mothers. Online survey of ECE managers/head teachers.
Children (n 1181) aged 45 months in the Growing Up in New Zealand longitudinal study.
A mean 5·3 of 8 RNB were followed at home, with statistical differences by gender and ethnic group, but not socio-economic position. ECE services followed a mean 4·8 of 8 RNB, with differences by type of service and health-promotion programme participation. No congruence between adherence at home and in ECE services was found; half of children with high adherence at home attended a service with low adherence. A greater proportion of children in deprived communities attended a service with high adherence, compared with children living in the least deprived communities (20 and 12 %, respectively).
Children, across all socio-economic positions, may not experience RNB at home. ECE settings provide an opportunity to improve or support behaviours learned at home. Targeting of health-promotion programmes in high-deprivation areas has resulted in higher adherence to RNB at these ECE services. The lack of congruence between home and ECE behaviours suggests health-promotion messages may not be effectively communicated to parents/family. Greater support is required across the ECE sector to adhere to RNB and promote wider change that can reach into homes.
During the mid to late 1990’s a cluster of Livestock Production Programme (LPP) projects, funded by the Department for International Development (DFID) was established in Zimbabwe, as a representative country of southern sub-Saharan Africa, to develop outputs to increase the livestock contribution to the alleviation of poverty. All stakeholders were involved with the projects from the planning stage and participatory on-farm research was a key feature. Several of the projects addressed one of the major constraints to livestock production in arid and semi-arid areas, dry season feeding, the animal species considered being poultry, donkeys (draught power), goats and milking cows. The benefits of these projects can only be realised through effective dissemination to relevant target groups (farmers, extension staff, which because of failing government extension services in several African countries, must include NGOs, churches and local organizations, and policy makers) and development of relevant training materials.
We present radiocarbon (14C) in tree rings from Mexico City and a reconstruction of fossil CO2 concentrations for the last five decades, as part of a research program to understand the 14C dynamics in this complex urban area. Background values were established by 14C concentrations in tree rings from a nearby clean area. Agreement between background and NH-zone 2 values indicate Taxodium mucronatum is a good biomonitor for annual atmospheric 14C variations. Values for the urban tree rings were significantly lower than background values, indicating a 14C depletion from fossil CO2 emissions. There is an increasing trend of fossil CO2 between 1960 and 1990, in agreement with the population growth and the increasing demand for fossil fuels in Mexico City. Between 1990 and 2000, there is an apparent decrease in fossil CO2 concentration, increasing again after 2000. The decrease in 2000, despite being of the same magnitude as the overall uncertainty, may reflect environmental policies that improved the energy efficiency and reduced CO2 emissions in the area. The increase in fossil CO2 concentration between 2000 and 2010 may be attributable to the significant growth of motor vehicle usage in Mexico City, which made transportation the main energy-demanding and -emitting sector.
Although quality of life (QoL) is receiving increasing attention in bipolar disorder (BD) research and practice, little is known about its naturalistic trajectory. The dual aims of this study were to prospectively investigate: (a) the trajectory of QoL under guideline-driven treatment and (b) the dynamic relationship between mood symptoms and QoL.
In total, 362 patients with BD receiving guideline-driven treatment were prospectively followed at 3-month intervals for up to 5 years. Mental (Mental Component Score – MCS) and physical (Physical Component Score – PCS) QoL were measured using the self-report SF-36. Clinician-rated symptom data were recorded for mania and depression. Multilevel modelling was used to analyse MCS and PCS over time, QoL trajectories predicted by time-lagged symptoms, and symptom trajectories predicted by time-lagged QoL.
MCS exhibited a positive trajectory, while PCS worsened over time. Investigation of temporal relationships between QoL and symptoms suggested bidirectional effects: earlier depressive symptoms were negatively associated with mental QoL, and earlier manic symptoms were negatively associated with physical QoL. Importantly, earlier MCS and PCS were both negatively associated with downstream symptoms of mania and depression.
The present investigation illustrates real-world outcomes for QoL under guideline-driven BD treatment: improvements in mental QoL and decrements in physical QoL were observed. The data permitted investigation of dynamic interactions between QoL and symptoms, generating novel evidence for bidirectional effects and encouraging further research into this important interplay. Investigation of relevant time-varying covariates (e.g. medications) was beyond scope. Future research should investigate possible determinants of QoL and the interplay between symptoms and wellbeing/satisfaction-centric measures of QoL.
This contribution reports the first set of samples and the creation of an internal reference material at the recently opened Radiocarbon Laboratory at the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM). Samples for the initial measurements were selected from archaeological and dating projects on Teotihuacán, one of the largest and best-studied Mesoamerican urban and ceremonial centers. The 14C dates were compared to results obtained by 2 other laboratories in order to assess the results obtained at UNAM and validate the adopted methodology. As part of the quality assurance protocol, an internal reference material was created that consists of charred wood from the Teotihuacán site with a 14C activity in the value range expected for samples from Mesoamerican archaeological sites. Results from 7 analyses have a mean of 1750 ± 16 BP (80.43 ± 0.16 pMC).
We present preliminary results from a programme designed to produce deep images of radio source fields drawn from the Parkes 2700 MHz and Molongolo 408 MHz catalogues using the charge-coupled-device (CCD) camera system built at the Institute of Astronomy, Cambridge. The programme is directed at a search both for faint extensions and nebulosity around radio QSOs and BL Lac objects and for faint objects in otherwise empty radio source fields; a detailed examination of the morphology of selected radio galaxies is also included.
Savage et al. (1977) found that the radio source PKS 1448-232 coincided with a stellar object of about magnitude 16.4 having an ultraviolet excess. A low resolution spectrum obtained with the Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT) confirmed this object as a QSO with zem = 2.22 and revealed many absorption lines short-ward of the La emission. Consequently this object was included in a programme of spectroscopy at intermediate resolution with the AAT to investigate QSO absorption lines. Savage et al. have given a finding chart with an optical position of 14h48m09s.3, −23°17′10″ (1950.0). The radio fluxes are 0.40 Jy at 2.7 GHz and 0.31 Jy at 5.0 GHz.
A rapid and dramatic change in our views of the Universe which we have witnessed during the past two decades or so is often compared with what happened at the time of Galileo. Revolutionary role of the optical telescope then may be analogized with that of space-astronomy today which has drastically opened the new observational window to the Universe. The revolution is ongoing with a rapid pace or even being accelerated.
We present preliminary results from a new high resolution optical study of halo gas at the coudé focus of the Canada - France - Hawaii Telescope. Our work is still in progress so two general results are presented here: significant absorption is produced in interstellar gas beyond 500 pc from the galactic plane, and well-resolved halo clouds are identified.
The anatomy of Crenella decussata (Mytiloidea) is described. Individuals of this circumboreal species occupy granular crypts composed of sand grains held in place by mucus. The swollen basal region of the tubule is occupied by an individual, which connects to the sediment surface by two posterior tubes accommodating the inhalant and exhalant streams. There is reduction in musculature and, most importantly, anterior foreshortening of the outer ctenidial demibranchs and loss of the labial palps. This creates an anterior space in the mantle for the initial brooding of fertilized ova by females to the prodissoconch stage. Subsequently, these larvae are transferred to the exhalant tube of the crypt wherein they attach by a single fine byssal thread and are further brooded until the crawl-away juvenile stage is attained. Experimental studies of larval behaviour suggest that parental pheromones sustain the female/offspring bond. Newly hatched individuals responded to parental exhalant water by actively attaching themselves using a byssal thread. This response persisted for 28 days, but not after 55 days when, we suggest, the pheromonal response ceases and offspring are developed sufficiently to take up life in their own nests. Offspring retrieved from parental crypts and fed continuously reached an average shell length of 500 μm after 7.5 months. Brooded offspring thus appear to rely on embryonal energy resources until post-metamorphosis, after which suspension feeding becomes essential for further growth and development before the parental crypt is vacated.
Radio fluxes of 7.2 ± 1.1 and 69 ± 5 mJy at 14.7 GHz have been detected from the stars ζ Pup (O4If) and γ Vel (WC8+O9I) respectively with the 64-m telescope at Parkes, and upper limits have been determined for 9 more hot stars. The interpretation of these fluxes as free-free emission from a shell of ionized gas resulting from a stellar wind gives mass-loss rates = (6.5 ± 1.4) x 10−6 M⊙ yr−1 for ζ Pup and (3.9 ± 0.7) x 10−5 M⊙ yr−1 for γ Vel if H/He = 10 by number and the He is fully ionized. If the gas around γ Vel originates mainly from the WC8 star, the helium predominates and = (5.2 ± 0.9) x 10−5 or (17 ± 3) x 10−5 M⊙ yr−1 depending on whether the helium is doubly or singly ionized.
To determine adherence to nutritional guidelines by pregnant women in New Zealand and maternal characteristics associated with adherence.
A cohort of the pregnant women enrolled into New Zealand’s new birth cohort study, Growing Up in New Zealand.
Women residing within a North Island region of New Zealand, where one-third of the national population lives.
Pregnant women (n 5664) were interviewed during 2009–2010. An FFQ was administered during the face-to-face interview.
The recommended daily number of servings of vegetables and fruit (≥6) were met by 25 % of the women; of breads and cereals (≥6) by 26 %; of milk and milk products (≥3) by 58 %; and of lean meat, meat alternatives and eggs (≥2) by 21 %. One in four women did not meet the recommendations for any food group. Only 3 % met all four food group recommendations. Although adherence to recommendation for the vegetables/fruit group did not vary by ethnicity (P=0·38), it did vary for the breads/cereals, milk/milk products and meat/eggs groups (all P<0·001). Adherence to recommendations for the vegetables/fruit group was higher among older women (P=0·001); for the breads/cereals group was higher for women with previous children (P<0·001) and from lower-income households (P<0·001); and for the meat/eggs group was higher for women with previous children (P=0·003) and from lower-income households (P=0·004).
Most pregnant women in New Zealand do not adhere to nutritional guidelines in pregnancy, with only 3 % meeting the recommendations for all four food groups. Adherence varies more so with ethnicity than with other sociodemographic characteristics.
I must admit that, after more than a decade of teaching and researching political parties, I found being selected to and participating in the 1980 Democratic National Convention an exhiliarating experience.
The Alabama delegate-selection process was a very competitive primary with extensive activity by the Carter and Kennedy organizations and by the individual delegate candidates. In varying degrees, the delegate candidates stumped their constituencies with personal appearances, letters, rallies, sample ballots, newspaper ads, group endorsements, and assorted other campaign gimmicks.
The selection process consisted primarily of a statewide primary (1) to allocate Alabama's delegates and alternate delegates among the presidential candidates, and (2) to elect the members of that delegation. Over 500 candidates ran for the 45 delegate and 32 alternate delegate positions in that primary. The primary actually was conducted by congressional district, with 33 candidates running for four delegate and three alternate delegate positions in my CD. The ballot was structured by sex (females listed first) and the voter was instructed to vote for up to four females and up to four males. Delegates were allocated to presidential candidates according to a formula which was roughly proportional; and individual delegates were selected by an equally fair but more complex formula.
A laboratory experiment was performed to study the dynamically rich interaction of a turbulent open channel flow with a bed-mounted axial-flow hydrokinetic turbine. An acoustic Doppler velocimeter and a torque transducer were used to simultaneously measure at high temporal resolution the three velocity components of the flow at various locations upstream of the turbine and in the wake region and turbine power, respectively. Results show that for sufficiently low frequencies the instantaneous power generated by the turbine is modulated by the turbulent structure of the approach flow. The critical frequency above which the response of the turbine is decoupled from the turbulent flow structure is shown to vary linearly with the angular frequency of the rotor. The measurements elucidate the structure of the turbulent turbine wake, which is shown to persist for at least fifteen rotor diameters downstream of the rotor, and a new approach is proposed to quantify the wake recovery, based on the growth of the largest scale motions in the flow. Spectral analysis is employed to demonstrate the dominant effect of the tip vortices in the energy distribution in the near-wake region and uncover meandering motions.
We have detected two dominant paramagnetic centers in porous silicon by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). One of them is isotropic, assigned to a defect in amorphous silicon oxide in the porous silicon layer. The other is anisotropic, and is very much like a Pb center at a planar Si/SiO2 interface. This EPR center is unambiguously identified as an •Si≡Si3 moiety, a silicon with dangling orbital, back-bonded to three silicon atoms, by 29 Si hyperfine structure (HFS) associated with the dangling orbital, and 29 Si superHFS from three neighboring silicon atoms, as similarly observed in the usual planar surface Pb structure. The dangling orbitals are highly localized and heavily p character. The disposition of dangling orbitals is evidence that the skeletal structure of luminescent porous silicon is crystalline and has a lattice which is aligned and continuous with the wafer substrate. The possibility that these centers are the major photoluminescent killers or quenchers is not supported by our hydrogen annealing experiments.
The standard method to determine the band structure of a condensed phase material is to (1) obtain a single crystal with a well defined surface and (2) map the bands with angle resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (occupied or valence bands) and inverse photoelectron spectroscopy (unoccupied or conduction bands). Unfortunately, in the case of Pu, the single crystals of Pu are either nonexistent, very small and/or having poorly defined surfaces. Furthermore, effects such as electron correlation and a large spin-orbit splitting in the 5f states have further complicated the situation. Thus, we have embarked upon the utilization of unorthodox electron spectroscopies, to circumvent the problems caused by the absence of large single crystals of Pu with well-defined surfaces. Our approach includes the techniques of resonant photoelectron spectroscopy , x-ray absorption spectroscopy [1,2,3,4], electron energy loss spectroscopy [2,3,4], Fano Effect measurements , and Bremstrahlung Isochromat Spectroscopy , including the utilization of micro-focused beams to probe single-crystallite regions of polycrystalline Pu samples. [2,3,6]
In recent years, a number of experimental observations have indicated that interactions between mobile point defects generated during ion implantation play an important role in the damage production in Ill-V compound semiconductors, and particularly GaAs. This paper reviews a set of such observations based on ion channeling measurements of the lattice damage in GaAs implanted with Si ions. Selected independent observations are also surveyed to illustrate the importance of point-defect interactions. Taken together, these show that at least two contributions to the lattice damage must often be considered: a “prompt” contribution attributed to direct-impact amorphization, and a “delayed” contribution attributed to point-defect clustering. New measurements are then described which show the different effects that these two damage components have on the electrical activation in annealed, Siimplanted GaAs. The aim is to indicate the potential to exploit the balance between these two damage contributions in order to improve the electrical performance and reproducibility of ion-implanted and annealed layers. Finally, the applicability of these concepts to other ion species and other compound semiconductors (GaP and InP) is briefly discussed.
Two factors which could affect the image quality of the a-Si:H arrays under development by our collaboration are the temporal drift of the leakage current of the sensors and the capture and release of charge in deep trapping states in the sensors. Data for both of these factors are reported, the implications for imaging are discussed, and strategies for reducing or eliminating their effects are suggested.