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There is limited empirical information on service-level outcome domains and indicators for the large number of people with intellectual disabilities being treated in forensic psychiatric hospitals.
This study identified and developed the domains that should be used to measure treatment outcomes for this population.
A systematic review of the literature highlighted 60 studies which met eligibility criteria; they were synthesised using content analysis. The findings were refined within a consultation and consensus exercises with carers, patients and experts.
The final framework encompassed three a priori superordinate domains: (a) effectiveness, (b) patient safety and (c) patient and carer experience. Within each of these, further sub-domains emerged from our systematic review and consultation exercises. These included severity of clinical symptoms, offending behaviours, reactive and restrictive interventions, quality of life and patient satisfaction.
To index recovery, services need to measure treatment outcomes using this framework.
In this study, in situ and erratic samples from George V Coast (East Antarctica) and southern Eyre Peninsula (Australia) have been used to characterize the microstructural, pressure–temperature and geochronological record of upper amphibolite and granulite facies polymetamorphism in the Mawson Continent to provide insight into the spatial distribution of reworking and the subice geology of the Mawson Continent. Monazite U-Pb data shows that in situ samples from the George V Coast record exclusively 2450–2400 Ma ages, whereas most erratic samples from glacial moraines at Cape Denison and the Red Banks Charnockite record only 1720–1690 Ma ages, consistent with known ages of the Sleaford and Kimban events, respectively. Phase equilibria forward modelling reveals considerable overlap of the thermal character of these two events. Samples with unimodal 1720–1690 Ma Kimban ages reflect either formation after the Sleaford event or complete metamorphic overprinting. Rocks recording only 2450–2400 Ma ages were unaffected by the younger Kimban event, perhaps as a result of unreactive rock compositions inherited from the Sleaford event. Our results suggest the subice geology of the Mawson Continent is a pre-Sleaford-aged terrane with a cover sequence reworked during the Kimban event.
Bread is the largest contributor of Na to the American diet and excess Na consumption contributes to premature death and disability. We sought to determine the Na level at which consumers could detect a difference between reduced-Na bread and bread with typical Na content, and to determine if consumer sensory acceptability and purchase intent differed between reduced-Na bread and bread with typical Na content.
Difference testing measured ability to detect differences in control bread and reduced-Na bread using two-alternative forced choice testing. Acceptability was measured using a nine-point hedonic scale and purchase intent was measured using a five-point purchase intent scale.
Difference and acceptability testing were conducted in Portland, OR, USA in January 2013.
Eighty-two consumers participated in difference testing and 109 consumers participated in acceptability testing.
Consumers did not detect a difference in saltiness between the control bread and the 10 % reduced-Na bread, but did detect a difference between the control bread and bread reduced in Na content by 20 % and 30 %. Na reductions had no effect on consumer acceptability of sensory characteristics, including overall liking, appearance, aroma, flavour, sweetness, salt level and texture, or purchase intent.
Reducing Na levels by up to 30 % in the sandwich bread tested did not affect consumer liking or purchase intent of the product. These results support national recommendations for small, incremental Na reductions in the food supply over time and assure bread manufacturers that sensory characteristics and consumer purchase intent of their products will be preserved after Na reductions occur.
The Parkes pulsar data archive currently provides access to 144044 data files obtained from observations carried out at the Parkes observatory since the year 1991. Around 105 files are from surveys of the sky, the remainder are observations of 775 individual pulsars and their corresponding calibration signals. Survey observations are included from the Parkes 70 cm and the Swinburne Intermediate Latitude surveys. Individual pulsar observations are included from young pulsar timing projects, the Parkes Pulsar Timing Array and from the PULSE@Parkes outreach program. The data files and access methods are compatible with Virtual Observatory protocols. This paper describes the data currently stored in the archive and presents ways in which these data can be searched and downloaded.
In the perovskite-related La/Ba/Cu oxide system, the lanthanum ions can substitute on the barium sites due to a close match in the ionic radius of the two. Thus it is possible to make a solid solution La1+xBa2-xCu3Oy where O ∼ x ≤ 0.5 and y ∼ 7. For the Ba-rich end member composition (x ∼ 0). the structure is orthorhombic. but as the La content increases and La begins to substitute on the Ba sites (disordered), the crystal symmetry changes from orthorhombic to tetragonal. In addition, the superconducting properties vary with increasing La content. In particular, the superconducting onset temperature is found to decrease linearly from 80 to 45 K over the compositional (x) range 0.0 → 0.375. In the La-rich limit (x = 0.5). 1/4 of the Ba atoms are replaced by La and superconductivity is lost. A correlation between oxygen ordering (annealing) and high Tc is observed for orthorhombic LaBa2Cu3Oy and inferred in the case of tetragonal La1.25Ba1.75Cu3Oy.
Suspected nosocomial Aspergillus fumigatus infections in an Australian hematology unit were investigated by molecular typing of clinical and environmental isolates using polymerase chain reaction fingerprinting, CSP typing, and multilocus microsatellite typing. Only multilocus microsatellite typing revealed that all isolates were genetically distinct. The selection of an appropriate typing method is essential for effective outbreak investigations.
Fasciola hepatica secretes proteolytic enzymes and other molecules that are essential for host penetration and migration. This mixture may include enzymes required for the degradation of supramucosal gels, which defend epithelial surfaces against pathogen entry. These contain hydrated mucins that are heavily glycosylated. Excretory-secretory products (ES) from F. hepatica were examined for a range of glycosidase activities, using synthetic 4-methylumbelliferyl glycosides as substrates. The ES product contained at least 8 different glycosidase activities, the most abundant of which were β-N-acetylhexosaminidase, β-galactosidase and β-glucosidase. Alpha-fucosidase, β-glucuronidase, α-galactosidase, α-mannosidase and neuraminidase were also present. β-N-acetylhexosaminidase and β-galactosidase were present in multiple isoforms (at least 4), whereas β-glucosidase appeared to exist as one isoenzyme with a pI <3·8. All three enzymes had acidic pH optima (4·5–5·0). Ovine small intestinal mucin was degraded by ES at pH 4·5 or 7·0, with or without active cathepsin L, the major protease found in F. hepatica ES. The ability of F. hepatica ES to degrade mucin in the presence or absence of active cathepsin L suggests that cathepsin L is not essential for mucin degradation. The abundance of β-galactosidase and β-hexosaminidase in ES supports a role for these enzymes in mucin degradation.