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Disturbed sleep and activity are prominent features of bipolar disorder type I (BP-I). However, the relationship of sleep and activity characteristics to brain structure and behavior in euthymic BP-I patients and their non-BP-I relatives is unknown. Additionally, underlying genetic relationships between these traits have not been investigated.
Relationships between sleep and activity phenotypes, assessed using actigraphy, with structural neuroimaging (brain) and cognitive and temperament (behavior) phenotypes were investigated in 558 euthymic individuals from multi-generational pedigrees including at least one member with BP-I. Genetic correlations between actigraphy-brain and actigraphy-behavior associations were assessed, and bivariate linkage analysis was conducted for trait pairs with evidence of shared genetic influences.
More physical activity and longer awake time were significantly associated with increased brain volumes and cortical thickness, better performance on neurocognitive measures of long-term memory and executive function, and less extreme scores on measures of temperament (impulsivity, cyclothymia). These associations did not differ between BP-I patients and their non-BP-I relatives. For nine activity-brain or activity-behavior pairs there was evidence for shared genetic influence (genetic correlations); of these pairs, a suggestive bivariate quantitative trait locus on chromosome 7 for wake duration and verbal working memory was identified.
Our findings indicate that increased physical activity and more adequate sleep are associated with increased brain size, better cognitive function and more stable temperament in BP-I patients and their non-BP-I relatives. Additionally, we found evidence for pleiotropy of several actigraphy-behavior and actigraphy-brain phenotypes, suggesting a shared genetic basis for these traits.
Dirofilariosis caused by Dirofilaria immitis (heartworm) is a zoonosis, considered an endemic disease of dogs and cats in several countries of Western Europe, including Portugal. This study assesses the levels of D. immitis exposure in humans from Northern Portugal, to which end, 668 inhabitants of several districts belonging to two different climate areas (Csa: Bragança, Vila Real and Csb: Aveiro, Braga, Porto, Viseu) were tested for anti-D. immitis and anti-Wolbachia surface proteins (WSP) antibodies. The overall prevalence of seropositivity to both anti-D. immitis and WSP antibodies was 6.1%, which demonstrated the risk of infection with D. immitis in humans living in Northern Portugal. This study, carried out in a Western European country, contributes to the characterisation of the risk of infection with D. immitis among human population in this region of the continent. From a One Health point of view, the results of the current work also support the close relationship between dogs and people as a risk factor for human infection
The control of Anastrepha obliqua includes the sterilization of mass-reared insects grown in isolation in a constantly controlled environment. Through time, laboratory mass-reared colonies may produce flies with lower field performance. To recover the genetic variation and aptitude of mass-reared populations, wild insects are introduced into mass-reared colonies. Our aim in this study was to determine whether the host species from two localities influence the life history traits of A. obliqua. We collected flies as larvae from infested fruits of Spondias purpurea, S. mombin, Mangifera indica cv. ‘piña’, and M. indica cv. ‘coche’ from two localities in Chiapas, Mexico. There were significant differences in the mating competitiveness of males collected from mango cv. ‘coche’ compared with mass-reared males. There were no differences in the mating propensity between flies from the two localities, even in the number of matings, when weight was considered as a covariable. The mass-reared strain showed the earliest age at first oviposition. The locality affected the longevity and oviposition period, and these influenced the birth rate, intrinsic rate of increase, finite rate of population increase, mean generation time, and doubling time. According to the demographic parameters, the population of S. mombin would allow artificial colonization in less time, considering that it has a high reproduction rate starting at an early age. Even in the propensity test, it had the highest number of matings. However, males with greater sexual competitiveness and longevity for colonization corresponded to those collected from S. purpurea.
To determine the association between the use of opioids and benzodiazepines and the risk of falls with hip fracture in populations older than 65 years in Colombia.
A case-control study with patients older than 65 years with diagnosis of hip fracture. Two controls were obtained per case. The drugs dispensed in the previous 30 days were identified. Sociodemographic, diagnostic, pharmacological (opioids and benzodiazepines), and polypharmacy variables were analyzed. A logistic regression model was used to analyze the risk of fall with hip fracture while using these drugs.
We included 287 patients with hip fractures and 574 controls. There was a female predominance (72.1%) and a mean age of 82.4 ± 8.0 years. Of the patients, 12.7% had been prescribed with opioids and 4.2% with benzodiazepines in the previous month. The adjusted multivariate analysis found that using opioids (OR:4.49; 95%CI:2.72–7.42) and benzodiazepines (OR:3.73; 95%CI:1.60–8.70) in the month prior to the event was significantly associated with a greater probability of suffering a fall with hip fracture.
People who are taking opioids and benzodiazepines have increased risk for hip fracture in Colombia. Strategies to educate physicians regarding the pharmacology of older adults should be strengthened.
Gnathostoma turgidum is a nematode parasite that exploits the stomach of Virginian opossums, Didelphis virginiana, in Latin America. The opossum is the definitive host of G. turgidum in the wild. Intrahepatic growth and maturation of the parasite, subsequent migration to the stomach and spontaneous expulsion are common. However, the histopathological lesions caused by G. turgidum are poorly described. A better understanding of the life cycle of this parasite and the pathological changes in natural host–parasite interactions could help to clarify the progression of human infections caused by Gnathostoma binucleatum. The aim of this work was to study morphological changes in the liver and stomach of D. virginiana during natural infection and adult worm expulsion. Three opossums naturally infected with G. turgidum were captured from an endemic area of gnathostomosis. Three uninfected opossums captured from a non-endemic area were used as controls. The opossums were sacrificed at different stages of infection (March, May and December), and a histopathological study of their livers and stomachs was conducted. Injuries in livers were observed by histopathology – areas of necrosis and collagen septa were identified. Parasites caused nodules with necrosis on the periphery of lesions, and collagen fibres were also observed in stomachs. Collagen septa may be caused by antigenic remains of the parasite. Further immunological studies are necessary to verify that stimulation is caused by these factors.
The Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana) is considered highly adaptable to anthropogenic disturbances; however, the genetic effects of disturbance on this marsupial have not been studied in wild populations in Mexico. Here we evaluated the genetic diversity of D. virginiana at sites with different levels of disturbance within the Highlands and Central Depression regions of Chiapas in southern Mexico. Twelve microsatellite loci were used and the results demonstrated moderate mean heterozygosity (He = 0.60; Ho = 0.50). No significant differences in heterozygosity were found among sites with different levels of disturbance in both regions (range Ho = 0.42–0.57). We observed low but significant levels of genetic differentiation according to disturbance level. The inbreeding coefficient did not differ significantly from zero, suggesting that low genetic differentiation in these environments may be associated with sufficient random mating and gene flow, a result associated with the high dispersal and tolerance characteristics of this marsupial. Our results for D. virginiana in this particular area of Mexico provide a foundation for exploring the impact of human disturbance on the genetic diversity of a common and generalist species.
The long-term behavior of the UO2 fuel matrix under conditions of the Belgian “Supercontainer design” was investigated by dissolution tests of high burn-up spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in high alkaline solution under 40 bar of (Ar + 8%H2) atmosphere. Four fragments of SNF, obtained from a pellet previously leached during two years, were exposed to young cement water with Ca (YCWCa) under 3.2 bar H2 partial pressure in four single/independent autoclave experiments for a period of 59, 182, 252 and 341 days, respectively. After a decrease of the concentration of dissolved 238U, which is associated with a reduction of U(VI) to U(IV), the concentration of 238U in solution is constant in the experiments running for 252 and 341 days. These observations indicate an inhibition of the matrix dissolution due to the presence of H2. A slight increase in the concentration of 90Sr and 137Cs in the aqueous solution indicates that there is still dissolution of the grain boundaries. These findings are similar to those reported for spent nuclear fuel corrosion in synthetic near neutral pH solutions.
Dirofilaria immitis is endemic in Portugal. Several studies have reported the presence of canine heartworm disease, although no previous studies on feline infections have been published. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of D. immitis in cats and dogs from central and northern Portugal. Blood samples from 434 cats were tested for circulating anti-D. immitis and anti-Wolbachia antibodies. Furthermore, 386 dogs were tested for circulating D. immitis antigens. Overall feline seroprevalence was 15%, while canine prevalence was 2.1%. The highest feline seroprevalences of 18.7% and 17.6% were found in Aveiro and Viseu, respectively, while the highest canine prevalences of 8.8% and 6.8% were found in Coimbra and Aveiro, respectively. Cats and dogs showing respiratory signs presented higher prevalences of 24.4% and 17%, respectively, while 50% of cats with gastrointestinal signs were seropositive. The present study confirms the seropositivity of D. immitis in the feline population in central and northern Portugal, and suggests the importance of including heartworm disease in the list of differential diagnoses of cats and dogs showing clinical signs compatible with the disease.
Hydration memory is a phenomenon in which a seed can tolerate discontinuous hydration periods, displaying enhanced germination after one or multiple hydration–dehydration (HD) cycles; it was described physiologically in a few cactus species around 15 years ago. Although no additional work was done on this subject, it has great biotechnological potential since its analysis would permit predictions about whether a seed can withstand discontinuous hydration; in the long run, the knowledge about its regulation might lead to induction of this resistance, so we aimed to provide an initial approach to the molecular mechanisms that underlie hydration memory. This phenomenon was reproduced successfully in our lab with Ferocactus peninsulae seeds. Using two-dimensional (2D) electrophoresis, we compared expression patterns of proteins involved in seed maturation of seeds and seedlings subjected to an HD cycle treatment. We found differential expression of several proteins possibly involved in primary metabolism, ubiquitination pathway and reserve protein availability regulation in seeds and seedlings subjected to an HD cycle. We also found differential stability of total RNA. These results strongly suggest that the differential expression of proteins is at least partially related to the hydration memory process.
The intent of this study was to determine if composting is an effective means of managing water hyacinth while producing a quality horticultural compost product. Preliminary tests for the study included germination and seed mortality tests. Germination tests found that water hyacinth seeds germinated on filter paper media soaked in distilled water while placed in petri dishes held at a constant temperature of 27 C for 14 d. Seed mortality test results found that seeds of water hyacinth were rendered inviable at temperatures equal to or above 57 C. The study successfully developed a large-scale composting system that used water hyacinth as a primary feedstock. Eleven compost piles were derived from 10,000 kg of water hyacinth, 9,000 kg of food waste, 11,300 kg of poultry litter, and 17,200 kg of wood chips. Results indicated that the composting process reached and sustained sufficiently high enough temperatures to inactivate and fully decompose seeds and other propagules of water hyacinth. Therefore, water hyacinth can be composted without the potential danger of it spreading. Compost quality tests found that the compost produced was within acceptable to ideal ranges of accepted industry quality standards, though there was a learning curve by student workers in the preparation of the piles using the large equipment.
Many cultural stereotypes exist regarding the “modernity” of values possessed by Latino immigrants, particularly in reference to gender norms. Common perceptions about Latin machismo and marianismo (the idea that women should be pure and moral) do not paint a portrait of gender egalitarian dispositions. These assessments are upheld by neomodernization theorists who specifically identify gender attitudes as a critical element of modernity. In applying a revised modernization theory to the issue of comparative gender values, Inglehart and Norris (2003, 10) hypothesize that development “brings about changed cultural attitudes toward gender equality in virtually any society that experiences the various forms of modernization linked with economic development.” The idea that gender equality norms develop gradually, as a function of modernization, gives rise to different expectations about accepted gender roles in developing countries as opposed to those in advanced industrial democracies. Another feature of this modernization process is the emergence of gender gaps in political behavior and attitudes. Inglehart and Norris (2000) distinguish between traditional gender gaps found in postcommunist and developing societies (in which women are more conservative in their behavior and cultural attitudes relative to men) and modern gender gaps evident in postindustrial societies (in which women are more progressive than men).
The extremely high surface areas required for supercapacitors has limited the use of metal based electrodes, despite the other advantages such electrodes might have. Self-assembling surfactants and block co-polymers can be used as templates to produce nanostructured thin films that readily give 60-140 fold increases in surface area on both planar and three-dimensional substrates. However, even when relatively high surface area porous metal substrates such as nickel foam are used as a starting point, the resultant material still has surface area density well short of that available in other types of materials. Micro-emulsions offer a method of generating microstructure that bridges the gap between the 100 micron scale structures of foamed metals and the 10-50 nm scale structure of self-assembling block co-polymers. Electrodeposition of nickel and cobalt from micro-emulsions of Tween surfactants gives rise to structure on the 0.1-10 micron length scale. The scale of the microstructure is strongly influenced by the metal ion concentration and the potential at which the electrodeposition. The nature of the metal ion also strongly effects the ease with which the microstructure can be generated and the distribution of the microstructured film on foamed nickel electrodes. For microstructured nickel films ten fold surface area increases can be achieved. The microstructured films are expected to be compatible with a number of the nanostructuring methods to yield cumulative surface area increases of 1000-2000 fold.
Three goats provided with oesophageal and ruminal cannulae were used to determine variations in dry matter (DM) and neutral-detergent fibre (NDF) degradability of the forage consumed when grazing thorn scrubland in the semi-arid region of north Mexico, during two consecutive dry and wet periods. Ingesta samples were incubated intraruminally, the data were fitted to the exponential equation P = a + b (l - e-ct) and statistically analysed using a randomized-block design. Organic matter and crude protein (CP) contents were higher (P < 0.05) in the wet seasons. Values of NDF were similar in dry and wet season of both years whereas higher numerical values of acid-detergent fibre (ADF), lignin and cellulose were registered in the dry seasons. DM and NDF degradabilities after 24 and 48 h of ruminal incubation were higher (P < 0.05) in the wet seasons. Higher values (P < 0.05) in DM and NDF bag losses at zero time (A fraction) were registered in the two wet seasons. The insoluble but fermentable DM and NDF (B fractions) were higher (P < 0.05) in the 1999 wet season and variable in the rest of the studied period. Numerically higher values of DM and NDF c fraction were found in wet periods, whereas DM and NDF potential degradabilities were higher (P < 0.05) in the wet season in 1999 and similar across seasons in 2000. Lowest (P < 0.05) contents of CP in grazed forage, DM and NDF degradabilities after 48 h of ruminal incubation, and A, and B, and c fractions were observed in the dry seasons. Thus, these results may be related to both the lower feeding value of forage consumed by the animals and lower performance of livestock during this period. Then, the DM and NDF degradability after 48 h, together with the insoluble but fermentable matter and the c fraction permit the nutritive value of the forage consumed by grazing goats to be accurately described.
Background. Little is known about how continuation and maintenance cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) influences important psychological constructs that may be associated with long-term outcome of major depressive disorder. The goal of this study was to examine whether CBT would help maintain attributional style changes experienced by patients during acute phase fluoxetine treatment.
Method. Three hundred and ninety-one patients with major depressive disorder were enrolled in an open, fixed-dose 8 week fluoxetine trial. Remitters to this acute phase treatment (N=132) were randomized to receive either fixed-dose fluoxetine (meds only) or fixed-dose fluoxetine plus cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT+meds) during a 6-month continuation treatment phase. The Attributional Style Questionnaire (ASQ) was completed by patients at three time points – acute phase baseline, continuation phase baseline and continuation phase endpoint. Analysis of covariance was used to compare continuation phase ASQ composite score changes between groups.
Results. Patients in both treatment groups experienced significant gains in positive attributional style during the acute phase of treatment. Continuation phase ASQ composite change scores differed significantly between treatment groups, with the CBT+meds group maintaining acute phase positive attributional style changes, and the meds only group exhibiting a worsening of attributional style. The two treatment groups did not significantly differ in rates of relapse and final continuation phase visit HAMD-17 scores.
Conclusions. In this sample, the addition of CBT to continuation psychopharmacological treatment was associated with maintenance of acute treatment phase attributional style gains. Further research is needed to evaluate the role of such gains in the long-term course of depressive illness.
A prospective, double-blind, randomized, controlled study was undertaken to compare the perioperative analgesic and recovery characteristics of equipotent doses of tramadol, pethidine and nalbuphine (3.0 mg kg−1, 1.5 mg kg−1 and 0.3 mg kg−1 respectively) with placebo (saline 0.02 ml kg−1) given at induction of anaesthesia in 152 ASA I children and young adults undergoing tonsillo-adenoidectomy. Premedication (temazepam and diclofenac), induction and maintenance of anaesthesia (thiopentone, atracurium, nitrous oxide and isoflurane), with controlled ventilation, were standardized. Variables monitored were heart rate (HR) and systolic arterial pressure (SAP) during surgery, time to recovery of spontaneous respiration at the termination of anaesthesia and restlessness, time to awakening, sedation and emesis in the recovery unit. Increases in HR or SAP >33% of baseline during surgery were treated with esmolol 2.0 mg kg−1 intravenously (i.v.) and restlessness during recovery was treated with the same opioid i.v. given with anaesthesia, or pethidine i.v. in the placebo group. With placebo, there was a high requirement for esmolol during surgery and for pethidine in the recovery ward. Tramadol did not reduce the rate of intra-operative treatment with esmolol, but reduced the tramadol requirement during recovery (P<0.05). Pethidine and nalbuphine reduced the intra-operative esmolol requirement more significantly (P<0.025 and P<0.005 respectively) and the need for treatment during recovery with opioids (P<0.005 each). The time to recovery of spontaneous respiration at the end of anaesthesia was only delayed by pethidine. Other recovery variables were similar, except that restlessness–pain scores were reduced by tramadol (P<0.02), pethidine (P<0.005) and nalbuphine (P<0.005). These results suggest that pethidine 1.5 mg kg−1 and nalbuphine 0.3 mg kg−1 given with induction of anaesthesia provide better analgesia during and after tonsillo-adenoidectomy than does tramadol 3.0 mg kg−1. The delay to recovery of spontaneous respiration with pethidine suggests a greater safety profile of nalbuphine and tramadol.
A mineralogical and microstructural study of bentonites from 'Cerro del Aguila' located in the Tagus Basin (Toledo, Spain) was carried out using XRD, SEM and TEM observations and chemical data obtained by TEM-EDX. The bentonites are mainly composed of trioctahedral smectite with a unit-cell formula (Si3.76Al0.24)(Al0.44Fe3+0.26Mg1.81)Ca0.05K0.19O10(OH)2 and small amounts of illite. The relationships between illite and smectite particles observed by SEM and TEM allowed the study of the weathering process of illite to form smectite through possible intermediate stages. The transformation begins as an exfoliation normal to the stacking direction and develops by opening of the interlayer spacing, the replacement of K+ by hydrated interlayer cations and slight reorganization of the 2:1 layer structure. The so-called solid-state transformation process then proceeds by further dissolution and the formation of a colloidal phase acting as raw material in the growth of new phyllosilicates such as smectite.
MCM-41 mesoporous materials were synthesized under different hydrothermal conditions using organic templates, i.e. CTMA-Br, DTMA-Br. Reaction temperature (120 to 195 °C) and reaction time (24 to 120 hr) varied and their influence on the structure properties of MCM-41 was sought i.e. d = 36 to 41.6 Å for distinct micelles diameters. Also, insertion of polyaromatics into the surfactant micelles was determinant in the final pore diameter, i.e d = 35.4 to 48.6 Å.