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During the Epoch of Reionization (EoR), feedback effects reduce the efficiency of star formation process in small halos or even fully quench it. The galaxy luminosity function (LF) may then turn over at the faint-end. We analyze the number counts of z > 5 galaxies observed in the fields of four Frontier Fields (FFs) clusters and obtain constraints on the LF faint-end: for the turn-over magnitude at z ∼ 6, MUVT ≳-13.3; for the circular velocity threshold of quenching star formation process, vc* ≲ 47 km s−1. We have not yet found significant evidence of the presence of feedback effects suppressing the star formation in small galaxies.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: Focus groups are being conducted to describe and identify barriers and/or facilitators to Hispanic males’ health literacy, culture, and language related to cervical cancer prevention practices METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: A purposive convenience sample was recruited to participate in focus group sessions with English or Spanish speaking Hispanic males 21 years of age and older. Groups were segmented by age (21–29, 30–39, 40–49, and 50–65), and language (English or Spanish). Focus group discussions (n=8) were led by a bilingual/bicultural female researcher using a discussion guide that followed Zarcadoolas et al. (2005) health literacy model 6 as related to their partners’ cervical cancer screening and prevention practices. All sessions were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Participants completed standardized questioners regarding demographic data and their health literacy. Qualitative content analysis was used for analyzing focus group interviews. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Preliminary qualitative analysis shows the struggle Hispanic males’ face accepting cervical cancer screening for their female partners. One participant reported that it was “a clash of cultures.” A “clash of cultures” was described as a constant struggle and acceptance between science, personal knowledge, and Hispanic cultural taboos. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Hispanic male’s health literacy, communication, language preferences, and cervical cancer risks, will further enhance the knowledge needed to design intervention measures for cancer prevention among Hispanics. Understanding the factors that contribute to the unequal burden of cervical cancer incidence and mortality among Hispanic women in South Texas is critical to prevent cervical cancer among this population.
A method has been devised and tested for measuring the c-axis orientation of crystal grains in thin sections of glacier ice. The crystal orientation and grain size of ice are of great interest to glaciologists since these parameters contain information on the prior thermal and flow history of the ice. The traditional method of determining c-axis orientation involves a transmission measurement through an ice sample, a process that is time-consuming and therefore impractical for obtaining a continuous record. A reflection- or backscatter-based method could potentially be used inside boreholes, with bubbles as reflectors to avoid such drawbacks. The concept demonstration of this paper is performed on ice slices, enabling a direct comparison of accuracy with traditional methods. Measurements of the crystal orientations (θ, ϕ) in 11 grains showed an average error of ±0.8° in ϕ, with no grain error >1.4°. Measurements of θ showed an average error of ±8.2° on ten grains, with unexplained disagreement on the remaining grain. Although the technique is applied specifically to glacier ice, it should be generally applicable to any transparent birefringent polycrystalline material.
Objectives: A linked evidence approach (LEA) is the synthesis of systematically acquired evidence on the accuracy of a medical test, its impact on clinical decision making and the effectiveness of consequent treatment options. We aimed to assess the practical utility of this methodology and to develop a decision framework to guide its use.
Methods: As Australia has lengthy experience with LEA, we reviewed health technology assessment (HTA) reports informing reimbursement decisions by the Medical Services Advisory Committee (August 2005 to March 2012). Eligibility was determined according to predetermined criteria and data were extracted on test characteristics, evaluation methodologies, and reported difficulties. Fifty percent of the evidence-base was independently analyzed by a second reviewer.
Results: Evaluations of medical tests for diagnostic (62 percent), staging (27 percent), and screening (6 percent) purposes were available for eighty-nine different clinical indications. Ninety-six percent of the evaluations used either the full LEA methodology or an abridged version (where evidence is linked through to management changes but not patient outcomes). Sixty-one percent had the full evidence linkage. Twenty-five percent of test evaluations were considered problematic; all involving LEA (n = 22). Problems included: determining test accuracy with an imperfect reference standard (41 percent); assessing likely treatment effectiveness in test positive patients when the new test is more accurate than the comparator (18 percent); and determining probable health benefits in those symptomatic patients ruled out using the test (13 percent). A decision framework was formulated to address these problems.
Conclusions: LEA is useful for evaluating medical tests but a stepped approach should be followed to determine what evidence is required for the synthesis.
An analysis is well underway for the data from the second Large Program (PI M. A. Barucci) dedicated to investigating the surface properties of Centaurs and Transneptunian objects through spectroscopic, photometric color, lightcurve, and polarimetric observations using the European Southern Observatory (ESO) Very Large Telescope (VLT) and New Technology Telescope (NTT). 45 objects were observed between 2006 and 2008, allowing a broad characterization of at least the largest and brightest objects among this population. In this report, we summarize all our findings, but focus on the analysis of the presence of ices such as methane, ethane, nitrogen, ammonia hydrate, methanol, and particularly H2O which is so abundant throughout the outer solar system.
The post-war need for large numbers of dwellings has promoted renewed inquiry into the basic criteria by which good practice in the design and construction of buildings may be judged. More emphasis than ever before is now being put upon the functional characteristics of buildings regarded as living-spaces rather than as structures.
A new filler material, a stabilized ferritic welding wire, has been developed
for the joining of the stabilized ferritic stainless steel sheets increasingly
used in automotive exhaust systems. The joints obtained in the GMAW and GTAW
processes behave at least as well in service as those obtained with austenitic
filler wires. The new welding grade can also be applied to produce
Comparative tests on SGN and Radon simulated ILW vitrification with a cold crucible based experimental plant were performed. The batch was fed as paste with 20 wt.% moisture. An operation conditions, the ability of the cold crucible to maintain the differential pressure during the operation, process variables, product properties, off-gas and condensate compositions, the effect of melt agitation on melter capacity and cesium loss have been determined. Melt viscosity and resistivity have been measured. Material structures were studied using infra-red spectroscopy and electron microscopy. Leach rates of sodium and potassium cations as well as Cs-137 have been measured. The behavior of sulfate and chloride ions in the vitrification process as well as their solubility in SGN and “Radon” glasses have been investigated.
Observations made since the comet’s discovery (1927) were analyzed and reduced to remove observational bias. Comparison was made with possible mechanical effects on the nucleus (tidal forces, impacts). The observations appear to best fit an internal mechanism (exothermic chemical reactions) as proposed by Whipple.
We are making accurate observations of the change in Doppler shift of stellar absorption lines. The purpose is to detect the oscillatory reflex motion due to planets orbiting stars. The scrambling of incident light by an optical fiber and the stability of wavelength calibration by a Fabry-Perot etalon provide immunity to systematic errors. Selecting several echelle diffraction orders in the vicinity of 4250–4600 A, which are imaged on a CCD, about 350 points on the profile of the stellar spectrum are sampled by successive orders of interferometric transmission through the etalon. At 4300 A each interference order is 47 milliangstroms wide and the sample points are 0.64 A apart, causing distinct, widely-spaced monochromatic images of the entrance aperture to be formed in the focal plane of the camera. Changes in Doppler shift modify the relative intensities of these images, according to the slope of the spectral profile at each point sampled. To simplify operation and enhance sensitivity, the instrument is being operated as a null-measurement accelerometer, responding only to changes in radial velocity. With an argon emission line lamp the interferometer is calibrated to two parts in 100 million; this corresponds to ± 6 meters/sec in Doppler shift. These calibrations show instrumental variations of ± 27 meters/sec on a time scale of months; observations of stars are corrected for such changes. The internal repeatability of observations of the differential Doppler shift of Arcturus (K1 IIIb; B=1.19) is ± 6 meters/sec for each exposure of 600 square meter-seconds. These exposures are obtained in 15–20 minutes with a 0.9-meter telescope. The external repeatability (day-to-day differential accuracy) of nightly averages of stellar observations is ± 20 meters/second.
There do not appear to be at the present moment any problems in dynamical astronomy of which the solutions call for combined action and international organisation rather than private efforts of mathematicians. The only possible contents of a report of the commission under these circumstances would be a historical survey of the work done in the subject since the last meeting. I do not think that a review of this nature is the proper function of such a report. My conviction that the subject of dynamical astronomy does not at the present moment stand in need of international co-operation, has been strengthened by the fact that a circular letter sent to all members of the commission has elicited only two replies, one of which expressed doubt regarding the usefulness of international co-ordination of the subject, whilst the other intimated that the writer had no remarks to offer.
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