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The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) has been used in many epidemiological studies to assess adolescent mental health problems, but cross-country comparisons of the self-report SDQ are scarce and so far failed to find a good-fitting, common, invariant measurement model across countries. The present study aims to evaluate and establish a version of the self-report SDQ that allows for a valid cross-country comparison of adolescent self-reported mental health problems.
Using the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study, the measurement model and measurement invariance of the 20 items of the self-report SDQ measuring adolescent mental health problems were evaluated. Nationally representative samples of 11-, 13- and 15-year old adolescents (n = 33 233) from seven countries of different regions in Europe (Bulgaria, Germany, Greece, the Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Slovenia) were used.
In order to establish a good-fitting and common measurement model, the five reverse worded items of the self-report SDQ had to be removed. Using this revised version of the self-report SDQ, the SDQ-R, partial measurement invariance was established, indicating that latent factor means assessing conduct problems, emotional symptoms, peer relationships problems and hyperactivity-inattention problems could be validly compared across the countries in this study. Results showed that adolescents in Greece scored relatively low on almost all problem subscales, whereas adolescents in Poland scored relatively high on almost all problem subscales. Adolescents in the Netherlands reported the most divergent profile of mental health problems with the lowest levels of conduct problems, low levels of emotional symptoms and peer relationship problems, but the highest levels of hyperactivity-inattention problems.
With six factor loadings being non-invariant, partial measurement invariance was established, indicating that the 15-item SDQ-R could be used in our cross-country comparison of adolescent mental health problems. To move the field of internationally comparative research on adolescent mental health forward, studies should test the applicability of the SDQ-R in other countries in- and outside Europe, continue to develop the SDQ-R as a cross-country invariant measure of adolescent mental health, and examine explanations for the found country differences in adolescent mental health problems.
The study of the dynamics of the Coma Cluster is of interest for several reasons. First, there exists a great deal of observational information about the cluster, including data on morphology, magnitude, color and redshift for the galaxies, and reasonably detailed x-ray data for the hot gas. Second, the present dynamical state of the cluster is reasonably well-defined. In addition, the segregation of the more luminous (≡ massive) galaxies towards the cluster center shows that two-body relaxation effects are well-advanced (Capelato et al. 1980). The profile of velocity dispersion with radius shows that in the outer parts of the cluster the galaxy velocities are non-isothermal (des Forêts et al. 1984). There is, however, evidence of continuing dynamical evolution. The velocity field of the galaxies at large distances from the center of the cluster suggests continuing infall (Capelato et al. 1982), and two sub-condensations are located in the inner regions (Mazure and Proust 1986). A new dynamical analysis for the cluster is being carried out in two stages. First, a relaxed model with a wide mass spectrum (c.f. Inagaki 1980) is fitted to the data. The contribution of the intergalactic gas is taken into account. With HO = 75 km/sec/Mpc, the total mass within a 3° radius of the center is ∼ 1.5 × 1015 M⊙, of which ∼ 30% is in the intergalactic medium, and M/L ∼ 75 M⊙/L⊙. The ratio of specific energies of the galaxies and the gas is ∼ 1.1, i.e., there is no scale-height problem (these results are described more fully by Gerbal et al. 1986). A second “model independent” analysis using the profiles of the galactic density and velocity dispersion gives the radial dependence of the galactic mass, the gas mass and also gives the total mass, which is found to be ∼ 1.1 × 1015 M⊙ within 3° (Gerbal et al. 1984).
It is often claimed that massive neutrinos (v's) can solve the “missing mass” problem, but it is not so clear in the particular case of clusters of galaxies (C.O.G.). Let us assume that the unseen matter is composed by massive v's only. If they are cosmological, the v's should obey Fermi-Dirac statistics with a density of ∼ 100 v/cm3/species. But if “relic,” the v's would be so slow (1) that they cannot exist in this form (because of the previous Jeans instability or because they are trapped in wells generated by baryonic matter). Since the time when the v's decoupled from the primeval mixture (T ∼ 3–1 MeV), the v's can be considered as a “gravitational plasma,” so that violent relaxation occurs in inhomogeneous systems, leading to a Lynden-Bell distribution defined by three parameters: ην (numerical density), Vv (r.m.s. velocity) and the v-mass, mv, all unknown. All three of these parameters are, in fact, necessary to define a state of v-matter.
It is now a widely spread opinion that a ratio of 10:1 between dark and luminous matter exists. Supported by the existence of flat rotation curves at large radii for spirals, this fact reinforces cosmological scenarios with, for instance, massive neutrinos. This content of dark matter is often estimated from the dynamical analysis of clusters of galaxies based essentially on the application of the Virial theorem or the monomassive Emden sphere or deduced from numerical simulations. However, a careful examination shows crucial failures in such approaches1, at least the lack of a mass spectrum and/or of a dynamically influent Intra Cluster Medium. This has been included in simple models1 together with other realistic features such as temperature gradient, isovelocity and/or isothermicity of the gravitational plasma. Our aim is thus to account simultaneously for all the available data concerning both galaxies and ICM; namely, the Nonisothermal Multimass Models1 allow us to fit jointly the numerical density profiles of galaxies, the luminosity function, the velocity dispersion profiles versus magnitude or radius, the luminosity segregation2, the X-ray temperature, luminosity and surface brightness profiles.
The VIMOS VLT Deep Survey (VVDS) is underway to study the evolution of galaxies, large scale structures and AGNs, from the measurement of more than 100 000 spectra of faint objects. We present here the results from the first epoch observations of more than 20000 spectra. The main challenge of the program, the redshift measurements, is described, in particular entering the “redshift desert” in the range 1.5 < z < 3 for which only very weak features are detected in the observed wavelength range. The redshift distribution of a magnitude limited sample brighter than IAB = 24 is presented for the first time, showing a peak at a low redshift z ∼ 0.7, and a tail extending all the way above z = 4. The evolution of the luminosity function out to z = 1.5 is presented, with the LF of blue star forming galaxies carrying most of the evolution, with L* changing by more than two magnitudes for this sub-sample.
Despite a growing interest in understanding the cognitive deficits associated with major depressive disorder (MDD), it is largely unknown whether such deficits exist before disorder onset or how they might influence the severity of subsequent illness. The purpose of the present study was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of longitudinal datasets to determine whether cognitive function acts as a predictor of later MDD diagnosis or change in depression symptoms. Eligible studies included longitudinal designs with baseline measures of cognitive functioning, and later unipolar MDD diagnosis or symptom assessment. The systematic review identified 29 publications, representing 34 unique samples, and 121 749 participants, that met the inclusion/exclusion criteria. Quantitative meta-analysis demonstrated that higher cognitive function was associated with decreased levels of subsequent depression (r = −0.088, 95% confidence interval. −0.121 to −0.054, p < 0.001). However, sensitivity analyses revealed that this association is likely driven by concurrent depression symptoms at the time of cognitive assessment. Our review and meta-analysis indicate that the association between lower cognitive function and later depression is confounded by the presence of contemporaneous depression symptoms at the time of cognitive assessment. Thus, cognitive deficits predicting MDD likely represent deleterious effects of subclinical depression symptoms on performance rather than premorbid risk factors for disorder.
The alfalfa weevil (Hypera postica (Gyllenhal): Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is an invasive pest of alfalfa (Medicago sativa Linnaeus; Fabaceae) in the Holarctic region. Across the wide geographic distribution of the species different local adaptions have been observed. Further, several distinct mitochondrial lineages have been discovered, which have been treated as western and Egyptian/eastern strains. However, our knowledge of the biogeography of H. postica is largely limited to North American and Japanese populations. We sampled the species from four locations in Iran and two countries in Europe (Poland and Czech Republic) and sequenced the mitochondrial COI gene to detect patterns of mitochondrial DNA divergence among Iranian and European strains. We detected two groups separated by a deep molecular split, even justifying the distinction of two molecular operational taxonomic units. Joint analyses with previously published sequences suggest that the European samples may represent the western strain, whereas both the western and Egyptian/eastern strains can be found in Iran. This distribution of genetic lineages may be the result of human-mediated translocations. The directionality, however, cannot be inferred. Our data suggest that translocations may have led to the coexistence of multiple H. postica lineages in some parts of the world, e.g., Iran. We discuss these findings against the background of the current taxonomy of H. postica.
Exclusive breast-feeding (EBF) for 6 months supports optimal infant growth, health and development. This paper examined whether maternal HIV status was associated with EBF and other infant feeding practices. Pregnant women were enrolled after HIV counselling, and their babies were followed up for up to 1 year. Data on household socio-economics and demographics, maternal characteristics and infants’ daily diet were available for 482 infants and their mothers (150 HIV-positive (HIV-P), 170 HIV-negative (HIV-N) and 162 HIV-unknown (HIV-U)). Survival analyses estimated median EBF duration and time to introduction of liquids and foods; hazards ratios (HR) used data from 1–365 and 1–183 d, adjusting for covariates. Logistic regression estimated the probability of EBF for 6 months. Being HIV-P was associated with a shorter EBF duration (139 d) compared with HIV-N (163 d) and HIV-U (165 d) (P=0·004). Compared with HIV-N, being HIV-P was associated with about a 40 % higher risk of stopping EBF at any time point (HR 1·39; 95 % CI 1·06, 1·84; P=0·018) and less than half as likely to complete 6 months of EBF (adjusted OR 0·42; 95 % CI 0·22, 0·81; P=0·01). Being HIV-P tended to be or was associated with a higher risk of introducing non-milk liquids (HR 1·34; 95 % CI 0·98, 1·83; P=0·068), animal milks (HR 2·37; 95 % CI 1·32, 4·24; P=0·004) and solids (HR 1·56; 95 % CI 1·10, 2·22; P=0·011) during the first 6 months. Weight-for-age Z-score was associated with EBF and introducing formula. Different factors (ethnicity, food insecurity, HIV testing strategy) were associated with the various feeding behaviours, suggesting that diverse interventions are needed to promote optimal infant feeding.
The influence of the substrate temperature on the morphology and ordering of InGaAs quantum dots (QD), grown on GaAs (001) wafers by Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE) under As2 flux has been studied using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and Photoluminescence (PL) measurements. The experimental results show that lateral and vertical orderings occur for temperatures greater than 520°C and that QDs self-organize in a 6-fold symmetry network on (001) surface for T=555°C. Vertical orderings of asymmetric QDs, along directions a few degrees off , are observed on a large scale and their formation is discussed.
The ballooning magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) modes have been often suggested as a possible instability trigger of the substorm onset, and a mechanism of compressional waves in the outer magnetosphere and magnetotail. Commonly, these disturbances are characterized by the local dispersion equation that is widely applied for the description of ultra-low-frequency oscillatory disturbances and instabilities in the nightside magnetosphere. In realistic situations, especially in the inner magnetosphere, the magnetospheric plasma is composed of two components: background ‘cold’ plasma and ‘hot’ particles. The ballooning disturbances in a two-component plasma immersed into a curved magnetic field are described with the system of coupled equations for the Alfvén and slow magnetosonic (SMS) modes. We have reduced the basic system of MHD equations to the dispersion equation for the small-scale in transverse direction disturbances, and applied WKB approximation along a field line. As a result, we have derived a dispersion equation that can be used for geophysical applications. In particular, from this relationship the dispersion, instability threshold, and stop-bands of the Alfvén and SMS modes in two-component plasma have been examined.
First results on formation of thin film GeOI structures by the Smart Cut™ technology are presented in this paper. Thin single crystal layers of Ge have been successfully transferred, via oxide bonding layer, onto standard Si substrates with diameters ranging from 100 to 200 mm. Compared to SOI manufacturing, the development of GeOI requires adaptation to the available germanium material, since the starting material can be either bulk Ge or an epitaxial layer. Some results will be presented for GeOI formation according to the different technological options. Germanium splitting kinetics will be discussed and compared to already published results. To show good quality of the GeOI structures, detailed characterization has been done by TEM cross sections for defect densities, interfaces abruptness and layers homogeneities evaluation. AFM was used for surface roughness measurements. These results help define procedures that are required to achieve large diameter high quality GeOI structures.
Strained Silicon On Insulator wafers are today envisioned as a natural and powerfulenhancement to standard SOI and/or bulk-like strained Si layers. For MOSFETs applications, thisnew technology potentially combines enhanced devices scalability allowed by thin films andenhanced electron and hole mobility in strained silicon. This paper is intended to demonstrate byexperimental results how a layer transfer technique such as the Smart Cut™ technology can be usedto obtain good quality tensile Strained Silicon On insulator wafers. Detailed experiments andcharacterizations will be used to characterize these engineered substrates and show that they arecompatible with the applications.
We report on high quality GaN layers grown with the use of one intermediate layer. The defect analysis shows that the density of dislocation is only 8×107/cm2 in these layers, compared to over 1010/cm2 for layers grown without the intermediate layer (IL). Electron microscopy on cross-section samples shows that deposition under certain specific conditions of a low- temperature IL directly benefits the quality of the subsequently deposited GaN layer. The growth of the GaN top layer appears to be similar to growth observed for lateral epitaxial overgrowth layers. This first time observation opens the possibility for using standard growth methods of GaN compounds to achieve a dislocation density comparable to that achieved with lateral overgrowth epitaxy.
Colloidal suspensions are remarkable analogues of molecular fluids. In particular, at high volume fraction (Φv) they share two characteristic features with super-cooled molecular liquids: the appearance of two distinct modes of translational motion (fast and slow diffusive modes), and a critical retardation of the latter as Φv approaches random close packing (a colloidal “glass transition”). These phenomena have been studied extensively by photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS) [1-4] and are the subject of many theoretical analyses [5-12]. This paper concerns the use of forced Rayleigh scattering (FRS) to address questions not resolved by existing data or theory. We report: 1) properties of a hydrophobic silica colloid bearing photoactive azo-dye groups suitable for FRS studies, and 2) preliminary results from FRS measurements which reveal some unanticipated features regarding the transition from short-time to long-time self-diffusion at small k.
Optical studies of semiconductors under intense femtosecond laser pulse excitation suggest that an ultrafast phase transition takes places before the electronic system has time to thermally equilibrate with the lattice. The excitation of a critical density of valence band electrons destabilizes the covalent bonding in the crystal, resulting in a structural phase transition. The deformation of the lattice leads to a decrease in the average bonding-antibonding splitting and a collapse of the band-gap. Direct optical measurements of the dielectric constant and second-order nonlinear susceptibility are used to determine the time evolution of the phase transition.
We use a new broadband spectroscopic technique to measure ultrafast changes in the dielectric function of a material over the spectral range 1.5–3.5 eV following intense 70-fs laser excitation. The results reveal the nature of the phase transformations which occur in the material following excitation. We studied the response of GaAs and Si. For GaAs, there are three distinct regimes of behavior as the pump fluence is increased — lattice heating, lattice disordering, and a semiconductor-to-metal transition.
Turbulent reconnection is studied by means of two-dimensional (2D) compressible magnetohydrodynamical numerical calculations. The process of homogeneous turbulence is set up by adding two-dimensional random forcing implemented in the spectral space at small wave numbers with no correlation between velocity and forcing. We apply the initial Harris current sheet configuration together with a density profile calculated from the numerical equilibrium of magnetic and gas pressures. We assume that there is no external driving of the reconnection. The reconnection develops as a result of the initial vector potential perturbation. We use open boundary conditions. Our main goal is to find the dependencies of reconnection rate on the uniform resistivity. We present that the reconnection speed depends on the Lindquist number in 2D in the case of low as well as high resolution. When we apply more powerful turbulence the reconnection is faster, however the speed of reconnection is smaller than in the case of our three-dimensional numerical simulations.
A magnetic field embedded in a perfectly conducting fluid preserves its topology for all times. Although ionized astrophysical objects, like stars and galactic disks, are almost perfectly conducting, they show indications of changes in topology, magnetic reconnection, on dynamical time scales. Reconnection can be observed directly in the solar corona, but can also be inferred from the existence of large scale dynamo activity inside stellar interiors. Solar flares and gamma ray busts are usually associated with magnetic reconnection. Previous work has concentrated on showing how reconnection can be rapid in plasmas with very small collision rates. Here we present numerical evidence, based on three dimensional simulations, that reconnection in a turbulent fluid occurs at a speed comparable to the rms velocity of the turbulence, regardless of the value of the resistivity. In particular, this is true for turbulent pressures much weaker than the magnetic field pressure so that the magnetic field lines are only slightly bent by the turbulence. These results are consistent with the proposal by Lazarian & Vishniac (1999) that reconnection is controlled by the stochastic diffusion of magnetic field lines, which produces a broad outflow of plasma from the reconnection zone. This work implies that reconnection in a turbulent fluid typically takes place in approximately a single eddy turnover time, with broad implications for dynamo activity and particle acceleration throughout the universe. In contrast, the reconnection in 2D configurations in the presence of turbulence depends on resistivity, i.e. is slow.
“Women's movement” is a term widely used by journalists, activists, politicians, scholars, and citizens alike; most people have a general idea of the concept's meaning. Despite the widespread attention to the term since the 1970s, social science is in the early stages of conceptualization (Beckwith 2005a). A quick glance at scholarly work on women's movements indicates there is agreement on neither a general definition nor how the concept should be used in empirical research. In fact, researchers seldom give an explicit definition of the term. Can we be sure that women's movement scholars are talking about the same thing? If not, studies and theories of women's movements risk being inaccurate and perhaps even unintentionally misleading. Our own research on women's movements and women's policy agencies reveals a debate among scholars that has left unanswered many questions about how to use women's movements as a concept for good research. The more notable ones include:
How can movement characteristics be measured?
How can movement impact be measured?
What distinguishes women participants in government and politics from the movement?
Can men be in women's movements?
Is “women's movement” a singular or collective noun, or are there many movements?
Are women's movements defined by their mobilization of women exclusively, or by their goals, or both? For example, are women's peace movements women's movements?
The absence of a consensus about the conceptual use of “women's movement” is quite similar for the related concept “feminist movement/feminism,” but with a controversial twist.
State feminism captures the emergence of a new set of state–society relations and introduces a gendered view of state action to empirical and comparative analysis. It is based on the expectation that democratic governments, to be successful, can and should promote women's status and rights in relation to men's, however those rights are defined in specific cultural contexts, and should work to undermine the gender-based hierarchies that contribute to enduring sex-based inequities. In other words, the concept is based on the premise that democracies can and should be feminist. As we argue in this chapter, since the mid-1990s, scholars throughout the world have increasingly used state feminism to study the relations between women's movements and women's policy agencies (WPAs) – “state-based mechanisms charged formally with furthering women's status and gender equality” (RNGS 2006: 1). In this view, WPAs are a potential conduit for women's movement actors and ideas to enter the affairs of government and to influence the process of policy formulation and implementation. Such access thus increases the chances to realize the highly transversal and difficult-to-achieve feminist agenda. In its current usage, therefore, state feminism implies a focus on women's policy agencies in relation to women's movements and a complex process that may or may not produce a certain set of explicitly feminist outcomes.
State feminism has not always been associated with WPAs, or, as the United Nations calls them, “national machineries for the advancement of women” (UN 2006).