Void and hillock formation during annealing was studied depending on the deposition conditions. Aluminum films were deposited onto oxidized silicon substrates by the self-ion assisted technique. The bias 0 or 6 kV was applied to the substrate during deposition. The films were then annealed in vacuum for 1 hour in the temperature range from 150° to 550°C. The structure of the films was investigated by transmission electron microscopy. The void and hillock formation was studied with optical and scanning electron microscopes.
It was found that recrystallization and void and hillock formation in the films depend on the bias during deposition. Normal grain growth occurred in the films deposited without bias. Abnormal grain growth was observed in the 6 kV-films. It was also found that the mechanism of stress relaxation during thermal cycling depends on the self-ion bombardment. In the films prepared without bias, stress relaxation proceeds by diffusion creep. In the films deposited at the 6 kV bias, stress relaxation proceeds by plastic deformation.