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Introduction: It is unclear whether anticoagulant or antiplatelet medications increase the risk for intracranial bleeding in older adults after a fall. Our aim was to report the incidence of intracranial bleeding among older adults presenting to the emergency department (ED) with a fall, among patients taking anticoagulants, antiplatelet medications, both medications and neither medication. Methods: This was a systematic review and meta-analysis, PROSPERO reference CRD42019122626. Medline, EMBASE (via OVID 1946 - July 2019), Cochrane, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects databases and the grey literature were searched for studies reporting on older adults who were evaluated after a fall. We included prospective studies conducted in the ED where more than 80% of the cohort were 65 years or older and had fallen. We contacted study authors for aggregate data on intracranial bleeding in patients prescribed anticoagulant medication, antiplatelet medication and neither medication. Incidences of intracranial bleeding were pooled using random effect models, and I2 index was used to assess heterogeneity. Results: From 7,240 publication titles, 10 studies met inclusion criteria. The authors of 8 of these 10 studies provided data (on 9,489 patients). All studies scored low or moderate risk of bias. The pooled incidence of intracranial bleeding among patients taking an anticoagulant medication was 5.1% (n = 5,016, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 4.1 to 6.3%) I2 = 42%, a single antiplatelet 6.4% (n = 2,148, 95% CI: 5.4 to 7.6%) I2 = 75%, both anticoagulant and antiplatelet medications 5.9% (n = 212, 95% CI: 1.3 to 13.5%) I2 = 72%, and neither of these medications 4.8% (n = 1,927, 95% CI: 3.5 to 6.2%) I2 = 50%. A sensitivity analysis restricted to patients who had a head CT in the ED reported incidences of 6.1% (n = 3,561, 95% CI: 3 to 8.3%), 8.4% (n = 1,781, 95% CI: 5.5 to 11.8%), 6.7% (n = 206, 95% CI 1.5 to 15.2%) and 6.6% (n = 1,310, 95% CI: 5.0 to 8.4%) respectively. Conclusion: The incidence of fall-related intracranial bleeding in older ED patients was similar among patients who take anticoagulant medication, antiplatelet medication, both and neither medication, although there was heterogeneity between study findings.
The short version of the Oxford-Liverpool Inventory of Feelings and Experiences (sO-LIFE) is a widely used measure assessing schizotypy. There is limited information, however, on how sO-LIFE scores compare across different countries. The main goal of the present study is to test the measurement invariance of the sO-LIFE scores in a large sample of non-clinical adolescents and young adults from four European countries (UK, Switzerland, Italy, and Spain). The scores were obtained from validated versions of the sO-LIFE in their respective languages. The sample comprised 4190 participants (M = 20.87 years; SD = 3.71 years). The study of the internal structure, using confirmatory factor analysis, revealed that both three (i.e., positive schizotypy, cognitive disorganisation, and introvertive anhedonia) and four-factor (i.e., positive schizotypy, cognitive disorganisation, introvertive anhedonia, and impulsive nonconformity) models fitted the data moderately well. Multi-group confirmatory factor analysis showed that the three-factor model had partial strong measurement invariance across countries. Eight items were non-invariant across samples. Significant statistical differences in the mean scores of the s-OLIFE were found by country. Reliability scores, estimated with Ordinal alpha ranged from 0.75 to 0.87. Using the Item Response Theory framework, the sO-LIFE provides more accuracy information at the medium and high end of the latent trait. The current results show further evidence in support of the psychometric proprieties of the sO-LIFE, provide new information about the cross-cultural equivalence of schizotypy and support the use of this measure to screen for psychotic-like features and liability to psychosis in general population samples from different European countries.
Neospora caninum is a commonly diagnosed cause of reproductive losses in farmed ruminants worldwide. This study examined 495 and 308 samples (brain, heart and placenta) which were collected from 455 and 119 aborted cattle and sheep fetuses, respectively. DNA was extracted and a nested Neospora ITS1 PCR was performed on all samples. The results showed that for bovine fetuses 79/449 brain [17.6% (14.2–21.4)], 7/25 heart [28.0% (12.1–49.4)] and 5/21 placenta [23.8% (8.2–47.2)] were PCR positive for the presence of Neospora DNA. Overall 82/455 [18.0% (14.6–21.7)] of the bovine fetuses tested positive for the presence of N. caninum DNA in at least one sample. None (0/308) of the ovine fetal samples tested positive for the presence of Neospora DNA in any of the tissues tested. The results show that N. caninum was associated with fetal losses in cattle (distributed across South-West Scotland), compared to sheep in the same geographical areas where no parasite DNA was found. Neospora is well distributed amongst cattle in South-West Scotland and is the potential cause of serious economic losses to the Scottish cattle farming community; however, it does not appear to be a problem amongst the Scottish sheep flocks.
As professors, we seek not only to impart knowledge about issues and concepts in American politics but also to engage and inspire students to become more knowledgeable and more active in politics. This article explains how a student-run exit poll conducted on Election Day 2016 accomplished both goals. Seven faculty members from four universities pooled our students and carried out an exit poll in the District of Columbia, Maryland, Virginia, and Ohio. By the time the polls closed, our students had spoken to more than 2,300 respondents, providing a memorable experience and creating a shared dataset that served as the centerpiece for many final class projects. Through this project, students gained hands-on experience in survey design, sampling, research ethics, polling, and data analysis.
In September 2016, the annual meeting of the International Union for Quaternary Research’s Loess and Pedostratigraphy Focus Group, traditionally referred to as a LoessFest, met in Eau Claire, Wisconsin, USA. The 2016 LoessFest focused on “thin” loess deposits and loess transportation surfaces. This LoessFest included 75 registered participants from 10 countries. Almost half of the participants were from outside the United States, and 18 of the participants were students. This review is the introduction to the special issue for Quaternary Research that originated from presentations and discussions at the 2016 LoessFest. This introduction highlights current understanding and ongoing work on loess in various regions of the world and provides brief summaries of some of the current approaches/strategies used to study loess deposits.
Network analysis is an emerging approach in the study of psychopathology, yet few applications have been seen in eating disorders (EDs). Furthermore, little research exists regarding changes in network strength after interventions. Therefore the present study examined the network structures of ED and co-occurring depression and anxiety symptoms before and after treatment for EDs.
Participants from residential or partial hospital ED treatment programs (N = 446) completed assessments upon admission and discharge. Networks were estimated using regularized Graphical Gaussian Models using 38 items from the Eating Disorders Examination-Questionnaire, Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology, and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory.
ED symptoms with high centrality indices included a desire to lose weight, guilt about eating, shape overvaluation, and wanting an empty stomach, while restlessness, self-esteem, lack of energy, and feeling overwhelmed bridged ED to depression and anxiety symptoms. Comparisons between admission and discharge networks indicated the global network strength did not change significantly, though symptom severity decreased. Participants with denser networks at admission evidenced less change in ED symptomatology during treatment.
Findings suggest that symptoms related to shape and weight concerns and guilt are central ED symptoms, while physical symptoms, self-esteem, and feeling overwhelmed are links that may underlie comorbidities in EDs. Results provided some support for the validity of network approaches, in that admission networks conveyed prognostic information. However, the lack of correspondence between symptom reduction and change in network strength indicates that future research is needed to examine network dynamics in the context of intervention and relapse prevention.
Dextromethorphan hydrobromide and quinidine sulfate (DM/Q) 20mg/10mg is FDA approved to treat pseudobulbar affect (PBA), a neurological condition characterized by sudden, frequent, involuntary crying or laughing. Although the total dose of quinidine (20 mg) from twice daily DM/Q for PBA is well below the antiarrhythmic dose (600-1600 mg/day), clinicians may be reticent to use DM/Q due to concerns for cardiac safety.
DM/Q cardiac safety was evaluated in two thorough QTc (TQT) studies and by ECG monitoring in DM/Q phase 3 clinical trials. In the TQT studies, twice daily DM/Q 30mg/10mg (Study 08-AVR-126; N=50 enrolled) and supratherapeutic doses 30mg/30mg and 60mg/60mg (Study 05-AVR-119; N=36 enrolled) were studied in healthy volunteers. In phase 3 controlled clinical trials, the effects of DM/Q on Fridericia’s corrected QT intervals (QTcF) were assessed, as was the incidence of ECG outliers. Adverse events (AEs) were monitored in all clinical trials.
Overall, 47/50 participants completed TQT study 08-AVR-126 and 36/36 completed TQT study 05-AVR-119. Time-matched, placebo-corrected mean maximal changes in QTcF for DM/Q 30mg/10mg and 30mg/30mg occurred 3h post-dose (10.3 and 10.1ms, respectively) vs moxifloxacin (12.2 and 14.4ms at 1.5 and 1.0h). For the supratherapeutic DM/Q 60/60 mg dose, mean maximal QTcF change was 18.8ms. No participant had a QTcF >480 ms or QTc increase >60 ms. In PBA phase 3 controlled trials, mean changes in QTcF were similar for DM/Q containing Q 10 mg (0.4 to 3.5 ms; n=217) andplacebo (0.4 to 3.1 ms; n=183), but greater for DM/Q with Q 30 mg (2.9 to 7.6 ms; n=146). In an outlier analysis, a similar percentage of DM/Q-treated participants (3.9%) had a QTcF shift from <450 ms at baseline to ≥450 ms during treatment vs placebo (2.9%). No participant with PBA had a QTc change from baseline >60 ms or an absolute QTc interval >480 ms. No dose- or time-related trends in cardiac arrhythmias or other cardiac-related AEs were observed.
Of 2552 DM/Q-treated patients and healthy participants across all controlled and open-label trials for any indication, 11 deaths due to any cardiovascular AE have been reported; none were attributable to DM/Q treatment and none occurred in placebo-controlled PBA clinical trials in any treatment group. Overall 16 patients had a QTcF that exceeded 500 ms at any ECG measurement.
The TQT studies demonstrated that DM/Q has the potential to prolong the QT interval in a dose-dependent manner, but that the risk for QTc prolongation and arrhythmias with Q 10 mg formulations is low. In clinical trials with PBA patients, the cardiac safety profile of DM/Q 20mg/10mg or 30/10 mg was indistinguishable from placebo.
Analysis of injuries during military operations has focused on those related to combat. Non-combat complaints have received less attention, despite the need for many troops to be evacuated for non-battle illnesses in Iraq. This study aims to further characterize the disease and non-battle injuries (DNBIs) seen at a tertiary combat hospital and to describe the types of procedures and medications used in the management of these cases.
In this observational study, patients were enrolled from a convenience sample with non-combat-related diseases and injuries who were evaluated in the emergency department (ED) of a US military tertiary hospital in Iraq from 2007-2008. The treating emergency physician (EP) used a data collection form to enroll patients that arrived to the ED whose injury or illness was unrelated to combat.
Data were gathered on 1,745 patients with a median age of 30 years; 84% of patients were male and 85% were US military personnel. The most common diagnoses evaluated in the ED were abdominal disorders, orthopedic injuries, and headache. Many cases involved intravenous access, laboratory testing, and radiographic testing. Procedures performed included electrocardiogram, lumbar puncture, and intubation.
Disease and non-battle traumatic injuries are common in a tertiary combat hospital. Emergency providers working in austere settings should have the diagnostic and procedural skills to evaluate and treat DNBIs.
BebartaVS, MoraAG, NgPC, MasonPE, MuckA, MaddryJK. Disease and Non-Battle Traumatic Injuries Evaluated by Emergency Physicians in a US Tertiary Combat Hospital. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2018;33(1):53–57.
We examined the prospective associations of objective and subjective measures of stress during pregnancy with infant stress reactivity and regulation, an early-life predictor of psychopathology. In a racially and ethnically diverse low-income sample of 151 mother–infant dyads, maternal reports of stressful life events (SLE) and perceived stress (PS) were collected serially over gestation and the early postpartum period. Infant reactivity and regulation at 6 months of age was assessed via maternal report of temperament (negativity, surgency, and regulation) and infant parasympathetic nervous system physiology (respiratory sinus arrhythmia [RSA]) during the Still Face Paradigm. Regression models predicting infant temperament showed higher maternal prenatal PS predicted lower surgency and self-regulation but not negativity. Regression models predicting infant physiology showed higher numbers of SLE during gestation predicted greater RSA reactivity and weaker recovery. Tests of interactions revealed SLE predicted RSA reactivity only at moderate to high levels of PS. Thus, findings suggest objective and subjective measures of maternal prenatal stress uniquely predict infant behavior and physiology, adjusting for key pre- and postnatal covariates, and advance the limited evidence for such prenatal programming within high-risk populations. Assessing multiple levels of maternal stress and offspring stress reactivity and regulation provides a richer picture of intergenerational transmission of adversity.
Improving neurocognitive outcomes following treatment for brain metastases have become increasingly important. We propose that a brief telephone-based neurocognitive assessment may improve follow-up cognitive assessments in this palliative population. Aim: To prospectively assess the feasibility and reliability of a telephone based brief neurocognitive assessment compared to the same tests delivered face-to-face. Methods: Brain metastases patients to be treated with whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) were assessed using a brief validated neurocognitive battery at baseline, at 1 month and 3 months following WBRT (in person and over the phone). The primary outcome was feasibility and inter-procedural (in person versus telephone) reliability. The secondary objective was to evaluate the change in neurocognitive function before and after WBRT. Results: Out of 39 patients enrolled, 82% of patients completed the baseline in-person and telephone neurocognitive assessments. However, at 1 month, only 41% of enrolled patients completed the in-person and telephone cognitive assessments and at 3 months, only 10% of patients completed them. Results pertaining to reliability and change in neurocognitive function will be updated. Conclusion: The pre-defined definition of feasibility (at least 80% completion for face to face and telephone neurocognitive assessments) was met at baseline. However, a large proportion of participants did not complete either telephone or in person neurocognitive follow-up at 1 month and at 3 months post-WBRT. Attrition remained a challenge for neurocognitive testing in this population even when a telephone-based brief assessment was used.
There are limited data on detection disparities of common mental
disorders in minority ethnic women.
Describe the natural history of common mental disorders in primary care
in the maternal period, characterise women with, and explore ethnic
disparities in, detected and potentially missed common mental
Secondary analyses of linked birth cohort and primary care data involving
8991 (39.4% White British) women in Bradford. Common mental disorders
were characterised through indications in the electronic medical record.
Potentially missed common mental disorders were defined as an elevated
General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28) score during pregnancy with no
corresponding common mental disorder markers in the medical record.
Estimated prevalence of pre-birth common mental disorders was 9.5%,
rising to 14.0% 3 years postnatally. Up to half of cases were potentially
missed. Compared with White British women, minority ethnic women were
twice as likely to have potentially missed common mental disorders and
half as likely to have a marker of screening for common mental
Common mental disorder detection disparities exist for minority ethnic
women in the maternal period.
In wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) on an estate in Perthshire, central Scotland, the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii was 18/548 (3·3%). The wild rabbit could be a T. gondii reservoir and it has potential value as a sentinel of T. gondii in environmental substrates. Toxoplasma gondii was associated with female sex (P < 0·001) and with relatively heavy infections by Eimeria stiedae (P = 0·036). It was not associated with the intensity of coccidial oocysts, the severity of myxomatosis caused by the virus Myxomatosis cuniculi, the intensity of roundworm eggs, the year or season, rabbit age or distance from farm buildings. Coinfections could have been affected by gestational down regulation of type 1 T helper cells. A sudden influx or release of T. gondii oocysts might have occurred. This is the first report of T. gondii in any wild herbivore in Scotland and also the first report of lapine T. gondii as a coinfection with E. stiedae, M. cuniculi and helminths.
Size distribution and swimming activity of the sea scallop, Placopecten magellanicus, were measured in situ from high-definition video recordings collected by a remotely operated vehicle on a fished scallop bed on German Bank, Gulf of Maine in August 2010. Scallop densities ranged from 0.004 to 3.89 m−2 and shell height (SH) ranged from 16.3 to 193.8 mm. The size distribution was bimodal, with high abundance from 20 to 40 mm SH indicating a recent recruitment event in the area. The low abundance of scallops >100 mm SH was likely due to the active fishery in this area. Of 535 observed swims, 200 were characterized for swim distance, time, velocity and distance travelled per adduction. The size of scallops observed to swim ranged from 18.9 to 99.9 mm SH. Both swim time and swim distance increased linearly with SH, and quadratic relationships were observed between velocity and SH, and between distance travelled per adduction and SH. Swimming velocities peaked at ~ 50 cm s−1 for scallops between 60 and 80 mm, and maximum velocity was 103.2 cm s−1observed for an individual of 64.0 mm SH. Our study provided a unique opportunity to investigate size distribution and associated swimming activity of scallops in their natural habitat, rather than in a simulated study in the laboratory, and at depths not reachable by SCUBA diving.
To test recent suggestions that the infrared emission of low-luminosity AGN arises in a truncated thin accretion disk, we compare recent, high-resolution IR data with published SED model fits that include emission from the truncated disk. We also fit the data with clumpy torus and optically thin dust shell models. These comparisons suggest that dust can better account for the IR emission of the objects in question than can the truncated disk. That optically thin models give a good fit to the data may support a scenario in which the torus of the AGN unified model does not persist in low accretion rate AGN.
The Pennsylvanian ammonoids Gastrioceras magoffinense n. sp., Maximites nassichuki n. sp., Dimorphoceratoides adamsi n. sp., Bisatoceras? sp., Phaneroceras chesnuti n. sp., and Christioceratidae gen. indet. occur in the Magoffin Member of the Four Corners Formation in eastern Kentucky. The interval represented by the Magoffin ammonoid fauna should be known as the Gastrioceras magoffinense Assemblage Zone. This overlies the well-known Diaboloceras neumeieri Zone, represented in the Kendrick Shale Member of the Hyden Formation in eastern Kentucky. The Gastrioceras magoffinense Zone correlates to the Diaboloceras varicostatum–Winslowoceras henbesti Zone in the Winslow Member of the Atoka Formation in northwestern Arkansas. Ammonoids and associated conodonts, including Declinognathodus marginodosus and its descendant D. donetzianus, indicate an early Atokan age corresponding to the basal Bolsovian (basal Westphalian C) Substage in western Europe and the Bashkirian–Moscovian Stage boundary interval in eastern Europe and the South Urals.