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This book describes the essential nature of human motivation by integrating the best ideas and evidence from motivational and evolutionary science. In doing so, the authors explain how the cultivation of goal-life alignment and 'thriving with social purpose' motivational patterns can inspire optimal functioning and enhance life meaning. Readers are provided with a comprehensive framework for guiding research and intervention efforts along with motivational principles designed to summarize the major themes in effective efforts to motivate yourself and those you wish to help or encourage. Special emphasis is placed on the importance of life meaning in empowering our motivational systems and protecting us from downward spirals of disappointment and suffering. Compelling evidence is provided to support the view that social purpose is as fundamental as self-interest in human motivational systems. The authors also focus on the catalytic role of social purpose in enabling humans to soar above all other species.
Knowledge of the crop-weed interference on weed biology along with yield penalties can be used for the development of integrated weed management (IWM) tactics. Nevertheless, little is known about the beneficial effects of soybean density, an important aspect of IWM, on late Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri S. Watson) establishment time. Two field experiments were conducted in 2014 and 2015 to investigate how various soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.]densities with A. palmeri establishment timings in weeks after crop emergence (WAE) affect height, biomass and seed production of the weed but also crop yield in drill-seeded soybean. Soybean density had a significant impact on dry weight and seed production of A. palmeri that established within the first two weeks of crop emergence, but not for establishment timings of the weed four weeks and later in relation to crop emergence. Differential performance of A. palmeri gender was observed regarding greater biomass production of female than male plants under crop presence merits further investigation. Grain yield reductions were recorded at earlier A. palmeri establishment timings (i.e. 0 and 1 WAE) compared to 8 WAE establishment timing in 2014 and 2015. High soybean densities resulted in greater soybean yields compared to low soybean density, but no grain yield benefits were observed between medium and high soybean densities. Crop budget analysis revealed the benefits of moderate seeding rate (i.e. 250, 000 seeds ha-1) increases in comparison to lower (i.e. 125,000 seeds ha-1) or high (i.e. 400,000 seeds ha-1) on crop revenue, net income returns and breakeven price. Earlier A. palmeri establishment timings (i.e. 0, 1 and 2 WAE) resulted in lower crop revenue and net income returns compared to later establishment timings of the weed.
In this paper, a differential microfluidic sensor and comparator based on a pair of microstrip lines loaded with dumbbell-shaped defected ground structure resonators is applied to the characterization of electrolyte concentration in samples of horse urine. Since variations in the total electrolyte content in urine may be indicative of certain pathologies, the interest is to use the device as a comparator, in order to determine changes in the electrolyte concentration as compared to a reference level. To validate the approach, we have made differential measurements of a set of urine samples with different electrolyte concentrations (which have been previously obtained by means of electrochemical methods). The obtained results correlate with the nominal electrolyte concentrations of the samples, thereby pointing out the potential of the approach as a low-cost pre-screening method (or complementary diagnosis system) to detect potential pathologies or diseases in horses and other animals.
This study presents two years of characterization of a warm temperate rhodolith bed in order to analyse how certain environmental changes influence the community ecology. The biomass of rhodoliths and associated species were analysed during this period and in situ experiments were conducted to evaluate the primary production, calcification and respiration of the dominant species of rhodoliths and epiphytes. The highest total biomass of rhodoliths occurred during austral winter. Lithothamnion crispatum was the most abundant rhodolith species in austral summer. Epiphytic macroalgae occurred only in January 2015, with Padina gymnospora being the most abundant. Considering associated fauna, the biomass of Mollusca increased from February 2015 to February 2016. Population densities of key reef fish species inside and around the rhodolith beds showed significant variations in time. The densities of grouper (carnivores/piscivores) increased in time, especially from 2015 to 2016. On the other hand, grunts (macroinvertebrate feeders) had a modest decrease over time (from 2014 to 2016). Other parameters such as primary production and calcification of L. crispatum were higher under enhanced irradiance, yet decreased in the presence of P. gymnospora. Community structure and physiological responses can be explained by the interaction of abiotic and biotic factors, which are driven by environmental changes over time. Biomass changes can indicate that herbivores play a role in limiting the growth of epiphytes, and this is beneficial to the rhodoliths because it decreases competition for environmental resources with fleshy algae.
Seed longevity is a complex process of key ecological and agronomic importance. DNA damage is a significant factor affecting seed ageing. Likewise, epigenetic changes can control gene expression and, therefore, seed response to ageing. The aim of the present work was to investigate the effect of ageing on nucleic acid stability and to identify reliable molecular markers that might help to monitor epigenetic changes within plant genetic resources during conservation. DNA profiles, evaluated by RAPD (random amplified polymorphic DNA), and methylation patterns, obtained by MSAP (methylation-sensitive amplification polymorphism), were compared in non-aged and aged Mentha aquatica seeds and plants produced by them. Germination decreased to 50% by storing seeds at 35°C and 12% wc for 28 days. RAPD profiles were 99% similar in these aged seeds compared to non-aged seeds. However, seedlings produced from the aged seeds showed a 13% dissimilarity compared to seedlings produced from the non-aged seeds. About 8% difference in the MSAP epigenetic profile was detected in seeds after storage and 16% difference was detected in the seedlings produced from them. This indicates that stress from high temperature and humidity during storage induced changes on the methylation state of seeds, and that changes were also detectable in the regenerated plants. Our results suggest that DNA integrity was compromised in seeds during ageing, and on seedlings produced by aged seeds. Genotype screening techniques such as RAPD and MSAP have the potential as markers of nucleic acid stability during seed ageing.
The general structural formula for the walentaite group is [((A1yA1’1–y), A2)(H2O)n][Bx(As2)2–x(As3)M1(M2)2(TO4)2(O,OH)7], based on heteropolyhedral layers of configuration [M1(M2)2(TO4)2(O,OH)6], with surface-coordinated species at the B, As2 and As3 sites, and with interlayer hydrated cation groups centred at the A sites. The group is divided into walentaite and halilsarpite subgroups based on T = P5+ and As5+, respectively. Alcantarillaite, (IMA2019-072), [Fe3+0.5□0.5(H2O)4][CaAs3+2(Fe3+2.5W6+0.5)(AsO4)2O7], is a new member of the walentaite group from the Alcantarilla wolframite mine, Belalcázar, Córdoba, Andalusia, Spain. It occurs most commonly as lemon-yellow fillings together with massive scorodite in fissures and cracks in quartz adjacent to löllingite. It is also found as tiny yellow rosettes lining vugs and as spheroids of ultrathin blades. It is associated with scorodite, pharmacosiderite, ferberite and schneiderhöhnite. Optically it is biaxial (–), with α = 1.703(calc), β = 1.800(5), γ = 1.850(5) and 2V = 68(1)° (white light). Dispersion is r > v, moderate. The optical orientation is X = a, Y = c and Z = b. The calculated density is 3.06 g cm–3. Electron microprobe analyses together with crystal structure refinement results gives the empirical formula [Fe3+0.52□0.48(H2O)4][(Ca0.44K0.11Na0.05Fe2+0.24□0.42)As3+1.83][Fe3+2.54Al0.03W6+0.43)((As0.65P0.35)O4)2O5.86(OH)1.14]. Alcantarillaite is orthorhombic, with an average structure described in Imma, and with a = 24.038(8) Å, b = 7.444(3) Å, c = 10.387(3) Å, V = 1858.6(11) Å3 and Z = 4. The structure (wRobs = 0.078 for 651 reflections to a resolution of 0.91 Å) differs most significantly from other walentaite-group members in having an interlayer A2 site occupied. Square-pyramidal polyhedra centred at the A2 sites form edge-shared dimers, (Fe3+)2O4(H2O)4. The dimers share vertices with TO4 anions in the layers on either side to form 8-sided channels along  occupied by H2O molecules.
Radar sounding is a powerful geophysical approach for characterizing the subsurface conditions of terrestrial and planetary ice masses at local to global scales. As a result, a wide array of orbital, airborne, ground-based, and in situ instruments, platforms and data analysis approaches for radioglaciology have been developed, applied or proposed. Terrestrially, airborne radar sounding has been used in glaciology to observe ice thickness, basal topography and englacial layers for five decades. More recently, radar sounding data have also been exploited to estimate the extent and configuration of subglacial water, the geometry of subglacial bedforms and the subglacial and englacial thermal states of ice sheets. Planetary radar sounders have observed, or are planned to observe, the subsurfaces and near-surfaces of Mars, Earth's Moon, comets and the icy moons of Jupiter. In this review paper, and the thematic issue of the Annals of Glaciology on ‘Five decades of radioglaciology’ to which it belongs, we present recent advances in the fields of radar systems, missions, signal processing, data analysis, modeling and scientific interpretation. Our review presents progress in these fields since the last radio-glaciological Annals of Glaciology issue of 2014, the context of their history and future prospects.
Competence committees play a key role in a competency-based system of assessment. These committees are tasked with reviewing and synthesizing clinical performance data to make judgments regarding residents’ competence. Canadian emergency medicine (EM) postgraduate training programs recently implemented competence committees; however, a paucity of literature guides their work.
The objective of this study was to develop consensus-based recommendations to optimize the function and decisions of competence committees in Canadian EM training programs.
Semi-structured interviews of EM competence committee chairs were conducted and analyzed. The interview guide was informed by a literature review of competence committee structure, processes, and best practices. Inductive thematic analysis of interview transcripts was conducted to identify emerging themes. Preliminary recommendations, based on themes, were drafted and presented at the 2019 CAEP Academic Symposium on Education. Through a live presentation and survey poll, symposium attendees representing the national EM community participated in a facilitated discussion of the recommendations. The authors incorporated this feedback and identified consensus among symposium attendees on a final set of nine high-yield recommendations.
The Canadian EM community used a structured process to develop nine best practice recommendations for competence committees addressing: committee membership, meeting processes, decision outcomes, use of high-quality performance data, and ongoing quality improvement. These recommendations can inform the structure and processes of competence committees in Canadian EM training programs.
B vitamins involved in one-carbon metabolism have been implicated in the development of inflammation- and angiogenesis-related chronic diseases, such as colorectal cancer (CRC). Yet, the role of one-carbon metabolism in inflammation and angiogenesis among CRC patients remains unclear. The objective of this study was to investigate associations of components of one-carbon metabolism with inflammation and angiogenesis biomarkers among newly diagnosed CRC patients (n 238) in the prospective ColoCare Study, Heidelberg. We cross-sectionally analysed associations between twelve B vitamins and one-carbon metabolites and ten inflammation and angiogenesis biomarkers from pre-surgery serum samples using multivariable linear regression models. We further explored associations among novel biomarkers in these pathways with Spearman partial correlation analyses. We hypothesised that pyridoxal-5’-phosphate (PLP) is inversely associated with inflammatory biomarkers. We observed that PLP was inversely associated with C-reactive protein (CRP) (r –0·33, Plinear < 0·0001), serum amyloid A (SAA) (r –0·23, Plinear = 0·003), IL-6 (r –0·39, Plinear < 0·0001), IL-8 (r –0·20, Plinear = 0·02) and TNFα (r –0·12, Plinear = 0·045). Similar findings were observed for 5-methyl-tetrahydrofolate and CRP (r –0·14), SAA (r –0·14) and TNFα (r –0·15) among CRC patients. Folate catabolite acetyl-para-aminobenzoylglutamic acid (pABG) was positively correlated with IL-6 (r 0·27, Plinear < 0·0001), and pABG was positively correlated with IL-8 (r 0·21, Plinear < 0·0001), indicating higher folate utilisation during inflammation. Our data support the hypothesis of inverse associations between PLP and inflammatory biomarkers among CRC patients. A better understanding of the role and inter-relation of PLP and other one-carbon metabolites with inflammatory processes among colorectal carcinogenesis and prognosis could identify targets for future dietary guidance for CRC patients.
Reading and language abilities are critical for educational achievement and success in adulthood. Variation in these traits is highly heritable, but the underlying genetic architecture is largely undiscovered. Genetic studies of reading and language skills traditionally focus on children with developmental disorders; however, much larger unselected adult samples are available, increasing power to identify associations with specific genetic variants of small effect size. We introduce an Australian adult population cohort (41.7–73.2 years of age, N = 1505) in which we obtained data using validated measures of several aspects of reading and language abilities. We performed genetic association analysis for a reading and spelling composite score, nonword reading (assessing phonological processing: a core component in learning to read), phonetic spelling, self-reported reading impairment and nonword repetition (a marker of language ability). Given the limited power in a sample of this size (~80% power to find a minimum effect size of 0.005), we focused on analyzing candidate genes that have been associated with dyslexia and developmental speech and language disorders in prior studies. In gene-based tests, FOXP2, a gene implicated in speech/language disorders, was associated with nonword repetition (p < .001), phonetic spelling (p = .002) and the reading and spelling composite score (p < .001). Gene-set analyses of candidate dyslexia and speech/language disorder genes were not significant. These findings contribute to the assessment of genetic associations in reading and language disorders, crucial for understanding their etiology and informing intervention strategies, and validate the approach of using unselected adult samples for gene discovery in language and reading.
A guideline for the prevention of Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) in 127 Veterans Health Administration acute-care facilities was implemented in July 2012. Beginning in 2015, a targeted assessment for prevention strategy was used to evaluate facilities for hospital-onset healthcare-facility–associated CDIs to focus prevention efforts where they might have the most impact in reaching a reduction goal of 30% nationwide.
We calculated standardized infection ratios (SIRs) and cumulative attributable differences (CADs) using a national data baseline. Facilities were ranked by CAD, and those with the 10 highest CAD values were targeted for periodic conference calls or a site visit from January 2016–September 2019.
The hospital-onset healthcare-facility–associated CDI rate in the 10 facilities with the highest CADs declined 56% during the process improvement period, compared to a 44% decline in the 117 nonintervention facilities (P = .03).
Process improvement interventions targeting facilities ranked by CAD values may be an efficient strategy for decreasing CDI rates in a large healthcare system.
We report a novel strategy to render stainless steel (SS) a more versatile material that is suitable to be used as the substrate for preparing electrodes for efficient hydrogen evolution by interface engineering. Our strategy involves the growth of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) by atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition (APCVD) as the interface material on the surface of SS. We optimized the procedure to prepare CNTs/SS and demonstrate a higher activity of the CNTs/SS prepared at 700 °C for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) when compared to samples prepared at other temperatures. This can be attributed to the higher number of defects and the higher content of pyrrolic N obtained at this temperature. Our strategy offers a new approach to employ SS as a substrate for the preparation of highly efficient electrodes and has the potential to be widely used in electrochemistry.
Collaborative/therapeutic assessment (C/TA) adds value to psychological assessment by enhancing the therapeutic effects assessment can have. This chapter tracks the influences and research that have guided the evolution of assessment into C/TA and therapeutic assessment (TA), which is a semi-structured C/TA designed to maximize therapeutic effects. It describes the steps and techniques of TA, including developing the client’s questions for an assessment to address, extended inquiry, assessment intervention sessions, and summary discussion sessions. It then explores the empirical foundation that supports the efficacy of C/TA and TA. The added value that TA offers is outlined, including its contribution to working with clients struggling with personality disorders and issues involving epistemic hypervigilance. Finally, discussion of future research that could further TA as an effective consultation technique and as a stand-alone therapeutic intervention itself is considered.
Despite corruption’s effects on citizen welfare, there is substantial variation in when citizens are willing to sanction government wrongdoing. This paper uses a conjoint survey experiment, conducted in Uganda, to test how information about the position a corrupt official holds, and the details of an act of embezzlement affect citizens’ perceptions of corruption severity and willingness to punish. I find that the revenue source of stolen funds and the sector to which the funds had been allocated have the largest impact on perceived severity, followed by whether stolen funds are spent privately or recirculated through patronage or clientelism. The position the corrupt official holds has a smaller impact on severity, including whether the official was elected and whether he was a central or local official.
The 3-valued paraconsistent logic Ciore was developed by Carnielli, Marcos and de Amo under the name LFI2, in the study of inconsistent databases from the point of view of logics of formal inconsistency (LFIs). They also considered a first-order version of Ciore called LFI2*. The logic Ciore enjoys extreme features concerning propagation and retropropagation of the consistency operator: a formula is consistent if and only if some of its subformulas is consistent. In addition, Ciore is algebraizable in the sense of Blok and Pigozzi. On the other hand, the logic LFI2* satisfies a somewhat counter-intuitive property: the universal and the existential quantifier are inter-definable by means of the paraconsistent negation, as it happens in classical first-order logic with respect to the classical negation. This feature seems to be unnatural, given that both quantifiers have the classical meaning in LFI2*, and that this logic does not satisfy the De Morgan laws with respect to its paraconsistent negation. The first goal of the present article is to introduce a first-order version of Ciore (which we call QCiore) preserving the spirit of Ciore, that is, without introducing unexpected relationships between the quantifiers. The second goal of the article is to adapt to QCiore the partial structures semantics for the first-order paraconsistent logic LPT1 introduced by Coniglio and Silvestrini, which generalizes the semantic notion of quasi-truth considered by Mikeberg, da Costa and Chuaqui. Finally, some important results of classical Model Theory are obtained for this logic, such as Robinson’s joint consistency theorem, amalgamation and interpolation. Although we focus on QCiore, this framework can be adapted to other 3-valued first-order LFIs.
Here we provide an update of the 2013 report on the Nigerian Twin and Sibling Registry (NTSR). The major aim of the NTSR is to understand genetic and environmental influences and their interplay in psychological and mental health development in Nigerian children and adolescents. Africans have the highest twin birth rates among all human populations, and Nigeria is the most populous country in Africa. Due to its combination of large population and high twin birth rates, Nigeria has one of the largest twin populations in the world. In this article, we provide current updates on the NTSR samples recruited, recruitment procedures, zygosity assessment and findings emerging from the NTSR.
A long hiatus encompassing most of the Eocene (end of the Ypresian to the early Priabonian) breaks up the proboscidean evolutionary history, which is otherwise documented by a rich fossil record. Only two post-Ypresian localities from West Africa (Mali and Senegal) have yielded scarce Moeritherium-like dental remains. Here, we study one of these remains from Senegal and name a new genus and species, Saloumia gorodiskii. This taxon, confidently mid-Lutetian in age, evokes Moeritherium and elephantiforms with its wrinkled enamel, lack of centrocrista, and strong lingual cingulum. However, due to its pronounced bunodonty, which departs from the bunolophodonty of both Moeritherium and elephantiforms, we cannot exclude the possibility that Saloumia documents an early experiment in dental diversity among Paleocene–Eocene proboscideans, without direct relationships with later proboscideans.
We examined Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) prevention practices and their relationship with hospital-onset healthcare facility-associated CDI rates (CDI rates) in Veterans Affairs (VA) acute-care facilities.
From January 2017 to February 2017, we conducted an electronic survey of CDI prevention practices and hospital characteristics in the VA. We linked survey data with CDI rate data for the period January 2015 to December 2016. We stratified facilities according to whether their overall CDI rate per 10,000 bed days of care was above or below the national VA mean CDI rate. We examined whether specific CDI prevention practices were associated with an increased risk of a CDI rate above the national VA mean CDI rate.
All 126 facilities responded (100% response rate). Since implementing CDI prevention practices in July 2012, 60 of 123 facilities (49%) reported a decrease in CDI rates; 22 of 123 facilities (18%) reported an increase, and 41 of 123 (33%) reported no change. Facilities reporting an increase in the CDI rate (vs those reporting a decrease) after implementing prevention practices were 2.54 times more likely to have CDI rates that were above the national mean CDI rate. Whether a facility’s CDI rates were above or below the national mean CDI rate was not associated with self-reported cleaning practices, duration of contact precautions, availability of private rooms, or certification of infection preventionists in infection prevention.
We found considerable variation in CDI rates. We were unable to identify which particular CDI prevention practices (i.e., bundle components) were associated with lower CDI rates.
We present experimental results on the development of gravity currents moving onto sloping boundaries with slope angles
. Different regimes of flow development are observed depending on the slope angle and on the initial velocity and density profiles, characterized by the Richardson number
are, respectively, the velocity interface thickness, the maximum velocity difference and reduced gravity at the beginning of the slope. For
and the larger slope angle, the flow strongly accelerates, reaches a maximum at the beginning of the Kelvin–Helmholtz instability, then decelerates and re-accelerates again. For
, instability occurs earlier and velocity oscillations are less. When
the increase in velocity is smooth. The magnitude of velocity oscillation depends on the combined effect of
and slope angle, expressed by an overall acceleration parameter
, which, to first order, is given by
are, respectively, the velocity and position at instability onset. The velocity increases smoothly up to an equilibrium state when
and exhibits an irregular behaviour at larger values of
. The critical Richardson number
decreases with increasing
) which is due to wall effects and
. After the beginning of Kelvin–Helmholtz instability, entrainment rates are close to those of a mixing layer, decreasing to values of a gravity current after the mixing layer reaches the boundary. It is shown here that the interfacial instability during current development affects the bottom shear stress which can reach values of
regardless of initial conditions. By solving numerically the depth integrated governing equations, the gravity flow velocity, depth and buoyant acceleration in the flow direction can be well predicted for all the performed experiments over the full measurement domain. The numerical results for the experiments with
predict that the current requires a distance of at least
to reach a normal state of constant velocity, which is much larger than the distance
required in the case of a current with
that is commonly assumed for downslope currents.