Schistosomiasis is widespread in Uganda along large lakes and rivers with approximately 4 million people infected. Hookworm infections also prevalent throughout the country, while infections with Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura are mainly found in south-western Uganda. A national programme aimed at controlling morbidity due to these infections was launched in 2003. This article describes the perceptions, attitudes, constraints and experiences of those implementing the programme and those receiving the treatment. The study used qualitative data collected largely in two districts but also from 18 other districts implementing the programme. Results showed that mass treatment was perceived to be beneficial because the drugs make people feel better. However, side-effects of praziquantel (PZQ), the smell and size of the tablets and the use of height, not weight, to determine dose were raised as major factors discouraging people from taking the drug. Generally, most of the end-users were appreciative of the programme and were beginning to demand regular treatment. Nevertheless, intensive and sustained health education is still vital for improvement of treatment coverage, especially among the non-compliers. It was repeatedly highlighted that there is a need to stock PZQ in all health facilities in endemic areas. Provision of incentives to drug distributors and to involve as many stakeholders as possible in the planning phase were also raised by respondents. Lessons learned for the development and success of a helminth control programme at a national scale are discussed.