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This study examined the effectiveness of a formal postdoctoral education program designed to teach skills in clinical and translational science, using scholar publication rates as a measure of research productivity.
Participants included 70 clinical fellows who were admitted to a master’s or certificate training program in clinical and translational science from 1999 to 2015 and 70 matched control peers. The primary outcomes were the number of publications 5 years post-fellowship matriculation and time to publishing 15 peer-reviewed manuscripts post-matriculation.
Clinical and translational science program graduates published significantly more peer-reviewed manuscripts at 5 years post-matriculation (median 8 vs 5, p=0.041) and had a faster time to publication of 15 peer-reviewed manuscripts (matched hazard ratio = 2.91, p=0.002). Additionally, program graduates’ publications yielded a significantly higher average H-index (11 vs. 7, p=0.013).
These findings support the effectiveness of formal training programs in clinical and translational science by increasing academic productivity.
Objectives: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with cognitive impairment but the relationships between specific biomarkers and neurocognitive domains remain unclear. The present study examined the influence of common health comorbidities on these relationships. Adults with suspected OSA (N=60; 53% male; M age=52 years; SD=14) underwent neuropsychological evaluation before baseline polysomnography (PSG). Apneic syndrome severity, hypoxic strain, and sleep architecture disturbance were assessed through PSG. Methods: Depression (Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale, CESD), pain, and medical comorbidity (Charlson Comorbidity Index) were measured via questionnaires. Processing speed, attention, vigilance, memory, executive functioning, and motor dexterity were evaluated with cognitive testing. A winnowing approach identified 9 potential moderation models comprised of a correlated PSG variable, comorbid health factor, and cognitive performance. Results: Regression analyses identified one significant moderation model: average blood oxygen saturation (AVO2) and depression predicting recall memory, accounting for 31% of the performance variance, p<.001. Depression was a significant predictor of recall memory, p<.001, but AVO2 was not a significant predictor. The interaction between depression and AVO2 was significant, accounting for an additional 10% of the variance, p<.001. The relationship between low AVO2 and low recall memory performance emerged when depression severity ratings approached a previously established clinical cutoff score (CESD=16). Conclusions: This study examined sleep biomarkers with specific neurocognitive functions among individuals with suspected OSA. Findings revealed that depression burden uniquely influence this pathophysiological relationship, which may aid clinical management. (JINS, 2018, 28, 864–875)
We present the first demonstration of a general method for the chemical characterization of small surface features at high magnification via simultaneous collection of mass spectrometry (MS) imaging and tandem MS imaging data. High lateral resolution tandem secondary ion MS imaging is employed to determine the composition of surface features on poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) that precipitate during heat treatment. The surface features, probed at a lateral resolving power of<200 nm using a surface-sensitive ion beam, are found to be comprised of ethylene terephthalate trimer at a greater abundance than is observed in the surrounding polymer matrix. This is the first chemical identification of PET surface precipitates made without either an extraction step or the use of a reference material. The new capability employed for this study achieves the highest practical lateral resolution ever reported for tandem MS imaging.
Prisons/jails are thought to amplify the transmission of Staphylococcus aureus (SA) particularly methicillin-resistant SA infection and colonisation. Two independently pooled cross-sectional samples of detainees being admitted or discharged from two New York State maximum-security prisons were used to explore this concept. Private interviews of participants were conducted, during which the anterior nares and oropharynx were sampled and assessed for SA colonisation. Log-binomial regression and correspondence analysis (CA) were used to evaluate the prevalence of colonisation at entry as compared with discharge. Approximately 51% of admitted (N = 404) and 41% of discharged (N = 439) female detainees were colonised with SA. Among males, 59% of those admitted (N = 427) and 49% of those discharged (N = 393) were colonised. Females had a statistically significant higher prevalence (1·26: P = 0·003) whereas males showed no significant difference (1·06; P = 0·003) in SA prevalence between entry and discharge. CA demonstrated that some strains, such as spa types t571 and t002, might have an affinity for certain mucosal sites. Contrary to our hypothesis, the prison setting did not amplify SA transmission, and CA proved to be a useful tool in describing the population structure of strains according to time and/or mucosal site.
It is increasingly essential for medical researchers to be literate in statistics, but the requisite degree of literacy is not the same for every statistical competency in translational research. Statistical competency can range from ‘fundamental’ (necessary for all) to ‘specialized’ (necessary for only some). In this study, we determine the degree to which each competency is fundamental or specialized.
We surveyed members of 4 professional organizations, targeting doctorally trained biostatisticians and epidemiologists who taught statistics to medical research learners in the past 5 years. Respondents rated 24 educational competencies on a 5-point Likert scale anchored by ‘fundamental’ and ‘specialized.’
There were 112 responses. Nineteen of 24 competencies were fundamental. The competencies considered most fundamental were assessing sources of bias and variation (95%), recognizing one’s own limits with regard to statistics (93%), identifying the strengths, and limitations of study designs (93%). The least endorsed items were meta-analysis (34%) and stopping rules (18%).
We have identified the statistical competencies needed by all medical researchers. These competencies should be considered when designing statistical curricula for medical researchers and should inform which topics are taught in graduate programs and evidence-based medicine courses where learners need to read and understand the medical research literature.
Community-based conservation efforts are designed to foster local stewardship of important ecological resources. However, inequitable distribution of costs and benefits in communities surrounding protected areas can negatively impact livelihoods, increase wealth disparities and create conflict. To examine the potential for conflict between host communities involved in a community-based conservation program and neighbouring (non-host) communities, we explored local residents’ attitudes towards conservation at Tiwai Island Wildlife Sanctuary (TIWS) in Sierra Leone. Intercept surveys (n = 368) were conducted in 18 villages (eight host, ten non-host) within 8 km of TIWS during 2010. Results revealed significant differences between residents of the host and non-host villages with respect to attitudes towards resource use and overall support for site protection. The most substantial discrepancies centred on perceived benefits associated with TIWS, and these drastically different perspectives generated a high potential for conflict. To minimize conflict and foster broader community support for conservation, managers must carefully consider how benefits associated with protected areas are communicated and distributed across protected area-proximate landscapes.
Firestone & Scholl (F&S) rely on three problematic assumptions about the mind (modularity, reflexiveness, and context-insensitivity) to argue cognition does not fundamentally influence perception. We highlight evidence indicating that perception, cognition, and emotion are constructed through overlapping, distributed brain networks characterized by top-down activity and context-sensitivity. This evidence undermines F&S's ability to generalize from case studies to the nature of perception.
Molecular imprinting is the process by which molecules are imprinted into the matrix of a material through non-covalent bonding, including hydrogen bonding and van der Waals interactions. In this study hydrogels were imprinted with glaucoma medication with the purpose of creating a reusable ocular drug delivery device with reversible binding sites. The material was synthesized and tested with UV-Vis spectroscopy to determine the concentration of the released drug after twelve hours in distilled water. Modifications were made to the polymer to explore methods required for the proper delivery of the drug over an adequate period of time.
To assess the prevalence and risk factors for colonization with Staphylococcus aureus in inmates entering two maximum-security prisons in New York State, USA, inmates (N = 830) were interviewed and anterior nares and oropharyngeal samples collected. Isolates were characterized using spa typing. Overall, 50·5% of women and 58·3% of men were colonized with S. aureus and 10·6% of women and 5·9% of men were colonized with MRSA at either or both body sites. Of MSSA isolates, the major subtypes were spa type 008 and 002. Overall, risk factors for S. aureus colonization varied by gender and were only found in women and included younger age, fair/poor self-reported general health, and longer length of prior incarceration. Prevalence of MRSA colonization was 8·2%, nearly 10 times greater than in the general population. Control of epidemic S. aureus in prisons should consider the constant introduction of strains by new inmates.
A polar transmitter driven by digital input signals for envelope and phase is demonstrated, using a band-switching output resonator to achieve multiband operation. A new digital pulse width modulation algorithm is also shown to partially suppress spurious signals associated with the digital input envelope signal. The transmitter consists of a current-mode class-D (CMCD) CMOS power amplifier (PA), together with a buck converter with a dead-time generator for improved efficiency. The CMCD PA is tuned by band-switching capacitors that can handle up to 9 V, and is measured to have approximately 30 dBm output power with 31–35% drain efficiency under single-tone testing. The proposed spurious signal reduction technique works to partially suppress quantization noise without increasing power consumption. Overall efficiencies of 27.1/25.6% are obtained at 30.2/28.9 dBm continuous wave (CW) output powers and 0.85/1.75 GHz carrier frequencies, respectively. Spur suppression of 9–10 dB peak is achieved when the proposed algorithm is applied with wideband code division multiple access (WCDMA) modulation.
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteraemia cause significant morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients. Using a nested case-control design, 204 MRSA bacteraemia cases were compared to 301 unmatched methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) bacteraemia controls and were matched 1:2 with non-infected controls. The independent risk factors for MRSA bacteraemia compared to MSSA bacteraemia were older age (P = 0·048), major organ transplant during current hospital stay (P = 0·016) and quinolone use (P = 0·016). Cases were more likely than non-infected controls to have renal failure (P = 0·003), cirrhosis (P = 0·013), and a central venous catheter (P = 0·003) after controlling for other risk factors. This large case-control study made it possible to assess risk factors for MRSA bacteraemia using two sets of controls and showed that risk factors differed greatly depending on the control group chosen. These results confirm the need for careful selection of appropriate control groups and the need to carefully adjust for underlying severity of illness.
This article analyzes the impact of The Community Resources Group Receivership Program undertaken from 1998 to 2002 that provided clean property titles to residents in several informal housing colonias (subdivisions) in South Texas. Survey data were gathered from 260 low‐income households comprising two populations: those who had secure title from the outset, and those who were beneficiaries of the land titling program. Focus group interviews were conducted to explore how the beneficiaries construct the meaning of ownership before and after title “regularization.” Formal titling consolidates understandings of absolute property relations in comparison with de facto rights born of use (legal or not), which strengthens people's sense of self‐esteem and potential for political involvement. We found that, contrary to conventional wisdom, title provision per se appears to have little direct impact either upon home improvement or upon residents' receiving enhanced access to credit and financial services. We also found evidence that informality and illegality is likely to reemerge as owners die intestate, and as they revert to informal land market property transfers.
The Catalina Real-time Transient Survey (CRTS) currently covers 33,000 deg2 of the sky in search of transient astrophysical events, with time base-lines ranging from 10 minutes to ~7 years. Data provided by the Catalina Sky Survey provide an unequalled base-line against which > 4,000 unique optical transient events have been discovered and openly published in real-time. Here we highlight some of the discoveries of CRTS.
Background: Recent data demonstrate that moderate consumption of alcohol (13–52 grams of ethanol per day) may be beneficial to cognitive functioning among older adults.
Methods: Longitudinal growth curve analyses controlling for baseline age, body mass index (BMI), education/income, migrant status, smoking, history of diagnosed stroke, hypertension, coronary heart disease (CHD), depression, diabetes and stroke (time-varying) were used to examine the relationship between alcohol consumption, gender and cognitive performance over an 8-year follow-up period. The sample included 1624 Japanese American community-dwelling adults aged 65 and older who were cognitively intact at baseline and participated in at least one follow-up examination. Cognitive performance was measured using the Cognitive Abilities Screening Instrument (CASI; 0–100 point scale), a global test of cognitive function.
Results: Current consumers (n=480) scored significantly (p<0.05) higher on CASI (mean rate of change−1.22 CASI units) over the 8-year follow-up period than past consumers or abstainers (n=1144; mean rate of change−3.77 CASI units). There was no significant main effect for gender, or an alcohol and gender interaction.
Conclusions: This study provides further support regarding the beneficial effects of moderate alcohol consumption on cognitive performance over time. Observed benefits were not modified by gender. Future studies need to determine whether alcohol preserves cognition directly or whether other factors such as physiology or cultural drinking practices are driving the observed association.