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A new fossil site in a previously unexplored part of western Madagascar (the Beanka Protected Area) has yielded remains of many recently extinct vertebrates, including giant lemurs (Babakotia radofilai, Palaeopropithecus kelyus, Pachylemur sp., and Archaeolemur edwardsi), carnivores (Cryptoprocta spelea), the aardvark-like Plesiorycteropus sp., and giant ground cuckoos (Coua). Many of these represent considerable range extensions. Extant species that were extirpated from the region (e.g., Prolemur simus) are also present. Calibrated radiocarbon ages for 10 bones from extinct primates span the last three millennia. The largely undisturbed taphonomy of bone deposits supports the interpretation that many specimens fell in from a rock ledge above the entrance. Some primates and other mammals may have been prey items of avian predators, but human predation is also evident. Strontium isotope ratios (87Sr/86Sr) suggest that fossils were local to the area. Pottery sherds and bones of extinct and extant vertebrates with cut and chop marks indicate human activity in previous centuries. Scarcity of charcoal and human artifacts suggests only occasional visitation to the site by humans. The fossil assemblage from this site is unusual in that, while it contains many sloth lemurs, it lacks ratites, hippopotami, and crocodiles typical of nearly all other Holocene subfossil sites on Madagascar.
Although the science of team science is no longer a new field, the measurement of team science and its standardization remain in relatively early stages of development. To describe the current state of team science assessment, we conducted an integrative review of measures of research collaboration quality and outcomes.
Collaboration measures were identified using both a literature review based on specific keywords and an environmental scan. Raters abstracted details about the measures using a standard tool. Measures related to collaborations with clinical care, education, and program delivery were excluded from this review.
We identified 44 measures of research collaboration quality, which included 35 measures with reliability and some form of statistical validity reported. Most scales focused on group dynamics. We identified 89 measures of research collaboration outcomes; 16 had reliability and 15 had a validity statistic. Outcome measures often only included simple counts of products; publications rarely defined how counts were delimited, obtained, or assessed for reliability. Most measures were tested in only one venue.
Although models of collaboration have been developed, in general, strong, reliable, and valid measurements of such collaborations have not been conducted or accepted into practice. This limitation makes it difficult to compare the characteristics and impacts of research teams across studies or to identify the most important areas for intervention. To advance the science of team science, we provide recommendations regarding the development and psychometric testing of measures of collaboration quality and outcomes that can be replicated and broadly applied across studies.
Identifying risk factors of individuals in a clinical-high-risk state for psychosis are vital to prevention and early intervention efforts. Among prodromal abnormalities, cognitive functioning has shown intermediate levels of impairment in CHR relative to first-episode psychosis and healthy controls, highlighting a potential role as a risk factor for transition to psychosis and other negative clinical outcomes. The current study used the AX-CPT, a brief 15-min computerized task, to determine whether cognitive control impairments in CHR at baseline could predict clinical status at 12-month follow-up.
Baseline AX-CPT data were obtained from 117 CHR individuals participating in two studies, the Early Detection, Intervention, and Prevention of Psychosis Program (EDIPPP) and the Understanding Early Psychosis Programs (EP) and used to predict clinical status at 12-month follow-up. At 12 months, 19 individuals converted to a first episode of psychosis (CHR-C), 52 remitted (CHR-R), and 46 had persistent sub-threshold symptoms (CHR-P). Binary logistic regression and multinomial logistic regression were used to test prediction models.
Baseline AX-CPT performance (d-prime context) was less impaired in CHR-R compared to CHR-P and CHR-C patient groups. AX-CPT predictive validity was robust (0.723) for discriminating converters v. non-converters, and even greater (0.771) when predicting CHR three subgroups.
These longitudinal outcome data indicate that cognitive control deficits as measured by AX-CPT d-prime context are a strong predictor of clinical outcome in CHR individuals. The AX-CPT is brief, easily implemented and cost-effective measure that may be valuable for large-scale prediction efforts.
Over 80% of CTSA programs have a community advisory board (CAB). Little is known about how research discussed with CABs aligns with community priorities (bidirectionality). This program evaluation assessed researcher presentations from 2014 to 2018 to the CABs linked to our CTSA at all three sites (Minnesota, Arizona, and Florida) for relevance to local community needs identified in 2013 and/or 2016. From content analysis, of 65 presentations total, 41 (63%) addressed ≥1 local health needs (47% Minnesota, 60% Florida, and 80% Arizona). Cross-cutting topics were cancer/cancer prevention (physical activity/obesity/nutrition) and mental health. Results could help to prioritize health outcomes of community-engaged research efforts.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: Over 80% of CTSA programs have a community advisory board (CAB), an effective strategy to increase community engagement (CE) in research. Little is known about how the research discussed with CABs aligns with community priorities (i.e., bi-directionality). This program evaluation assessed the health topics presented by researchers to the CABs linked to our CE Program at all three Mayo Clinic sites (MN, AZ, and FL) for relevance to local community needs. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Two coders classified Mayo researcher presentations to our CABs from 2014-2018 for relevance to needs identified in the local 2013 and/or 2016 County Health Needs Assessments and specific topic(s); with high levels of agreement (Kappa=0.90). RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Overall, of the 65 presentations 41 (63%) addressed one or more local health needs (47% MN, 60% FL, 80% AZ). Cross-cutting health topics addressed at 2 sites were physical activity/obesity/nutrition and mental health. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Findings were shared with our CABs to obtain input on future directions. The FL and AZ CABs are systematic in seeking out or initiating research projects that address local health needs, an approach the MN site is interested in adopting. Ultimately, it is important to demonstrate improved health outcomes with CTSA-based CE research strategies. Understanding community health needs and depth of researchers in those areas may help to focus priorities for demonstrating such outcomes.
The pipeline metaphor used to characterize dwindling interest in science and STEM-related careers has gradually been replaced by alternative models that convey complex pathways into, through and out of science by young men and women. In this chapter, we review literatures from educational psychology, cognitive development, and science education and present our own mixed methods approach to developing a model of the roles that children, parents and teachers play in launching, supporting, and sustaining pathways to science interest from early childhood to the transition to college. We use our longitudinal data to describe cases that illustrate these critical developmental inflection points. These rich cases illustrate the advantages of using qualitative methods, when possible, to augment developmental models derived from more quantitative approaches depicted through path diagrams, phase models, or Sankey diagrams. The cases discussed highlight critical roles that parents and teachers might play in nurturing science interests among males and females. Implications for future research and suggestions for practice are considered.
Development, in fact, may be viewed best as a set of multiple developmental trajectories, and our task as developmentalists is to discover how the interplay between different trajectories of children and adults accounts for outcomes.
The present study’s aim was to assess the impact of a nutrition-sensitive intervention on dietary diversity and home gardening among non-participants residing within intervention communities.
The study was a cross-sectional risk factor analysis using linear and logistic multivariate models.
In Tanzania, women and children often consume monotonous diets of poor nutritional value primarily because of physical or financial inaccessibility or low awareness of healthy foods.
Participants were women of reproductive age (18–49 years) in rural Tanzania.
Mean dietary diversity was low with women consuming three out of ten possible food groups. Only 23·4 % of respondents achieved the recommended minimum dietary diversity of five or more food groups out of ten per day. Compared with those who did not, respondents who had a neighbour who grew crops in their home garden were 2·71 times more likely to achieve minimum dietary diversity (95 % CI 1·60, 4·59; P=0·0004) and 1·91 times more likely to grow a home garden themselves (95 % CI 1·10, 3·33; P=0·02). Other significant predictors of higher dietary diversity were respondent age, education and wealth, and number of crops grown.
These results suggest that there are substantial positive externalities of home garden interventions beyond those attained by the people who own and grow the vegetables. Cost-effectiveness assessments of nutrition-sensitive agriculture, including home garden interventions, should factor in the effects on the community, and not just on the individual households receiving the intervention.
Psychosocial and health-related risk factors for depressive symptoms are known. It is unclear if these are associated with depressive symptom patterns over time. We identified trajectories of depressive symptoms and their risk factors among midlife women followed over 15 years.
Participants were 3300 multiracial/ethnic women enrolled in a multisite longitudinal menopause and aging study, Study of Women's Health Across the Nation. Biological, psychosocial, and depressive symptom data were collected approximately annually. Group-based trajectory modeling identified women with similar longitudinal patterns of depressive symptoms. Trajectory groups were compared on time-invariant and varying characteristics using multivariable multinomial analyses and pairwise comparisons.
Five symptom trajectories were compared (50% very low; 29% low; 5% increasing; 11% decreasing; 5% high). Relative to whites, blacks were less likely to be in the increasing trajectory and more likely to be in the decreasing symptom trajectory and Hispanics were more likely to have a high symptom trajectory than an increasing trajectory. Psychosocial/health factors varied between groups. A rise in sleep problems was associated with higher odds of having an increasing trajectory and a rise in social support was associated with lower odds. Women with low role functioning for 50% or more visits had three times the odds of being in the increasing symptom group.
Changes in psychosocial and health characteristics were related to changing depressive symptom trajectories. Health care providers need to evaluate women's sleep quality, social support, life events, and role functioning repeatedly during midlife to monitor changes in these and depressive symptoms.
The bright nearby binary α Centauri constitutes an excellent laboratory for testing stellar evolution models. The mass, radius, and luminosity of α Cen A and B are known to better than 1% accuracy thanks to recent interferometric and adaptive optical observations, and p-mode oscillations have been observed in both stars. We present new stellar models which fit simultaneously the classical and seismic observations, with particular emphasis on the convective mixing length parameter MLT – the adaptivity of which is necessary to fit the models to observations. The oscillation data provide an important constraint on the models, as the small frequency separation is sensitive to the composition gradient in the core of the stars, while the large frequency separation constrains the mean density of the stars, providing an independent check on the mass and radius.
The interannual variations in atmospheric transport patterns to Summit, Greenland, are studied using twice-daily, three-dimensional, 10 day backward trajectory data corresponding to the summers (1 June–31 August) of 1989–98. While previous trajectory climatology studies have been prepared for Summit, the present work considers both the horizontal and vertical components of transport. A three-dimensional residence-time methodology is employed to account for both horizontal and vertical components of transport. the vertical transport component is quantified by passing all trajectories through a three-dimensional grid and tracking the time spent (i.e. the residence time) in each gridcell. This method also allows inspection of trajectory altitude distributions corresponding to transport from upwind regions of interest. the three-dimensional residence-time methodology is shown to be a valuable tool for diagnosing the details of long-range atmospheric transport to remote locations. for Summit, we find that the frequent transport from North America tends to occur at low altitudes, whereas transport from Europe is highly variable. Mean summertime flow patterns are described, as are anomalous patterns during 1990,1996 and 1998.
Loss of cortical volume in frontotemporal regions occurs in patients with first-episode psychosis (FEP) and longitudinal studies have reported progressive brain volume changes at different stages of the disease, even if cognitive deficits remain stable over time. We investigated cortical changes in patients over the 2 years following their FEP and their associations with clinical and cognitive measures.
Twenty-seven patients after their FEP (20 with schizophrenia, seven with schizo-affective disorder) and 25 healthy controls matched for age and gender participated in this study. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed on a 1.5-T scanner both at baseline and after 2 years. Area and thickness of the cortex were measured using surface-based morphometry (SBM). Patients also underwent neuropsychological testing at these two time points.
Progressive cortical thinning in the superior and inferior frontal and, to a lesser extent, superior temporal cortex was observed in patients. Cortical area remained constant. Cortical thinning was associated with duration of treatment at a trend level and was predicted by baseline measures of IQ and working memory. Cortical thinning occurred in the absence of clinical or cognitive deterioration.
The clinical implications of these cortical changes remain uncertain, but patients with less cognitive reserve may be more vulnerable to developing cortical abnormalities when exposed to medication or other disease-related biological factors.
People with psychosis demonstrate impaired response inhibition on the Stop Signal Task (SST). It is less clear if this impairment extends to reflection impulsivity, a form of impulsivity that has been linked to substance use in non-psychotic samples.
We compared 49 patients with first-episode psychosis (FEP) and 30 healthy control participants on two forms of impulsivity measured using the Information Sampling Test (IST) and the SST, along with clinical and IQ assessments. We also compared those patients who used cannabis with those who had either given up or never used.
Patients with FEP had significantly greater impairment in response inhibition but not in reflection impulsivity compared with healthy controls. By contrast, patients who reported current cannabis use demonstrated greater reflection impulsivity than those that had either given up or never used, whereas there were no differences in response inhibition.
These data suggest that abnormal reflection impulsivity is associated with substance use in psychosis but not psychosis itself; the opposite relationship may hold for response inhibition.
Gas phase processing rakes laser deposition over large areas possible but homogeneous nucleation of large atomic clusters must be avoided if films are to be produced. Clusters can be highly variable in size from a few atoms to significant fractions of a micrometer. If conditions do not allow for complete quenching of the clusters produced in the gas phase, these clusters can arrive at the substrate with sufficient energy to self sinter into homogeneous films which are substantially different from metallic films grown by thermal techniques. Using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), we have characterized the microstructure of thin metallic films deposited by laser breakdown chemical vapor deposition and identified a range of deposition conditions which can lead from powders to homogeneous polycrystalline films and mixed phase materials. Gas phase nucleation is dependent on reactant partial pressures and the gas phase quench rate which car be varied in part by adjusting the H2 content of the source gas. Manipulation of these parameters can vary powder size from about one micrometer to less than 2 nanometers. Variation of the quench rate during the deposition of polycrystalline films varies the grain size in the films. heating the substrate drastically changes the conditions under which the film is formed and as a consequence, can radically alter the microstructure of the film itself.
The electronic structure of the Pu-based superconductor PuCoGa5 and the Pauli paramagnet UCoGa5 is investigated using photoemission spectroscopy. The photoemission data of PuCoGa5 reveal features at the Fermi energy EF and about 1-1.5 eV below EF indicative of itinerant and localized f-electrons, respectively. Angle-resolved spectra of UCoGa5 show two peaks at similar energies that are highly dispersive, providing evidence for itinerant character of the f-electrons in this material. A comparison of the PuCoGa5 and UCoGa5 data to the spectra of α-Pu and δ-Pu serves to place PuCoGa5 within the context of the more general electronic structure problem in elemental Pu.
The electronic structure of Pu materials is examined using photoelectron spectroscopy. For delta-phase Pu metal as well as PuCoGa5 and PuIn3, the 5f electrons appear to be at the threshold between localized and itinerant character. A mixed level model computational scheme is used which results in non-magnetic solutions for the electronic structure and agrees well with the photoemission measurements. Several other computational schemes are assessed against photoemission results for delta Pu. Additional insight is provided by O2 and H2 dosing of the delta Pu samples and consideration of surface effects. The experimental and computational results are consistent with the 5f electrons in Pu materials exhibiting a dual nature with some fraction of the 5f levels localized and not participating in the bonding while the other fraction of 5f character is involved in bonding and hybridization with the conduction electrons.