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Having frequent family dinners is associated with better diet quality in children; however, it is unknown whether the frequency of certain family meal types (i.e. dinner) is more strongly associated with better child weight and diet quality compared with other meal types (i.e. breakfast, lunch). Thus, the current study examined the frequency of eating breakfast, lunch or dinner family meals and associations with pre-school children’s overall diet quality (HEI-2010) and BMI percentile.
Cross-sectional baseline data (2012–2014) from two randomized controlled childhood obesity prevention trials, NET-Works and GROW, were analysed together.
Studies were carried out in community and in-home settings in urban areas of Minnesota and Tennessee, USA.
Parent–child (ages 2–5 years) pairs from Minnesota (n 222 non-Hispanics; n 312 Hispanics) and Tennessee (n 545 Hispanics; n 55 non-Hispanics) participated in the study.
Over 80 % of families ate breakfast or lunch family meals at least once per week. Over 65 % of families ate dinner family meals ≥5 times/week. Frequency of breakfast family meals and total weekly family meals were significantly associated with healthier diet quality for non-Hispanic pre-school children (P<0·05), but not for Hispanic children. Family meal frequency by meal type was not associated with BMI percentile for non-Hispanic or Hispanic pre-school children.
Breakfast family meal frequency and total weekly family meal frequency were associated with healthier diet quality in non-Hispanic pre-school children but not in Hispanic children. Longitudinal research is needed to clarify the association between family meal type and child diet quality and BMI percentile.
Major questions remain regarding the dysfunctional neural circuitry underlying the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder (BD) in both youths and adults. In both age groups, studies implicate abnormal intrinsic functional connectivity among prefrontal, limbic and striatal areas.
We collected resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data from youths and adults (ages 10–50 years) with BD (n = 39) and healthy volunteers (HV; n = 78). We identified brain regions with aberrant intrinsic functional connectivity in BD by first comparing voxel-wise mean global connectivity and then conducting correlation analyses. We used k-means clustering and multidimensional scaling to organize all detected regions into networks.
Across the brain, we detected areas of dysconnectivity in both youths and adults with BD relative to HV. There were no significant age-group × diagnosis interactions. When organized by interregional connectivity, the areas of dysconnectivity in patients with BD comprised two networks: one of temporal and parietal areas involved in late stages of visual processing, and one of corticostriatal areas involved in attention, cognitive control and response generation.
These data suggest that two networks show abnormal intrinsic functional connectivity in BD. Regions in these networks have been implicated previously in BD. We observed similar dysconnectivity in youths and adults with BD. These findings provide guidance for refining models of network-based dysfunction in BD.
A reversion, in its simplest form, is merely the right of one person to receive a sum of money, or its equivalent in securities, on the death of another person now living. In practice this right is often contingent upon the happening of some other event, such as the reversioner surviving the life tenant, and as the existence of such a contingency means that a purchaser might suffer entire loss of capital, it is usual to eliminate it by effecting an appropriate policy of assurance. When this is done the contingent reversion becomes an absolute one, subject to the payment of the appropriate premium.
The adhesion of iron films to single crystal Al2O3 substrates was investigated using a pull test. Chromium (300 keV) or nickel (340 keV) ions were implanted to a fluence of 1 × 1015 ions-cm-2 after film deposition. The adhesion test results were widely scattered due to a random distribution of interfacial flaw sizes controlling the failure nucleation. Because Weibull statistics were developed to describe the failure probability due to a population of flaw-initiated cracks, the Weibull distribution was chosen to analyze the data. Modifications in the adhesion strength due to the ion implantation were reflected in the failure distributions. It was found that the chromium ions improved the adhesion of the Fe/Al2O3 system while the implantation of nickel did not.
A case of squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue was complicated by post operative hyponatraemia. The criteria for the syndrome of inappropriate secretion of anti diuretic hormone, [ADH] (SIADH) were met but the patient remained hyponatraemic despite adequate treatment. The patient had previously received radical external radiotherapy to the neck and was found to be profoundly hypothyroid. Correction of the hypothyroid state led to clinical and biochemical recovery. The frequency of post-irradiation hypothyroidism and the possible mechanisms of hypothyroid-induced hyponatraemia are discussed
A case of tuberculous Addison's disease presenting with psychosis, profound hyponatraemia, and detectable plasma antidiuretic hormone is reported. Clinical and biochemical improvement after corticosteroid replacement was followed by relapse with further psychosis and inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion: both were promptly reversed by demethylchlortetracycline. The association of psychological symptoms with Addison's disease, the role of anti-diuretic hormone secretion in Addison's disease, and the inter-relationship between Addison's disease, psychosis and anti-diuretic hormone secretion are discussed.
It is probably true to say that during the past two decades the most perplexing and important of the problems, with which those responsible for the management of Life Assurance Companies have been called upon to deal, has arisen from the investment side of the business rather than from the commercial and actuarial sides. On the whole, the investment policy followed has so far emerged successfully from the searching tests imposed upon it by the events of recent years but the future remains obscure and there are many lessons still to be learned.
Life Assurance Companies, by the very nature of their business, are compelled to interest themselves in the problems of long-term investment, and it is worth while, therefore, to enquire whether the ordeal through which they have passed has revealed any defects in the present machinery of long-term lending and investing or in the basic principles which have heretofore governed investment policy.
During recent years the normal machinery for making international payments has suffered progressive dislocation, amounting in some cases to complete breakdown. This failure of foreign exchange markets to function properly affects insurance business in so many ways that it is fitting that this Institute should give some consideration to the problems that have arisen and to the efforts that have so far been made to solve them.
In October 1921, I had the honour of submitting to the Institute the results of an investigation into the mortality experienced by life tenants under reversions (J.I.A., vol. liii, pp. 1-42).
The investigation led to certain interesting and, I hope, useful conclusions, among them being the fact that there was no evidence that vendors of reversions exercise selection against purchasers to a significant extent and that in consequence the mortality of life tenants could be sufficiently represented by a full aggregate table.
The necessity for a reliable investigation into the mortality experienced by life tenants under reversions has long been felt.
So far as I am aware, the only published experience is that given by Mr. Neil Campbell in a paper read before the Faculty of Actuaries in 1902 (T.F.A., vol. i, p. 79), although doubtless individual offices have at various times examined the mortality in respect of their own purchases. The investigation by Mr. Campbell was of considerable service in indicating the trend of the mortality, but was unfortunately of limited value inasmuch as it was based upon only 226 lives producing 2,097 years of exposure to risk.