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Cognitive deficits are an important factor in the pathogenesis of psychosis. Subjective cognitive complaints (SCCs) are often considered to be a precursor of objective cognitive deficits, but there are no studies specifically on SCC and psychotic experiences (PE). Thus, we assessed the association between SCC and PE using data from 48 low- and middle-income countries.
Community-based cross-sectional data of the World Health Survey were analysed. Two questions on subjective memory and learning complaints in the past 30 days were used to create a SCC scale ranging from 0 to 10 with higher scores representing more severe SCC. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview was used to identify past 12-month PE. Multivariable logistic regression and mediation analyses were performed.
The final sample consisted of 224 842 adults aged ⩾18 years [mean (SD) age 38.3 (16.0) years; 49.3% males]. After adjustment for sociodemographic factors, a one-unit increase in the SCC scale was associated with a 1.17 (95% CI 1.16–1.18) times higher odds for PE in the overall sample, with this association being more pronounced in younger individuals: age 18–44 years OR = 1.19 (95% CI 1.17–1.20); 45–64 years OR = 1.15 (95% CI 1.12–1.17); ⩾65 years OR = 1.14 (95% CI 1.09–1.19). Collectively, other mental health conditions (perceived stress, depression, anxiety, sleep problems) explained 43.4% of this association, and chronic physical conditions partially explained the association but to a lesser extent (11.8%).
SCC were associated with PE. Future longitudinal studies are needed to understand temporal associations and causal inferences, while the utility of SCC as a risk marker for psychosis especially for young adults should be scrutinised.
Radiocarbon (14C) is a key radionuclide in the assessment of the safety of underground geological disposal facilities for radioactive wastes, and the understanding of the 14C behavior in stainless steel may lead to a re-evaluation of the near-surface repository for the disposal of wastes containing this radionuclide in high concentrations. To achieve this objective, leaching experiments were planned for two different scenarios. The first is where the leaching solution, NaOH solution of pH ca. 12 in aerobic conditions, simulates the expected conditions in a cement-based near-surface repository over long time periods. The other one uses an acid solution of 1M H3PO4, which has been proved as a high efficiency chemical removal agent of 14C in graphite. The development of both analytical methods and protocols to measure the release of 14C from the activated steel samples and the speciation in the aqueous and gaseous phase has been undertaken as part of the EC CAST (CArbon-14 Source Term) project. Analytical methods, suitable for identifying and quantifying low molecular weight organic molecules, comprise ion chromatography (IC) and gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS); they are described for aqueous and gaseous samples, respectively. In this paper the preparation of leaching experiments to measure the release of 14C and the results obtained are described.
Temporal frequency distributions of radiocarbon ages from archaeological sites can be used as a proxy record for human paleodemography after correction for taphonomic bias, or the time dependent loss of sediments due to erosion. Surovell et al. (2009) presented a global taphonomic correction model based on radiocarbon ages from volcanic deposits that has since been used by several researchers for paleodemographic reconstructions. This method is based on the assumption that the best indicator of relative human population density over time is not the absolute abundance of archaeological materials over time but, instead, the abundance of cultural material relative to geologic contexts in which those materials can occur. To verify the Surovell et al. model, in this paper we take 2457 radiocarbon ages from geologic contexts collected from published literature to create an independent model of taphonomic bias. We find that between 1 and 39 ka, the two curves are largely indistinguishable, but that they diverge in recent times. This suggests that current global models of taphonomic correction can be used to reconstruct human populations for the late Quaternary, but that demographic reconstructions remain challenging for the most recent two millennia.
Whole-crop maize forage was ensiled without inoculant (control), inoculated with Lactobacillus buchneri and L. plantarum at a rate of 1 × 105 cfu/g fresh forage per bacterium (LBLP), or inoculated with Bacillus subtilis and L. plantarum at a rate 1 × 105 cfu/g fresh forage per bacterium (BSLP) with the goal to investigate the growth performance of finishing feedlot lambs. Thirty Dorper × Santa Ines lambs (29 ± 3.5 kg initial body weight) were used in the feedlot programme and assigned (n = 10) to one of three diets containing control, LBLP or BSLP silages in a 60:40 forage:concentrate ratio. Inoculation of maize silage did not alter dry matter intake (overall mean = 1.16 kg/day) and average daily gain (overall mean = 0.217 kg/day) of lambs. Consequently, feed efficiency remained unchanged. Inoculation of maize silage did not alter carcass and meat traits of lambs, with the exception of meat colour, wherein yellowness (b*) decreased by feeding LBLP and BSLP diets compared with the untreated diet. Regarding ruminal fermentation, there was an interaction between diets and the interval at which ruminal fluid was sampled for determining total volatile fatty acid concentration, but inoculation yielded no obvious results. In conclusion, the use of diets based on maize silage inoculated with L. plantarum combined with either L. buchneri or B. subtilis did not display relevant effects on growth performance of lambs; this response might be related to the limited impact of these bacterial inoculants on silage composition.
In many parts of the world, mostly low- and middle-income countries, timely diagnosis and repair of congenital heart diseases (CHDs) is not feasible for a variety of reasons. In these regions, economic growth has enabled the development of cardiac units that manage patients with CHD presenting later than would be ideal, often after the window for early stabilisation – transposition of the great arteries, coarctation of the aorta – or for lower-risk surgery in infancy – left-to-right shunts or cyanotic conditions. As a result, patients may have suffered organ dysfunction, manifest signs of pulmonary vascular disease, or the sequelae of profound cyanosis and polycythaemia. Late presentation poses unique clinical and ethical challenges in decision making regarding operability or surgical candidacy, surgical strategy, and perioperative intensive care management.
Leishmaniasis is a complex of zoonotic diseases caused by parasites of the genus Leishmania, which can develop in domestic as well as wild animals and humans throughout the world. Currently, this disease is spreading in rural and urban areas of non-endemic regions in Brazil. Recently, bats have gained epidemiological significance in leishmaniasis due to its close relationship with human settlements. In this study, we investigated the presence of Leishmania spp. DNA in blood samples from 448 bats belonging to four families representing 20 species that were captured in the Triangulo Mineiro and Alto Paranaiba areas of Minas Gerais State (non-endemic areas for leishmaniasis), Brazil. Leishmania spp. DNA was detected in 8·0% of the blood samples, 41·6% of which were Leishmania infantum, 38·9% Leishmania amazonensis and 19·4% Leishmania braziliensis. No positive correlation was found between Leishmania spp. and bat food source. The species with more infection rates were the insectivorous bats Eumops perotis; 22·2% (4/18) of which tested positive for Leishmania DNA. The presence of Leishmania in the bat blood samples, as observed in this study, represents epidemiological importance due to the absence of Leishmaniasis cases in the region.
Using data collected between 2004 and 2008 from the National Politics Studies, this study explores the impact of race on the likelihood of attending worship settings that provide supportive services for and preach sermons about immigrants. It also considers the degree to which attending such worship settings associate with the perceptions that Whites, Blacks, and Hispanics hold of immigrants. We find that while Hispanics are more likely than Whites and Blacks to attend such “immigrant-conscious” congregations, attending such congregations more strongly correlates with Whites rejecting anti-immigrant frames and accepting positive frames than is the case for Blacks and Hispanics.
In this work we give a revised distance (250 ± 20 pc) to the star VV Serpentis and its associated dark cloud complex, redetermine its spectral type (= A2e, see also Herbig, 1960, ApJ Suppl. 4, 337), and report on observations of previously unknown associated emission line stars, and of stars with associated reflection nebulosity (R-stars) belonging to the same region.
The trophic ecology of the chihuil sea catfish Bagre panamensis was studied through high-resolution variations in its feeding habits and trophic position (TP) in the SE Gulf of California, relevant to sex, size and season. The combined use of stomach content (SCA) and stable isotope analysis (SIA) allowed us to perform these analyses and also estimate the TP of its preys. Results of this study show that the chihuil sea catfish is a generalist and opportunistic omnivore predator that consumes primarily demersal fish and peneid shrimps. Its diet did not vary with climatic season (rainy or dry), size or sex. Results from the SIA indicated high plasticity in habitat use and prey species. The estimated TP value was 4.19, which indicates a tertiary consumer from the soft bottom demersal community in the SE Gulf of California, preying on lower trophic levels, which aids in understanding the species' trophic role in the food web. Because this species and its prey are important to artisanal and industrial fisheries in the Gulf of California, diet assimilation information is useful for the potential establishment of an ecosystem-based fisheries management in the area.
The high resolution obtained through the use of VLBI gives an unique opportunity to directly observe the interaction of an expanding radio supernova with its surrounding medium. We present here results from our VLBI observations of the young supernovae SN 1979C, SN 1986J, and SN 2001gd.
An accurate measurement of the expansion deceleration of SN 1993J depends on how well the shell size and its emission structure are known. With the goal of determining the emission structure of the shell, we have developed a new approach, which we call “Green Function Deconvolution” (GFD), based on iterative use of Green functions on the sky plane to reconstruct the radial emission profiles of spherically symmetric sources. This approach works reasonably well in the case of optically thin emitting sources, which is not the case for SN 1993J since, as we find, the emission from the central part of SN 1993J further away from us is strongly or totally absorbed. We describe the GFD method and present our findings about the emission structure of the shell. We also present the expansion of SN 1993J based on a method complementary to GFD, which will be described elsewhere.
From VLBI observations of 11 FR I radio galaxies we find that: 1. parsec scale jets are relativistic; 2. 3C 264 shows a relativistic jet decelerating moving from the core to the extended lobes; 3. 3C 338 is a source with asymmetric parsec scale structure and morphological changes, implying proper motion on both sides of the source; 4. 1144+35 is an extended low power radio galaxy with an apparent superluminal motion in its parsec scale radio structure.
The results of photometric and spectroscopic observations of dwarf novae are presented. The data were obtained during an international program of multiwavelength observations, held in 1986 February at several observatories, of dwarf novae during the first and subsequent days of outburst. During the campaign numerous dwarf novae were monitored in order to catch them in outburst. Preliminary results and analysis of some objects are reported elsewhere. A total of 30 dwarf novae were observed in the northern and southern hemispheres. Among them 37% were caught in outburst, including 10% on the rise to outburst and 17% in decline. Photometric observations were carried out in the UBVRI system and colour indexes were calculated.
Tensile strength of concrete is limited and therefore is sensitive to crack formation. Steel reinforcement is added to bear the tensile forces; nonetheless, this does not completely omit crack formation. Repair of cracks in concrete is time-consuming and expensive. Self-sealing and self-healing of cracks upon appearance would therefore be a convenient property. We propose a mechanism to obtain self-repair of the concrete by adding soluble silicates (ASS) which will induce a self-sealing and self-healing process catalyzed by natural periods of wet and dry states of the concrete. Self-sealing approaches prevent the ingress of harsh chemical substances which may deteriorate the concrete matrix. This can be achieved by self-healing of concrete cracks (e.g. further cement hydration, calcium carbonate precipitation) and autonomous healing (e.g. further hydration of partially soluble silicates added as healing agents). The autogenous healing efficiency depends on the amount of deposited reaction products (ASS), its solubility (ratio of calcium to sodium silicate), the availability of water, and the crack width (restricted by adding microfibers). The self-sealing efficiency is generally evaluated by measuring the decrease in water permeability and air flow through the crack. The healing efficiency is usually evaluated by testing concrete´s regain in mechanical properties after crack formation; by reloading the cracked and autonomously healed specimen and comparing the obtained mechanical properties with the original ones. Self-sealing and self-healing of concrete gives a broad perspective and new possibilities to make future concrete structures more durable.
The ultimate goal of upper-limb rehabilitation after stroke is to promote real-world use, that is, use of the paretic upper-limb in everyday activities outside the clinic or laboratory. Although real-world use can be collected through self-report questionnaires, an objective indicator is preferred. Accelerometers are a promising tool. The current paper aims to explore the feasibility of accelerometers to measure upper-limb use after stroke and discuss the translation of this measurement tool into clinical practice. Accelerometers are non-invasive, wearable sensors that measure movement in arbitrary units called activity counts. Research to date indicates that activity counts are a reliable and valid index of upper-limb use. While most accelerometers are unable to distinguish between the type and quality of movements performed, recent advancements have used accelerometry data to produce clinically meaningful information for clinicians, patients, family and care givers. Despite this, widespread uptake in research and clinical environments remains limited. If uptake was enhanced, we could build a deeper understanding of how people with stroke use their arm in real-world environments. In order to facilitate greater uptake, however, there is a need for greater consistency in protocol development, accelerometer application and data interpretation.
Stratigraphy, geochemistry and radiocarbon dating of a succession of sediment in the Santiaguillo Basin (central-northern Mexico) help reconstruct the millennial-scale dynamics of hydrological variability that occurred in the southern part of western subtropical North America since the late last glacial. Runoff was generally above average during the late last glacial from ~ 27 to 18 ka. Following this interval, runoff decreased and deposition of authigenic carbonate and aeolian transported sediment increased until ~ 4 ka. Heinrich 1 and 2, and Younger Dryas were intervals of reduced runoff and increased aeolian activity. The wetter climate of central-northern Mexico and arid conditions in north–northwestern Mexico during the late last glacial were probably related to formation of tropical cyclones in the eastern North Pacific during the autumn with restricted rainfall swaths and an absent/weaker North American Monsoon. Enhanced North American Monsoon and tropical cyclones with expanded rainfall swaths brought more summer and autumn precipitation to a broader region extending from the central-northern Mexico to the continental interiors of southwestern US during the early Holocene.
The ratio of binaries among the WR stars is subject of many discussions essentially due to two reasons: First, the important role that the presence of a companion can play in the evolution of a massive star and as consequence in the interpretation of the evolutionary phase of the WR stars. Second, the strong difficulty to determine the binarity of the WR stars due to the width of the spectral lines.