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Respiratory viral infections are a leading cause of disease worldwide. A variety of respiratory viruses produce infections in humans with effects ranging from asymptomatic to life-treathening. Standard surveillance systems typically only target severe infections (ED outpatients, hospitalisations, deaths) and fail to track asymptomatic or mild infections. Here we performed a large-scale community study across multiple age groups to assess the pathogenicity of 18 respiratory viruses. We enrolled 214 individuals at multiple New York City locations and tested weekly for respiratory viral pathogens, irrespective of symptom status, from fall 2016 to spring 2018. We combined these test results with participant-provided daily records of cold and flu symptoms and used this information to characterise symptom severity by virus and age category. Asymptomatic infection rates exceeded 70% for most viruses, excepting influenza and human metapneumovirus, which produced significantly more severe outcomes. Symptoms were negatively associated with infection frequency, with children displaying the lowest score among age groups. Upper respiratory manifestations were most common for all viruses, whereas systemic effects were less typical. These findings indicate a high burden of asymptomatic respiratory virus infection exists in the general population.
Transoral laser microsurgery is an increasingly common treatment modality for glottic carcinoma. This study aimed to determine the effect of age, gender, stage and time on voice-related quality of life using the Voice Handicap Index-10.
Primary early glottic carcinoma patients treated with transoral laser microsurgery were included in the study. Self-reported Voice Handicap Index testing was completed pre-operatively, three months post-operatively, and yearly at follow-up appointments.
Voice Handicap Index improvement was found to be dependent on age and tumour stage, while no significant differences were found in Voice Handicap Index for gender. Voice Handicap Index score was significantly improved at 12 months and 24 months. Time versus Voice Handicap Index modelling revealed a preference for non-linear over linear regression.
Age and stage are important factors, as younger patients with more advanced tumours show greater voice improvement post-operatively. Patient's Voice Handicap Index is predicted to have 95 per cent of maximal improvement by 5.5 months post-operatively.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: The goal of this study was to investigate the associations of systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and pulse pressure (PP) with knee articular cartilage composition using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based T2 relaxation time measurements in study participants from the Osteoarthritis Initiative (OAI). METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: In this longitudinal study, 1,139 participants from the OAI, a multi-center, observational study of the evolution of knee OA, were selected using the following inclusion criteria: right knee Kellgren Lawrence (KL) score (radiographic classification of OA severity) 0-2 indicating no to mild radiographic OA at baseline, no history of rheumatoid arthritis at baseline, available blood pressure measurements at baseline, available T2 measurements in at least three knee compartments at baseline and 48-month follow-up. Linear regression models were performed using standardized values for SBP, DBP and PP as primary predictors and change in cartilage T2 over 48 months, a measure of cartilage matrix quality and degeneration, as the primary outcome. PP was defined as SBP minus DBP. Change in superficial layer and deep layer cartilage T2, which reflect differences in the laminar organization of knee cartilage T2, were also included as outcomes. Statistical models were adjusted for common risk factors for knee OA (baseline age, sex, BMI, KL score) as well as number of currently used anti-hypertensive medications (AHM) reported at baseline. We included AHMs whose primary indication was the treatment of hypertension including beta blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARB), thiazides, chlorthalidone, dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers (CCB) and aliskiren. All predictors, outcomes and covariates (except sex) were analyzed as continuous variables. We included interaction terms in the models to evaluate whether the covariates (age, sex, BMI, KL score, number of AHMs) modified the association of SBP, DBP and PP with cartilage T2. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: The average age of all study participants was 58.8 years (SD ± 8.6) with a higher proportion of men (59.4%), average body mass index (BMI) was 28.3 (SD ± 4.5), average SBP was 122.4 (SD ± 15.4) mmHg, average DBP was 75.5 (SD ± 9.6) mmHg and 469 (38.1%) study participants were taking at least one AHM. Higher baseline DBP was significantly associated with a faster increase in global T2 (0.22 [0.10,0.35], P < 0.001), global deep layer T2 (0.20 [0.03,0.36], P < 0.022) and global superficial layer T2 (0.39 [0.20,0.58], P < 0.001). These associations were significant in both unadjusted and the models adjusted for age, sex, BMI and KL score. No significant associations were found between SBP or PP and cartilage T2 and no significant interactions were found between SBP, DBP, PP and the covariates. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Higher baseline DBP was associated with a faster increase in knee cartilage T2, suggesting accelerated cartilage degeneration. This association was stronger for the superficial layer of knee cartilage T2 compared to the deep layer. Although further basic mechanistic studies are needed to elucidate the underlying pathophysiology of this relationship, these results suggest lowering DBP may influence knee OA.
We sought to define the prevalence of echocardiographic abnormalities in long-term survivors of paediatric hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and determine the utility of screening in asymptomatic patients. We analysed echocardiograms performed on survivors who underwent hematopoietic stem cell transplantation from 1982 to 2006. A total of 389 patients were alive in 2017, with 114 having an echocardiogram obtained ⩾5 years post-infusion. A total of 95 patients had echocardiogram performed for routine surveillance. The mean time post-hematopoietic stem cell transplantation was 13 years. Of 95 patients, 77 (82.1%) had ejection fraction measured, and 10/77 (13.0%) had ejection fraction z-scores ⩽−2.0, which is abnormally low. Those patients with abnormal ejection fraction were significantly more likely to have been exposed to anthracyclines or total body irradiation. Among individuals who received neither anthracyclines nor total body irradiation, only 1/31 (3.2%) was found to have an abnormal ejection fraction of 51.4%, z-score −2.73. In the cohort of 77 patients, the negative predictive value of having a normal ejection fraction given no exposure to total body irradiation or anthracyclines was 96.7% at 95% confidence interval (83.3–99.8%). Systolic dysfunction is relatively common in long-term survivors of paediatric hematopoietic stem cell transplantation who have received anthracyclines or total body irradiation. Survivors who are asymptomatic and did not receive radiation or anthracyclines likely do not require surveillance echocardiograms, unless otherwise indicated.
We believe that Whitehouse's model could be extended in a way that can help us make sense of self-radicalised individuals who are not active in cliques. We believe that conceptual ties may be important to this process and present a brief analysis of a database collected by the national consortium for the Study of Terrorism and Responses to Terrorism (START), to suggest future research to complement Whitehouse's proposal.
Introduction: Outside of key conditions such as cardiac arrest and trauma, little is known about the epidemiology of mortality of all transported EMS patients. The objective of this study is to describe characteristics of EMS patients who after transport die in a health care facility. Methods: EMS transport events over one year (April, 2015-16) from a BLS/ALS system serving an urban/rural population of approximately 2 million were linked with in-hospital datasets to determine proportion of all-cause in-hospital mortality by Medical Priority Dispatch System (MPDS) determinant (911 call triage system), age in years (>=18 yrs. - adult, <=17 yrs. - pediatric), sex, day of week, season, time (in six hour periods), and emergency department Canadian Triage and Acuity Scale (CTAS). The MPDS card, patient chief complaint, and ED diagnosis category (International Classification of Disease v.10 - Canadian) with the highest proportion of mortality are also reported. Analyses included two-sided t-test or chi-square with alpha <0.05. Results: A total of 239,534 EMS events resulted in 159,507 patient transports; 141,114 were included for analysis after duplicate removal (89.1% linkage), with 127,867 reporting final healthcare system outcome. There were 4,269 who died (3.3%; 95%CI 3.2%, 3.4%). The proportion of mortality by MPDS determinant was, from most to least critical 911 call, Echo (7.3%), Delta (37.2%), Charlie (31.3%), Bravo (5.8%), Alpha (18.3%), and Omega (0.3%). For adults the mean age of survivors was less than non-survivors (57.7 vs. 75.8; p<0.001), but pediatric survivors were older than non-survivors (8.7 vs. 2.8; p<0.001). There were more males that died than females (53.0% vs. 47.0%; p<0.001). There was no statistically significant difference in the day of week (p=0.592), but there was by season with the highest mortality in winter (27.1%; p=0.045). The highest mortality occurred with patients presenting to EMS between 0600-1200 hours (34.6%), and the lowest between 0000-0600 hours (11.8%; p<0.001). Mortality by CTAS was category 1 (27.1%), 2 (36.7%), 3 (29.9%), 4 (4.3%), and 5 (0.5%). The highest mortality was seen in MPDS card 26-Sick Person (specific diagnosis) (19.1%), chief complaint shortness of breath (19.3%), and ED diagnoses pertaining to the circulatory system (31.1%). Conclusion: Significant all-cause in-hospital mortality differences were found between event, patient, and clinical characteristics. These data provide foundational and hypothesis generating knowledge regarding mortality in transported EMS patients that can be used to guide research and training. Future research should further explore the characteristics of those that access health care through the EMS system.
Introduction: EMS time factors such as total prehospital, activation, response, scene and transport intervals have been used as a measure of EMS system quality with the assumption that shorter EMS time factors save lives. The objective was to assess in adults and children accessing ground EMS (population), whether operational time factors (intervention and control) were associated with survival at hospital discharge (outcome). Methods: Medline, EMBASE, and CINAHL were searched up to January 2015 for articles reporting original data that associated EMS operational time factors and survival. Conference abstracts and non-English language articles were excluded. Two investigators independently assessed the candidate titles, abstracts, and full text with discrepant reviews resolved by consensus. Risk of bias was assessed using GRADE. Results: A total of 10,151 abstracts were screened for potential inclusion, 199 articles were reviewed in full-text, and 73 met inclusion criteria. Amongst included studies, 49 investigated response time, while 24 investigated other time factors. All articles were observational studies. Amongst the 14 (28.6%) studies where response time was the primary analysis, statistically significant associations between shorter response time and increased survival were found in 5 of 7 cardiac arrest, 1 of 5 general EMS population, and 0 of 2 trauma studies. Other time factors were reported in the primary analysis in 10 (41.7%) studies. One study reported shorter combined scene and transport intervals associated with increased survival in acute heart failure patients. Two studies in trauma patients had somewhat conflicting results with one study reporting shorter prehospital interval associated with increased survival whereas the other reported increased survival associated with longer scene and transport intervals. Study design, analysis, and methodological quality were of considerable variability, and thus, meta-analyses were not possible. Conclusion: There is a substantial body of literature describing the association between EMS time factors and survival, but evidence informing these relationships are heterogeneous and complex. Important details such as patient population, EMS system characteristics, and analytical approach must be taken into consideration to appropriately translate these findings to practice. These results will be important for EMS leaders wishing to create evidence-based time policies.
Single case designs (SCDs) allow researchers to objectively evaluate the impact of an intervention by repeatedly measuring a dependent variable across baseline and intervention conditions. Rooted in baseline logic, SCDs evaluate change over time, with each participant serving as his or her own control during the course of a study. Formative and summative evaluation of data is critical to determining causal relations. Visual analysis involves evaluation of level, trend, variability, consistency, overlap, and immediacy of effects within (baseline and intervention) and between conditions (baseline to intervention). The purpose of this paper is to highlight the process for visually analysing data collected in the context of a SCD and to provide structures and procedures for evaluating the six data characteristics of interest. A checklist with dichotomous responses (i.e., yes/no) is presented to facilitate implementation and reporting of systematic visual analysis.
Our LAQ paper concluded that cinnabar pigment found by archaeologists in northern Peru was produced at Huancavelica in south-central Peru. In contrast, Bruhns and her colleagues suggest the mines near Azogues in southern Ecuador were an important cinnabar source for prehispanic Ecuador and Peru. In their commentary, they introduce new historic and geologic information to support their view, but a critical analysis demonstrates that it does not undermine our conclusions.
This study aimed to examine the epidemiology and treatment outcomes of community-onset purulent staphylococcal skin and soft tissue infections (SSTI) in Central Australia. We performed a prospective observational study of patients hospitalised with community-onset purulent staphylococcal SSTI (n = 160). Indigenous patients accounted for 78% of cases. Patients were predominantly young adults; however, there were high rates of co-morbid disease. Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) was the dominant phenotype, accounting for 60% of cases. Hospitalisation during the preceding 6 months, and haemodialysis dependence were significant predictors of CA-MRSA infection on univariate analysis. Clinical presentation and treatment outcomes were found to be comparable for methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) and methicillin-resistant cases. All MRSA isolates were characterised as non-multi-resistant, with this term used interchangeably with CA-MRSA in this analysis. We did not find an association between receipt of an active antimicrobial agent within the first 48 h, and progression of infection; need for further surgical debridement; unplanned General Practitioner or hospital re-presentation; or need for further antibiotics. At least one adverse outcome was experienced by 39% of patients. Clindamycin resistance was common, while rates of trimethoprim–sulfamethoxazole resistance were low. This study suggested the possibility of healthcare-associated transmission of CA-MRSA. This is the first Australian report of CA-MRSA superseding MSSA as the cause of community onset staphylococcal SSTI.
Immigrants and their children who return to their country of origin to visit friends and relatives (VFR) are at increased risk of acquiring infectious diseases compared to other travellers. VFR travel is an important disease control issue, as one quarter of Australia's population are foreign-born and one quarter of departing Australian international travellers are visiting friends and relatives. We conducted a 1-year prospective enhanced surveillance study in New South Wales and Victoria, Australia to determine the contribution of VFR travel to notifiable diseases associated with travel, including typhoid, paratyphoid, measles, hepatitis A, hepatitis E, malaria and chikungunya. Additional data on characteristics of international travel were collected. Recent international travel was reported by 180/222 (81%) enhanced surveillance cases, including all malaria, chikungunya and paratyphoid cases. The majority of cases who acquired infections during travel were immigrant Australians (96, 53%) or their Australian-born children (43, 24%). VFR travel was reported by 117 (65%) travel-associated cases, highest for typhoid (31/32, 97%). Cases of children (aged <18 years) (86%) were more frequently VFR travellers compared to adult travellers (57%, P < 0·001). VFR travel is an important contributor to imported disease in Australia. Communicable disease control strategies targeting these travellers, such as targeted health promotion, are likely to impact importation of these travel-related infections.
Complications from systemic inflammation are reported in neonates following exposure to cardiopulmonary bypass. Although the use of asanguinous primes can reduce these complications, in neonates, this can result in significant haemodilution, requiring addition of blood. This study investigates whether the addition of blood after institution of bypass alters the inflammatory response compared with a blood prime. Neonatal swine were randomised into four groups: blood prime, blood after bypass but before cooling, blood after cooling but before low flow, and blood after re-warming. All groups were placed on central bypass, cooled, underwent low flow, and then re-warmed for a total bypass time of 2 hours. Although haematocrit values between groups varied throughout bypass, all groups ended with a similar value. Although they spent time with a lower haematocrit, asanguinous prime groups did not have elevated lactate levels at the end of bypass compared with blood prime. Asanguinous primes released less tumour necrosis factor α than blood primes (p=0.023). Asanguinous primes with blood added on bypass produced less interleukin 10 and tumour necrosis factor α (p=0.006, 0.019). Animals receiving blood while cool also showed less interleukin 10 and tumour necrosis factor α production than those that received blood warm (p=0.026, 0.033). Asanguinous primes exhibited less oedema than blood primes, with the least body weight gain noted in the end cool group (p=0.011). This study suggests that using an asanguinous prime for neonates being cooled to deep hypothermia is practical, and the later addition of blood reduces inflammation.
The surface composition of Mars has been investigated using the Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) instrument during the mapping phase of the Mars Global Surveyor mission. The TES has mapped ~85% of the Martian surface at a resolution of 3-9 km. Separation of the atmospheric dust, water-ice cloud, CO2, water vapor, and surface components has been accomplished using radiative transfer and deconvolution. Two distinct surface compositional units have been mapped; (1) a basalt with plagioclase feldspar, Ca-rich pyroxene, minor sheet silicates; and (2) a basaltic andesite with silica glass, plagioclase, and minor pyroxene. Three large-scale (100’s km) accumulations of hematite have been found in Sinus Meridiani, Aram Chaos and Ophir/Candor Chasms. These regions are interpreted to be formed by aqueous precipitation under either ambient or hydrothermal conditions. No surfaces with detectable abundances of carbonate have been found. The albedo of the surface has been mapped with an absolute accuracy of ~1-2% and significant changes in surface albedo have occurred from the orbital measurements obtained by the Viking IRTM instrument.
Whereas Lievens and Motowidlo (2016) propose a model of situational judgment test (SJT) performance that removes the “situation” in favor of conceptualizing SJTs as a measure of general domain knowledge, we argue that the expression of general domain knowledge is in fact contingent on situational judgment. As we explain, the evidence cited by Lievens and Motowidlo against a situational component does not inherently exclude the importance of situations from SJTs and does overlook the strong support for a person–situation interaction explanation of behavior. Based on the interactionist literature—in particular, the trait activation theory (TAT) and situational strength literatures—we propose a model that both maintains the key pathways and definitions posited by Lievens and Motowidlo and integrates the situational component of SJTs.
Cinnabar ore is the source of a bright red pigment (mercury [II] sulfide, HGS), a substance that was highly valued in the Central Andes during prehispanic times. It is traditionally believed to come from Huancavelica in south-central Peru, although some scholars have argued that a prehispanic cinnabar source existed at Azogues near Cuenca in southern Ecuador. It has also been suggested that the cinnabar recovered at archaeological sites in northern Peru such as Baton Grande may have come from this putative Ecuadorian source. In this article, the historical and archaeological evidence supporting this position is evaluated and found to be insufficient to sustain the Ecuadorian Cinnabar Hypothesis. Moreover, recent mercury isotope analysis of archaeological samples from northern Peru supports the earlier hypothesis that the source of the bright red pigment, sometimes referred to as vermilion, was cinnabar ore mined in Huancavelica. This source is located over 850 km to the south of archaeological sites such as Batdn Grande, Chongoyape, and Pacopampa.
The incidence of psychotic disorders varies between geographical areas and it has been hypothesized that neighbourhood-level factors may influence this variation. It is also plausible that the duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) is associated with neighbourhood characteristics. The aims of this study were to determine whether the incidence of first-episode psychosis (FEP) and the DUP are associated with the level of social deprivation, fragmentation, social capital and population density.
All individuals with a FEP from a geographical defined catchment area over a 5-year period were included. Age-standardized incidence rates were calculated for each neighbourhood factor.
A total of 292 cases of FEP were included in the study and 45% had a diagnosis of a schizophrenia-spectrum disorder. The age standardized incidence rate of FEP in the most deprived area was 72.4 [95% confidence interval (CI) 26.4–162.7] per 100 000 person-years compared with 21.5 (95% CI 17.6–26.0) per 100 000 person-years in the most affluent areas. This represents a 3.4-fold increase in FEP incidence in the most deprived areas. The incidence of FEP was also increased in neighbourhoods that were more socially fragmented [incidence rate ratio (IRR) = 2.40, 95% CI 1.05–5.51, p = 0.04] and there was a trend for the incidence to be increased in neighbourhoods with lower social capital (IRR = 1.43, 95% CI 0.99–2.06, p = 0.05). The median DUP was 4 months and was higher in more socially fragmented neighbourhoods.
The incidence of psychotic disorders is related to neighbourhood factors and it may be useful to consider neighbourhood factors when allocating resources for early intervention services.