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High-resolution spectra emitted by laboratory plasmas provide invaluable diagnostic tools for the measurement of plasma properties. To be implemented, they require a large amount of atomic data and transition rates, which are available in several spectral codes. In this paper we present a new feature added to the CHIANTI code, which allows us to calculate the Zeeman splitting of spectral lines in the presence of a magnetic field with known intensity and orientation. When combined with the CHIANTI database and software to calculate level populations and line emissivities, this new feature returns the emissivities in all four Stokes parameters, that can be utilized for the measurement of the magnetic field inside laboratory plasma chambers, along with other plasma parameters. This new feature can be applied to the analysis of the emission of laboratory plasmas created in different devices.
Few studies have derived data-driven dietary patterns in youth in the USA. This study examined data-driven dietary patterns and their associations with BMI measures in predominantly low-income, racial/ethnic minority US youth. Data were from baseline assessments of the four Childhood Obesity Prevention and Treatment Research (COPTR) Consortium trials: NET-Works (534 2–4-year-olds), GROW (610 3–5-year-olds), GOALS (241 7–11-year-olds) and IMPACT (360 10–13-year-olds). Weight and height were measured. Children/adult proxies completed three 24-h dietary recalls. Dietary patterns were derived for each site from twenty-four food/beverage groups using k-means cluster analysis. Multivariable linear regression models examined associations of dietary patterns with BMI and percentage of the 95th BMI percentile. Healthy (produce and whole grains) and Unhealthy (fried food, savoury snacks and desserts) patterns were found in NET-Works and GROW. GROW additionally had a dairy- and sugar-sweetened beverage-based pattern. GOALS had a similar Healthy pattern and a pattern resembling a traditional Mexican diet. Associations between dietary patterns and BMI were only observed in IMPACT. In IMPACT, youth in the Sandwich (cold cuts, refined grains, cheese and miscellaneous) compared with Mixed (whole grains and desserts) cluster had significantly higher BMI (β = 0·99 (95 % CI 0·01, 1·97)) and percentage of the 95th BMI percentile (β = 4·17 (95 % CI 0·11, 8·24)). Healthy and Unhealthy patterns were the most common dietary patterns in COPTR youth, but diets may differ according to age, race/ethnicity or geographic location. Public health messages focused on healthy dietary substitutions may help youth mimic a dietary pattern associated with lower BMI.
In a demographic survey in 2005, 13.6% of Italians admitted to have taken CAMs during the 3 years before. A study on hospitalized patients for psychiatric reasons highlighted that 63% of them used CAM in the previous year and 79% did not mention this to their psychiatrists.
To collect the opinions about the use of CAMs in psychiatry among a group of psychiatrists and nurses working in a Mental Health Centre.
To investigate knowledge, opinions and experiences on CAMs.
A mixed qualitative-quantitative method was used: 2 focus groups were conducted in June 2011, involving 12 professionals of one Mental Health Community Centre in Modena, Italy. The audio-recordings of the focus groups were analyzed by 2 researchers, who identified the main themes with an inductive method. The participants were finally asked to fill in a respondent validation questionnaire.
Four main themes were developed:
1) advantages, and
2) disadvantages in the use of CAMs,
3) patients’ and own experiences,
4) variety of therapies under the CAM acronym.
Among the pros, 75% of respondents agreed that CAMs allow a better global approach to the patient, 58% that CAMs may improve quality of life, 66% that conventional psychiatric therapies do not solve every situation. As to disadvantages, some professionals (medical doctors) expressed skepticism on CAMs.
Being realistic, open-minded and ready to listen and cooperate: this could be the best attitude towards patients who take CAMs.
INTERMED is a patient-centered method designed to assess bio-psycho-social case complexity in general health care. It consists in a structured interview leading to definition of 20 variables by focusing on past, present and future health needs and risks of patients. The total score supports professional decision and guides to patient-oriented care.
To describe the training process on INTERMED interview and to assess its effectiveness.
A training group of 4 doctors and 4 6th-year medical students attended two-hour meetings twice a month (December 2011– March 2012). After introductory sessions on theoretical aspects and inter-trainee simulations on interviewing and scoring techniques, students were assigned the task of producing recorded clinical material, which was used to comment on interviewing skills and practice on scoring. Individual and consensus scores were collected at the end of every session and compared statistically by means of Cohen’s kappa.
Agreement between individual and consensus scores was already considerable at the beginning of the training and improved during the course (Cohen’s kappa raised from 0.39 to 0.65). The participants were interested and motivated. They expressed satisfaction for the skills acquired during the training.
A five months 20-hour training period is a reasonable time not only for learning how to master the instrument, but also for gaining the basic skills required to build a structured interview. These skills would be useful in the whole participants’ career and allowed the implementation of INTERMED as a clinical and research tool in the Modena General Hospital.
Wellness self-management is an adaptation and expansion of the illness management and recovery, an internationally recognized best practice. WSM is a recovery-oriented, curriculum-based practice designed to help adults with severe mental health problems make decisions and take action to manage symptoms and improve their quality of life.
In the present study, the Italian translation of the WSM was implemented and validated. Moreover, the impact of its application in a day hospital setting on cognitive functions, psychopathology, personal resources and real-life functioning with respect to treatment as usual (TAU) was investigated.
The study was aimed at assessing the effectiveness of a semi-structured version of WSM in a day hospital setting in patients with severe mental illness.
Fourteen patients with a diagnosis of severe mental illness were recruited and randomly assigned to either WSM or TAU. WSM participants attended four 2-hour sessions per week for 1 month, including lessons selected on the basis of the goals of participants. Both groups received weekly planned treatment in the day-hospital setting and continued their pharmacotherapy.
The two groups of patients were comparable for age, education, cognitive functioning and psychopathological severity. WSM produced a significantly greater improvement in neurocognition, psychopathology, personal resources and real-life functioning with respect to TAU.
Our results offer promising preliminary evidence that the use of WSM provides an effective complement to current mental health treatment.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Congenital heart defects (CHDs) occur in 8 of 1000 live-born children, making them common birth defects in the adolescent population. CHDs may have single gene, chromosomal, or multifactorial causes. Despite evidence that patients with CHD want information on heritability and genetics, no studies have investigated the interest or knowledge base in the adolescent population. This information is necessary as patients in adolescence take greater ownership of their health care and discuss reproductive risks with their physicians. The objectives of this survey-based study were to determine adolescents’ recall of their own heart condition, to assess patient and parent perception of the genetic contribution to the adolescent’s CHD, and to obtain information about the preferred method(s) for education. The results show that adolescent patients had good recall of their type of CHD. Less than half of adolescents and parents believed their CHD had a genetic basis or was heritable; however, adolescents with a positive family history of CHD were more likely to believe that their condition was genetic (p = 0.0005). The majority of patients were interested in receiving additional genetics education and preferred education in-person and in consultation with both parents and a physician. The adolescents who felt most competent to have discussions with their doctors regarding potential causes of their heart defect previously had a school science course which covered topics in genetics. These results provide insight into adolescents’ perceptions and understanding about their CHD and genetic risk and may inform the creation and provision of additional genetic education.
This chapter provides a brief review of missions using X-ray, gamma-ray, and neutron spectroscopy to determine the chemical composition of planetary surfaces. This chapter presents the history of planetary radiation measurements, including significant discoveries. Summary tables with links to the archived data provide a resource for readers interested in working in this field. Upcoming missions and possible future directions are described.
To investigate, through a questionnaire, older adults’ demographic and socio-economic characteristics, knowledge, attitudes and practices in terms of food safety and healthy diet; and to develop dietary and hygiene indices able to represent participants’ nutritional and food safety behaviour, exploring their association with demographic and socio-economic factors.
One-year cross-sectional study.
Gemelli Teaching Hospital (Rome, Italy).
People aged ≥65 years, Italian speaking, accessing the Centre of Ageing Medicine.
Mean age of the sample was 74 (sd 7·7) years. Subjective perception of a safe diet was high: 64·2 % of respondents believed they have a balanced diet. Interviewees got informed about proper nutrition mainly from television, magazines, newspapers, Internet (29·9 %) and from health professionals (34·8 %) such as dietitians, whereas 15·4 % from general practitioners. Regarding food safety, 33·8 % of participants reported to consume expired food, even more than once per month; between 80 and 90 % of participants reported to follow food safety practices during preparation and cooking, even though 49·3 % defrosted food at room temperature. Calculated dietary and hygiene indices showed that the elderly participants were far from having optimal nutritional and food safety behaviours.
These results suggest it is necessary to increase the awareness of older adults in the matter of healthy diet and food safety. Specific and targeted educational interventions for the elderly and their caregivers could improve the adoption of recommended food safety practices and safe nutritional behaviours among older adults.
Machiavelli's influence on David Hume's political thought is a subject of growing scholarly attention. I analyze Hume's “Of Parties in General” to show that the introduction to this essay is a critical appropriation of Machiavelli's Discourses on Livy. I argue that Hume's appropriation of Machiavelli provides a meaningful frame to an essay in which Hume will consciously build upon one of Machiavelli's most controversial teachings, that good political founding is hampered by the effects of Christianity on political thinking. My analysis contributes to our understanding of Machiavelli's influence on Hume by showing Machiavelli's imprint much beyond where it is usually the subject of debate, in Hume's political science.
Recent work by party scholars reveals a widening gap between the normative ideals we set out for political parties and the empirical evidence that reveals their deep and perhaps insurmountable shortcomings in realizing these ideals. This disjunction invites us to consider the perspective of David Hume, who offers a theory of the value and proper function of parties that is resilient to the pessimistic findings of recent empirical scholarship. I analyze Hume's writings to show that the psychological experience of party informs the opinions by which governments can be considered legitimate. Hume thus invites us to consider the essential role parties might play in securing legitimacy as that ideal is practiced or understood by citizens, independent of the ideal understandings of legitimacy currently being articulated by theorists. My analysis contributes to both recent party scholarship and to our understanding of the role of parties in Hume's theory of allegiance.
Having frequent family dinners is associated with better diet quality in children; however, it is unknown whether the frequency of certain family meal types (i.e. dinner) is more strongly associated with better child weight and diet quality compared with other meal types (i.e. breakfast, lunch). Thus, the current study examined the frequency of eating breakfast, lunch or dinner family meals and associations with pre-school children’s overall diet quality (HEI-2010) and BMI percentile.
Cross-sectional baseline data (2012–2014) from two randomized controlled childhood obesity prevention trials, NET-Works and GROW, were analysed together.
Studies were carried out in community and in-home settings in urban areas of Minnesota and Tennessee, USA.
Parent–child (ages 2–5 years) pairs from Minnesota (n 222 non-Hispanics; n 312 Hispanics) and Tennessee (n 545 Hispanics; n 55 non-Hispanics) participated in the study.
Over 80 % of families ate breakfast or lunch family meals at least once per week. Over 65 % of families ate dinner family meals ≥5 times/week. Frequency of breakfast family meals and total weekly family meals were significantly associated with healthier diet quality for non-Hispanic pre-school children (P<0·05), but not for Hispanic children. Family meal frequency by meal type was not associated with BMI percentile for non-Hispanic or Hispanic pre-school children.
Breakfast family meal frequency and total weekly family meal frequency were associated with healthier diet quality in non-Hispanic pre-school children but not in Hispanic children. Longitudinal research is needed to clarify the association between family meal type and child diet quality and BMI percentile.
The Coronal Solar Magnetism Observatory (CoSMO) is a proposed new facility led by the High Altitude Observatory and a consortium of partners to measure magnetic field and plasma properties in a large (one degree) field of view extending down to the inner parts of the solar corona. CoSMO is intended as a research facility that will advance the understanding and prediction of space weather. The instrumentation elements of CoSMO are: a white-light coronagraph (KCor), already operational at the Mauna Loa Solar Observatory (MLSO); the Chromosphere and Prominence Magnetometer (ChroMag), due for deployment to MLSO next year; and the CoSMO Large Coronagraph (LC) which has completed Preliminary Design Review.
We present a new technique to study joint observations of EUV spectral line intensities and in situ charge states of the fast solar wind. We solve the time-dependent equation for ionization and recombination for a chosen element and calculate the charge state evolution along the open magnetic fields for elements such as C, O, Ne, Mg, Si and Fe. Comparing predicted spectral lines intensities above the limb and in situ charge states to observations from SOHO/SUMER and Ulysses/SWICS, we test how well the modelled thermodynamic parameters of the solar wind reproduce observations. We outline the application of this method to Solar Orbiter data.
Aggressive behaviour in school-aged children presents a significant challenge for society. If not managed, it can result in adverse academic, social, emotional, and behavioural outcomes for the child. In addition, it can create stress for families and become a significant burden for the community as these children reach adolescence and adulthood, and engage in antisocial behaviours. Using a three-step exploratory analytical strategy, this study explored parent and child reports of a diverse range of underlying developmental and clinical variables that have been identified in the literature as predictors of aggressive child behaviour, and which could be addressed within an Australian school or community context. A total of 57 children and their parents were recruited from a referral-based Western Australian child mental health service, and the wider community. A group of 31 clinically aggressive children were identified and compared to a group of 26 non-aggressive children. The aggressive group was reported as having a greater prevalence of internalising symptoms, including anxiety and depression, and their aggressive behaviour was more likely to be of the callous/unemotional type, relative to their non-aggressive counterparts. Significant predictors of belonging to the aggressive group included child social problems, thought problems, attention problems, affective problems, narcissism, symptoms of ADHD and PTS, and low maternal self-esteem. Findings are presented and discussed in the context of established theories. Recommendations for principles of treatment for aggressive children and their families are suggested.
Single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) were incorporated into lithium ion battery anodes as conductive additives in mesocarbon microbead (MCMB) composites and as a free-standing support for silicon active materials. In the traditional MCMB composite, 0.5% w/w SWCNTs were used to replace 0.5% w/w SuperP conductive additives. The composite with 0.5% SWCNTs had nearly three times the conductivity which leads to improved electrochemical performance at higher discharge rates with a 20% increase in capacity at greater than a C/2 rate. The thermal stability and safety was measured using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and a 35% reduction in exothermic energy released was measured using the highly thermally conductive SWCNTs as an additive. Alternatively, free-standing SWCNT papers were coated with increasing amounts of silicon using a low pressure chemical vapor deposition technique and a silane precursor. Increasing the amount of silicon deposited led to a significant increase in specific capacity (>2000 mAh/g) and coulombic efficiency (>90%). At the highest silicon loading, the surface area of the electrode was reduced by over an order of magnitude which leads to lower solid electrolyte interface formation and improved safety as measured by DSC.
The development of advanced neonatal care and anesthesia techniques enabled patients to be intubated for prolonged periods leading to a rise in incidence of acquired subglottic stenosis and the survival of patients with ventilator-dependent respiratory failure. The decision for tracheotomy tube placement should entail a detailed thought process and individualized plan for each patient. When evaluating children for tracheotomy tube placement, it is important to communicate openly with anesthesia staff. Correct size and positioning of the tracheotomy tube can be confirmed with a post-operative chest radiograph and/or passage of a small pediatric flexible endoscope. After tracheotomy, the patient should be closely monitored in the intensive care unit for 5-7 days. Careful dissection and ligature techniques are used for anterior jugular veins and the thyroid isthmus to avoid complications. Patients with tracheotomies have been shown to exhibit difficulties with speech and language development, even after decannulation.