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This chapter provides a brief review of missions using X-ray, gamma-ray, and neutron spectroscopy to determine the chemical composition of planetary surfaces. This chapter presents the history of planetary radiation measurements, including significant discoveries. Summary tables with links to the archived data provide a resource for readers interested in working in this field. Upcoming missions and possible future directions are described.
To investigate, through a questionnaire, older adults’ demographic and socio-economic characteristics, knowledge, attitudes and practices in terms of food safety and healthy diet; and to develop dietary and hygiene indices able to represent participants’ nutritional and food safety behaviour, exploring their association with demographic and socio-economic factors.
One-year cross-sectional study.
Gemelli Teaching Hospital (Rome, Italy).
People aged ≥65 years, Italian speaking, accessing the Centre of Ageing Medicine.
Mean age of the sample was 74 (sd 7·7) years. Subjective perception of a safe diet was high: 64·2 % of respondents believed they have a balanced diet. Interviewees got informed about proper nutrition mainly from television, magazines, newspapers, Internet (29·9 %) and from health professionals (34·8 %) such as dietitians, whereas 15·4 % from general practitioners. Regarding food safety, 33·8 % of participants reported to consume expired food, even more than once per month; between 80 and 90 % of participants reported to follow food safety practices during preparation and cooking, even though 49·3 % defrosted food at room temperature. Calculated dietary and hygiene indices showed that the elderly participants were far from having optimal nutritional and food safety behaviours.
These results suggest it is necessary to increase the awareness of older adults in the matter of healthy diet and food safety. Specific and targeted educational interventions for the elderly and their caregivers could improve the adoption of recommended food safety practices and safe nutritional behaviours among older adults.
Machiavelli's influence on David Hume's political thought is a subject of growing scholarly attention. I analyze Hume's “Of Parties in General” to show that the introduction to this essay is a critical appropriation of Machiavelli's Discourses on Livy. I argue that Hume's appropriation of Machiavelli provides a meaningful frame to an essay in which Hume will consciously build upon one of Machiavelli's most controversial teachings, that good political founding is hampered by the effects of Christianity on political thinking. My analysis contributes to our understanding of Machiavelli's influence on Hume by showing Machiavelli's imprint much beyond where it is usually the subject of debate, in Hume's political science.
Recent work by party scholars reveals a widening gap between the normative ideals we set out for political parties and the empirical evidence that reveals their deep and perhaps insurmountable shortcomings in realizing these ideals. This disjunction invites us to consider the perspective of David Hume, who offers a theory of the value and proper function of parties that is resilient to the pessimistic findings of recent empirical scholarship. I analyze Hume's writings to show that the psychological experience of party informs the opinions by which governments can be considered legitimate. Hume thus invites us to consider the essential role parties might play in securing legitimacy as that ideal is practiced or understood by citizens, independent of the ideal understandings of legitimacy currently being articulated by theorists. My analysis contributes to both recent party scholarship and to our understanding of the role of parties in Hume's theory of allegiance.
Having frequent family dinners is associated with better diet quality in children; however, it is unknown whether the frequency of certain family meal types (i.e. dinner) is more strongly associated with better child weight and diet quality compared with other meal types (i.e. breakfast, lunch). Thus, the current study examined the frequency of eating breakfast, lunch or dinner family meals and associations with pre-school children’s overall diet quality (HEI-2010) and BMI percentile.
Cross-sectional baseline data (2012–2014) from two randomized controlled childhood obesity prevention trials, NET-Works and GROW, were analysed together.
Studies were carried out in community and in-home settings in urban areas of Minnesota and Tennessee, USA.
Parent–child (ages 2–5 years) pairs from Minnesota (n 222 non-Hispanics; n 312 Hispanics) and Tennessee (n 545 Hispanics; n 55 non-Hispanics) participated in the study.
Over 80 % of families ate breakfast or lunch family meals at least once per week. Over 65 % of families ate dinner family meals ≥5 times/week. Frequency of breakfast family meals and total weekly family meals were significantly associated with healthier diet quality for non-Hispanic pre-school children (P<0·05), but not for Hispanic children. Family meal frequency by meal type was not associated with BMI percentile for non-Hispanic or Hispanic pre-school children.
Breakfast family meal frequency and total weekly family meal frequency were associated with healthier diet quality in non-Hispanic pre-school children but not in Hispanic children. Longitudinal research is needed to clarify the association between family meal type and child diet quality and BMI percentile.
The Coronal Solar Magnetism Observatory (CoSMO) is a proposed new facility led by the High Altitude Observatory and a consortium of partners to measure magnetic field and plasma properties in a large (one degree) field of view extending down to the inner parts of the solar corona. CoSMO is intended as a research facility that will advance the understanding and prediction of space weather. The instrumentation elements of CoSMO are: a white-light coronagraph (KCor), already operational at the Mauna Loa Solar Observatory (MLSO); the Chromosphere and Prominence Magnetometer (ChroMag), due for deployment to MLSO next year; and the CoSMO Large Coronagraph (LC) which has completed Preliminary Design Review.
We present a new technique to study joint observations of EUV spectral line intensities and in situ charge states of the fast solar wind. We solve the time-dependent equation for ionization and recombination for a chosen element and calculate the charge state evolution along the open magnetic fields for elements such as C, O, Ne, Mg, Si and Fe. Comparing predicted spectral lines intensities above the limb and in situ charge states to observations from SOHO/SUMER and Ulysses/SWICS, we test how well the modelled thermodynamic parameters of the solar wind reproduce observations. We outline the application of this method to Solar Orbiter data.
Observations of the 3.3—6.1 Â X-ray line and continuous spectrum during four long-duration flares with the RESIK crystal spectrometer on the Coronas-F spacecraft have been analyzed to get the absolute abundances of potassium, argon, and sulphur. A differential emission measure of the form DEM ∝ exp(—Te/T0) was found to give the most consistent results of three models including an isothermal model. We obtained K/H = (3.7 ± 1.0) x 10—7, a factor 3 times photospheric; Ar/H = (2.8 ± 0.2) x 10—6, slightly lower than photospheric; and S/H = (2.2±0.4) x 10—5, approximately equal to photospheric. These measurements are consistent with a pattern in which elements with low (< 10 eV) first ionization potential are enriched in the corona by a factor of about 3 and elements of high first ionization potential have abundances approximately equal to photospheric.
Using EUV spectra of an active region observed off the solar disk by the SOHO/SUMER spectrograph on the SOHO spacecraft, we investigate the dependence of the FIP effect on the height above the photosphere, and its relation to plasma magnetic structures present in the field of view. We also investigate the possibility of the FIP bias in the low-FIP elements to be FIP-dependent, so that different abundance anomalies must be found even within the low-FIP class of elements, which can provide important constraints on the FIP effect models.
In the present work we compare CDS observations of active region loops and predictions from a steady-state theoretical model developed assuming different functional forms of steady-state loop heating. The present work shows that in no case agreement with observations is achieved, that filamentation is present, and that despite its limitation, CDS is a precious tool for loop physics.
Frequency distributions of the intensities of EUV emission lines in the quiet Sun have in the past usually been modelled using two Gaussians. Here we test this and other distribution functions against observed distributions with exceptional statistics. The data were obtained in a number of spectral lines observed with CDS and SUMER. We show that the frequency distribution of the radiance is best modelled by a lognormal distribution. The fact that the radiance distribution of the quiet Sun including the network and the intranetwork is better reproduced by a single lognormal distribution function than by two Gaussians suggests that the same heating processes are acting in both types of features.
A flare of size M8 occurred while SUMER was recording a spectral scan above the active region NOAA 8537 at the west limb. We recorded spectra during the pre-flare phase, at flare onset, and during the decay phase of this main flare in a series of events. More than 60 flare lines were identified during this observation, which include Fe XVIII - Fe XXIII lines that provide evidence of 107 K plasmas. We also recorded lines from He-like ions, such as Ne IX, Na x, Mg XI, and Si XIII. Accurate wavelength measurements of such lines are of interest in basic atomic physics studies. Using plasma diagnostic techniques, we investigated the temporal evolution of the electron densities and temperatures during the event.
We present results from a study of extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) off-limb spectra obtained with the SUMER instrument on the spacecraft SOHO. Using EUV line intensities, we deduce plasma temperatures and densities in the off-limb solar plasma. We make use of this information to study the FIP effect in the solar corona. We have looked for FIP effect in EUV spectra obtained by SUMER in a considerable detail. In particular, we report K/Ar, Si/Ar and S/Ar relative element abundances and investigate the height dependence of the FIP bias in the solar corona. Also, we study the relative Mg/Ne abundance in an active region at the solar limb to investigate the correlation of the FIP bias with magnetic loop structures in the field of view.
In the present work EUV spectra of quiet Sun regions, observed with the Coronal Diagnostic Spectrometer (CDS) on SOHO, are analysed in order to determine the Differential Emission Measure (DEM) of selected areas of the field of view. The purpose of the present work is to study the differences between the DEM curves of the quiet Sun cell centers areas, intermediate areas and network boundaries.
Observations of the Stokes I and V profiles of the Ca II H and K lines in solar magnetic regions are presented. Least-squares fits of dI/dλ to V are obtained and the wavelength variation of the residuals, i. e. V-kdI/dλ, calculated. We find significant symmetric residuals in umbrae, which are in agreement with the effect on the V profiles due to atomic orientation, i.e. with the existence of an unequal population of the Zeeman sublevels with M>0 with respect to those with M<0.
In our x-ray calorimetry effort, we have developed several techniques which may be helpful to other groups working in this field. We are studying several different monolithic and composite calorimeter designs. In our readout configuration, the preamplifier circuit employs negative voltage feedback which allows us to accurately measure the temporal profile of the thermal pulse produced by an x-ray absorbed in a micro-calorimeter. Rise times of less than two microseconds have been observed in monolithic devices operating at .3 K. Furthermore, the feedback preamplifier can be configured for either positive or negative electro-thermal feedback. This preamplifier system is followed by an analog pulse shaping amplifier with a frequency response that can be adjusted to yield the maximum signal to noise ratio for a given thermal response of the calorimeter. In addition, we have developed several diagnostic procedures which have been useful in determining the operating and noise characteristics of our devices. These include an infrared light-emitting diode which flashes a discrete amount of energy on to the calorimeter, and a capacitively coupled test input to the preamplifier which allows us to directly determine the total noise in the thermal detection system. Finally, we are developing an adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator with a temperature control system that is designed to stabilize the 0.1 K cold stage to better than 8 μK. This is required for a resistive thermal detector with resolving power of 1000.
Observations of variable broadband linear polarization in magnetic Ap stars (due to the transverse Zeeman effect), when combined with measurements of the mean longitudinal field Bɩ can in some cases allow one to determine the angles i and β (which describe the inclination of the stellar axis of rotation and the obliquity of the magnetic axis to the rotation axis) much more accurately than these angles can be determined from observations of Bɩ alone. Such variable intrinsic linear polarization has been observed for a number of stars; the effect is generally detectable only in cool Ap stars of unusually large field strength. We discuss the data and simple modelling for the stars HD 24712 = HR 1217, HD 137909 = β CrB, and HD 62140 = 49 Cam.
The CHIANTI database contains assessed atomic energy levels, wavelengths, radiative transition probabilities and excitation rates necessary to calculate line emissivities and synthetic spectra of a large number of ions of astrophysical interest. CHIANTI also includes a suite of programs to carry out plasma diagnostics. In the present paper we describe the contents of the CHIANTI database, its main applications and its future developments.
Aggressive behaviour in school-aged children presents a significant challenge for society. If not managed, it can result in adverse academic, social, emotional, and behavioural outcomes for the child. In addition, it can create stress for families and become a significant burden for the community as these children reach adolescence and adulthood, and engage in antisocial behaviours. Using a three-step exploratory analytical strategy, this study explored parent and child reports of a diverse range of underlying developmental and clinical variables that have been identified in the literature as predictors of aggressive child behaviour, and which could be addressed within an Australian school or community context. A total of 57 children and their parents were recruited from a referral-based Western Australian child mental health service, and the wider community. A group of 31 clinically aggressive children were identified and compared to a group of 26 non-aggressive children. The aggressive group was reported as having a greater prevalence of internalising symptoms, including anxiety and depression, and their aggressive behaviour was more likely to be of the callous/unemotional type, relative to their non-aggressive counterparts. Significant predictors of belonging to the aggressive group included child social problems, thought problems, attention problems, affective problems, narcissism, symptoms of ADHD and PTS, and low maternal self-esteem. Findings are presented and discussed in the context of established theories. Recommendations for principles of treatment for aggressive children and their families are suggested.