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Intermediate morphologies of a new fossil crinoid shed light on the pathway by which crinoids acquired their distinctive arms. Apomorphies originating deep in echinoderm history among early nonblastozoan pentaradiate echinoderms distinguish Tremadocian (earliest Ordovician) crinoid arms from later taxa. The brachial series is separated from the ambulacra, part of the axial skeleton, by lateral plate fields. Cover plates are arrayed in two tiers, and floor plates expressed podial basins and pores. Later during the Early Ordovician, floor plates contacted and nestled into brachials, then were unexpressed as stereom elements entirely and cover plates were reduced to a single tier. Incorporation of these events into a parsimony analysis supports crinoid origin deep in echinoderm history separate from blastozoans (eocrinoids, ‘cystoids’). Arm morphology is exceptionally well-preserved in the late Tremadocian to early Floian Athenacrinus broweri new genus new species. Character analysis supports a hypothesis that this taxon originated early within in the disparid clade. Athenacrinus n. gen. (in Athenacrinidae new family) is the earliest-known crinoid to express what is commonly referred to as ‘compound’ or ‘biradial’ morphology. This terminology is misleading in that no evidence for implied fusion or fission of radials exists, rather it is suggested that this condition arose through disproportionate growth.
Analysis of milk BHB concentration by Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry more frequently than regular milk testing could help dairy producers in decision making, particularly if it would be possible to use small hand-stripped samples (hereinafter simply called samples) taken between dairy herd improvement (DHI) test-samples analysed using DHI algorithms. The aim of this Research Communication was to evaluate milk BHB concentration and the prevalence of elevated milk BHB concentration analysed by FTIR spectrometry compared with flow-injection analysis (SKALAR) from samples taken at different times relative to the milking. A total of 293 early-lactation cows in 44 commercial dairy herds were involved in the study. Herds were visited once during the morning milking when a routine DHI test-sample was obtained using in-line milk samplers. Additional milk samples were taken by hand stripping as follows: (1) Just before connecting the milking machine; (2) immediately after removing the milking machine; (3) 3 h after milking and (4) 6 h after milking. Milk samples were analysed for BHB concentration by FTIR and SKALAR, the latter being the reference method. Milk BHB concentration from samples taken before milking was different between FTIR and SKALAR whereas no difference was noted for other sampling times, although milk BHB concentration rose as time after milking increased. Except for DHI test-samples for which prevalence was not different between analysis methods, prevalence of elevated milk BHB concentration (≥0.15 mmol/l) was greater for FTIR analysis. However, no difference in prevalence was observed between SKALAR and FTIR when using a threshold of ≥0.20 mmol/l. In summary, hand-stripped milk samples taken any time after removing the milking machine until 6 h after the milking can be recommended for FTIR analysis of elevated milk BHB concentration prevalence provided a threshold of 0.20 mmol/l is used.
Moroccodiscus smithi represents a new cyclocystoid genus and species based on moldic specimens from the Middle Ordovician Taddrist Formation (Darriwilian) of SE Morocco. This represents the earliest articulated member of the Cyclocystoidea and is the first complete cyclocystoid described from the Ordovician of Gondwana, as well as the first cyclocystoid ever recorded from Africa. The anatomy and morphology of this new species were studied using a combination of conventional paleontological methods and nondestructive X-ray computed tomography. Because Moroccodiscus differs from other cyclocystoids, in particular by lacking cupules attached to the marginal ossicles, it is assigned to the new family Moroccodiscidae. This new taxon illustrates the relatively poorly known early diversification of these enigmatic extinct echinoderms and sheds light on the mode of life of cyclocystoids, including injuries to plate circlets during early ontogeny and folding of these disk-like specimens at the time of death. The overall thecal shape was very similar in cyclocystoids and many domal edrioasteroids, probably because they were both sessile or attached, benthic, suspension feeders. However, many oral surface, ambulacral, and marginal ring features had become very different, indicating that these two groups had either converged because of similar life modes or were only distantly related sister groups.
In response to the ‘oldest ice’ challenge initiated by the International Partnerships in Ice Core Sciences (IPICS), new rapid-access drilling technologies through glacier ice need to be developed. These will provide the information needed to qualify potential sites on the Antarctic ice sheet where the deepest section could include ice that is >1Ma old and still in good stratigraphic order. Identifying a suitable site will be a prerequisite for deploying a multi-year deep ice-core drilling operation to elucidate the cause and mechanisms of the mid-Pleistocene transition from 40 ka glacial–interglacial cycles to 100 ka cycles. As part of the ICE&LASERS/SUBGLACIOR projects, we have designed an innovative probe, SUBGLACIOR, with the aim of perforating the ice sheet down to the bedrock in a single season and continuously measuring in situ the isotopic composition of the melted water and the methane concentration in trapped gases. Here we present the general concept of the probe, as well as the various technological solutions that we have favored so far to reach this goal.
Electron self-injection and acceleration until dephasing in the blowout regime is studied for a set of initial conditions typical of recent experiments with 100-terawatt-class lasers. Two different approaches to computationally efficient, fully explicit, 3D particle-in-cell modelling are examined. First, the Cartesian code vorpal (Nieter, C. and Cary, J. R. 2004 VORPAL: a versatile plasma simulation code. J. Comput. Phys.196, 538) using a perfect-dispersion electromagnetic solver precisely describes the laser pulse and bubble dynamics, taking advantage of coarser resolution in the propagation direction, with a proportionally larger time step. Using third-order splines for macroparticles helps suppress the sampling noise while keeping the usage of computational resources modest. The second way to reduce the simulation load is using reduced-geometry codes. In our case, the quasi-cylindrical code calder-circ (Lifschitz, A. F. et al. 2009 Particle-in-cell modelling of laser-plasma interaction using Fourier decomposition. J. Comput. Phys.228(5), 1803–1814) uses decomposition of fields and currents into a set of poloidal modes, while the macroparticles move in the Cartesian 3D space. Cylindrical symmetry of the interaction allows using just two modes, reducing the computational load to roughly that of a planar Cartesian simulation while preserving the 3D nature of the interaction. This significant economy of resources allows using fine resolution in the direction of propagation and a small time step, making numerical dispersion vanishingly small, together with a large number of particles per cell, enabling good particle statistics. Quantitative agreement of two simulations indicates that these are free of numerical artefacts. Both approaches thus retrieve the physically correct evolution of the plasma bubble, recovering the intrinsic connection of electron self-injection to the nonlinear optical evolution of the driver.
The specific surface area (SSA), defined as the surface area of ice per unit mass, is an important variable characterizing the complex microstructure of snow. Its application range covers the physical evolution of snow (metamorphism), photochemistry and optical and microwave remote sensing. This paper presents a new device, POSSSUM (Profiler Of Snow Specific Surface area Using SWIR reflectance Measurement), designed to allow the rapid acquisition of SSA profiles down to ∼20 m depth and with an effective vertical resolution of 10–20 mm. POSSSUM is based on the infrared (IR) reflectance technique: A laser diode operating at 1310 nm illuminates the snow at nadir incidence angle along the face of a drilled hole. The reflected radiance is measured at three zenith angles (20°, 40° and 60°) each for two azimuth angles (0° and 180°). A second laser operating at a shorter wavelength (635 nm), which is almost insensitive to SSA, allows the distance to the snow face to be estimated. The reflected IR radiance and the distance are combined to estimate bidirectional reflectances. These reflectances are converted into hemispherical reflectances and in turn into SSA using a theoretical formulation based on an asymptotic solution of the radiative transfer equation. The evaluation and validation of POSSSUM’s SSA measurements took place in spring 2009 in the French Alps. The new method was compared with the methane adsorption technique and DUFISSS, another well-validated instrument based on the IR technique. The overall measurement error is in the range 10–15%.
In France, haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) is endemic along the Belgian border. However, this rodent-borne zoonosis caused by the Puumala virus has recently spread south to the Franche-Comté region. We investigated the space–time distribution of HFRS and evaluated the influence of environmental factors that drive the hantavirus reservoir abundance and/or the disease transmission in this area. A scan test clearly indicated space–time clustering, highlighting a single-year (2005) epidemic in the southern part of the region, preceded by a heat-wave 2 years earlier. A Bayesian regression approach showed an association between a variable reflecting biomass (normalized difference vegetation index) and HFRS incidence. The reasons why HFRS cases recently emerged remain largely unknown, and climate parameters alone do not reliably predict outbreaks. Concerted efforts that combine reservoir monitoring, surveillance, and investigation of human cases are warranted to better understand the epidemiological patterns of HFRS in this area.
Extensive field measurements and historical data have been used to re-analyse the cause of the outburst flood from Glacier de Tête Rousse that devastated the village of Saint-Gervais–Le Fayet, French Alps in 1892, causing 175 fatalities. The origin of this disaster was the rupture of an intraglacial cavity in Glacier de Tête Rousse that released 200 000 m3 of water and ice. All previous studies have concluded that the intraglacial cavity was formed from a crevasse that was filled and enlarged by meltwater. The re-analysis presented here suggests that the reservoir of the upper cavity did not originate as an enlarging crevasse. The origin of the meltwater reservoir was more likely a supraglacial lake formed before 1878 during a period of negative mass balance. Following a period of positive mass balance after 1878, the lake was hidden until the outburst flood of 1892. This means that such hazards may be detected by checking regularly for the formation of a lake on the surface of the glacier before it is hidden.
We focus attention on the combinations of swiftly growing electromagnetic instabilities (EMI) arising in the interaction of relativistic electron beams (REB) with precompressed deuterium-tritium (DT) fuels of fast ignition interest for inertial confinement fusion (ICF). REB-target system is taken neutral in charge and current with distribution functions including target and beam temperatures. We stress also the significant impact on modes growth rates (GR) of mode-mode coupling and intrabeam scattering. Collisional damping is documented at large wave numbers in terms of inverse skin depth. A quasi-linear approach yields lower GR than linear ones. One of the most conspicuous output of the linear analysis are three-dimensional (3D) broken ridges featuring the largest GR above k-space for an oblique propagation w.r.t initial particle beam direction. The given modes are seen immune to any temperature induced damping. Those novel patterns are easily produced by considering simultaneously Weibel, filamentation and two-stream instabilities. The behaviors persist in the presence of smooth density gradients or strong applied magnetic fields. Moreover, in the very early propagation stage with no current neutralization in the presence of large edge density gradients, REB demonstrate a characteristics ringlike and regularly spiked pattern in agreement with recent experimental results and previous simulations.
Stochastic instabilities are studied considering the motion of one
particle in a very high intensity wave propagating along a constant
homogeneous magnetic field, and in a high intensity wave propagating in a
nonmagnetized medium perturbed by one or two low intensity traveling
waves. Resonances are identified and conditions for resonance overlap are
studied. The part of chaos in the electron acceleration is analyzed. PIC
code simulation results confirm the stochastic heating.
A new deep drill has been developed within the framework of the European Programme for Ice Coring in Antarctica (EPICA). Several versions of the EPICA drill exist. The version used at Dome Concordia (75˚06'1" S, 123˚23'71" E) was operated with a new electronic control system developed by the Ente per le Nuove tecnologie, l’Energia e l’Ambiente (ENEA) Research Center in Brasimone, Italy. This electronic control system was used for the first time during the 1997/98 Antarctic summer season.
In the first part, the theoretical model of the stochastic heating
effect is presented briefly. Then, a numerical resolution of the Hamilton
equations highlights the threshold of the stochastic effect. Finally,
Particle-In-Cell (PIC) code simulations results, for experimentally
relevant parameters, are presented in order to confirm the acceleration
mechanism predicted by the one-particle theoretical model. This paper
gives the conditions on the different experimental parameters in order to
have an optimization of the stochastic heating.
Stochastic instabilities are studied considering the motion of one
particle in a very high intensity wave perturbed by one or two low
intensity traveling waves. Resonances are identified and conditions for
resonance overlap are studied. PIC code simulation results confirm the
stochastic heating.This paper was presented
at the 28th ECLIM conference in Rome, Italy.
GaN/sapphire layers have been grown by Metal Organic Vapour Phase Epitaxy (MOVPE). An amorphous silicon nitride layer is deposited using a SiH4/NH3 mixture prior to the growth of the low temperature GaN buffer layer. Such a process induces a 3D nucleation at the early beginning of the growth, resulting in a kind of maskless ELO process with random opening sizes. This produces a significant decrease of the threading dislocation (TD) density compared to the best GaN/sapphire templates. Ultra Low Dislocation density (ULD) GaN layers were obtained with TD density as low as 7×107cm−2 as measured by atomic force microscopy (AFM), cathodoluminescence and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Time-resolved photoluminescence experiments show that the lifetime of the A free exciton is principally limited by capture onto residual donors, similar to the situation for nearly dislocation-free homoepitaxial layers.
A male disadvantage has been reported in several
outcome studies of children born preterm. Twenty-two healthy
premature children (10 girls, 12 boys) born between 25
and 28 weeks of gestation and 20 controls born full-term
(10 boys, 10 girls) were matched on socioeconomical status
and age. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded
by using 14 electrodes in a visual oddball task, with 75%
frequent and 25% rare stimuli. This task elicited a larger
P3 to the rare than to the frequent stimuli, with a prominent
parietocentral localization. However, the amplitude was
larger in full-term boys than in full-term girls, a difference
that was not observed between preterm boys and preterm
girls, especially to targets and on the central electrodes.
In addition, the preterm group was characterized by a frontal
slow wave larger in boys than in girls. In these prematures,
the lack of the sex-related difference may be accounted
by differences in the strength of the neuronal generators
in males, as they might have been affected by the high
level of androgens by the fetal testis under the control
of placental gonadotropes during the first two thirds of
Nanometric films of iron oxides (Fe3O4, α and γ Fe2O3) of high crystalline order and purity are epitaxially grown on α-A12O3(0001) by atomic oxygen assisted MBE. A complete characterization of the films structure has been performed by in situ LEED and RHEED, and ex situ GIXRD using synchrotron radiation. The films grown at room temperature and post annealed at 400°C and 700°C (po2=10−6 Torr) are respectively metastable γ-Fe2O3 (111) and α-Fe2O3 (0001). For a substrate temperature of 450°C during growth, Fe3O4 (111) is directly obtained. GIXRD shows an in-plane expansion of the films, which decreases with thickness (0.8 and 0.2% for film thickness of 20 and 80 Å, respectively).