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Apolipoprotein E (APOE) E4 is the main genetic risk factor for Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Due to the consistent association, there is interest as to whether E4 influences the risk of other neurodegenerative diseases. Further, there is a constant search for other genetic biomarkers contributing to these phenotypes, such as microtubule-associated protein tau (MAPT) haplotypes. Here, participants from the Ontario Neurodegenerative Disease Research Initiative were genotyped to investigate whether the APOE E4 allele or MAPT H1 haplotype are associated with five neurodegenerative diseases: (1) AD and mild cognitive impairment (MCI), (2) amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, (3) frontotemporal dementia (FTD), (4) Parkinson’s disease, and (5) vascular cognitive impairment.
Genotypes were defined for their respective APOE allele and MAPT haplotype calls for each participant, and logistic regression analyses were performed to identify the associations with the presentations of neurodegenerative diseases.
Our work confirmed the association of the E4 allele with a dose-dependent increased presentation of AD, and an association between the E4 allele alone and MCI; however, the other four diseases were not associated with E4. Further, the APOE E2 allele was associated with decreased presentation of both AD and MCI. No associations were identified between MAPT haplotype and the neurodegenerative disease cohorts; but following subtyping of the FTD cohort, the H1 haplotype was significantly associated with progressive supranuclear palsy.
This is the first study to concurrently analyze the association of APOE isoforms and MAPT haplotypes with five neurodegenerative diseases using consistent enrollment criteria and broad phenotypic analysis.
Recent infection testing algorithms (RITA) for HIV combine serological assays with epidemiological data to determine likely recent infections, indicators of ongoing transmission. In 2016, we integrated RITA into national HIV surveillance in Ireland to better inform HIV prevention interventions. We determined the avidity index (AI) of new HIV diagnoses and linked the results with data captured in the national infectious disease reporting system. RITA classified a diagnosis as recent based on an AI < 1.5, unless epidemiological criteria (CD4 count <200 cells/mm3; viral load <400 copies/ml; the presence of AIDS-defining illness; prior antiretroviral therapy use) indicated a potential false-recent result. Of 508 diagnoses in 2016, we linked 448 (88.1%) to an avidity test result. RITA classified 12.5% of diagnoses as recent, with the highest proportion (26.3%) amongst people who inject drugs. On multivariable logistic regression recent infection was more likely with a concurrent sexually transmitted infection (aOR 2.59; 95% CI 1.04–6.45). Data were incomplete for at least one RITA criterion in 48% of cases. The study demonstrated the feasibility of integrating RITA into routine surveillance and showed some ongoing HIV transmission. To improve the interpretation of RITA, further efforts are required to improve completeness of the required epidemiological data.
The objective of this WSSA Weed Loss Committee report is to provide quantitative data on the potential yield loss in sugar beet due to weed interference from the major sugar beet growing areas of the United States and Canada. Researchers and extension specialists who conducted research on weed control in sugar beet in the United States and Canada provided quantitative data on sugar beet yield loss due to weed interference in their regions. Specifically, data were requested from weed control studies in sugar beet from up to 10 individual studies per calendar year over a 15-yr period between 2002 and 2017. Data collected indicated that if weeds are left uncontrolled under optimal agronomic practices, growers in Idaho, Michigan, Minnesota, Montana, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ontario, Oregon, and Wyoming would potentially lose an average of 79%, 61%, 66%, 68%, 63%, 75%, 83%, 78%, and 77% of the sugar beet yield. The corresponding monetary loss would be approximately US$234, US$122, US$369, US$43, US$40, US$211, US$12, US$14, and US$32 million, respectively. The average yield loss due to weed interference for the primary sugar beet growing areas of North America was estimated to be 70%. Thus, if weeds are not controlled, growers in the United States would lose approximately 22.4 million tonnes of sugar beet yield valued at approximately US$1.25 billion, and growers in Canada would lose approximately 0.5 million tonnes of sugar beet yield valued at approximately US$25 million. The high return on investment in weed management highlights the importance of continued weed science research for sustaining high crop yield and profitability of sugar beet production in North America.
We present first results from a coordinated multiwavelength study of the neutron star low-mass X-ray binary EXO 0748 676. Fast UV, X-ray, and optical data were obtained including both spectral and timing information. We discuss how this study allows us to probe the temperature distribution within the binary and hence the geometry and efficiency of X-ray irradiation.
The Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet) conducts population-based surveillance for Campylobacter infection. For 2010 through 2015, we compared patients with Campylobacter jejuni with patients with infections caused by other Campylobacter species. Campylobacter coli patients were more often >40 years of age (OR = 1·4), Asian (OR = 2·3), or Black (OR = 1·7), and more likely to live in an urban area (OR = 1·2), report international travel (OR = 1·5), and have infection in autumn or winter (OR = 1·2). Campylobacter upsaliensis patients were more likely female (OR = 1·6), Hispanic (OR = 1·6), have a blood isolate (OR = 2·8), and have an infection in autumn or winter (OR = 1·7). Campylobacter lari patients were more likely to be >40 years of age (OR = 2·9) and have an infection in autumn or winter (OR = 1·7). Campylobacter fetus patients were more likely male (OR = 3·1), hospitalized (OR = 3·5), and have a blood isolate (OR = 44·1). International travel was associated with antimicrobial-resistant C. jejuni (OR = 12·5) and C. coli (OR = 12) infections. Species-level data are useful in understanding epidemiology, sources, and resistance of infections.
As a discipline, design science has traditionally focused on designing products and associated technical processes to improve usability and performance. Although significant progress has been made in these areas, little research has yet examined the role of human behaviour in the design of socio-technical systems (e.g., organizations). Here, we argue that applying organizational psychology as a design science can address this omission and enhance the capability of both disciplines. Specifically, we propose a method to predict malfunctions in socio-technical systems (PreMiSTS), thereby enabling them to be designed out or mitigated. We introduce this method, describe its nine stages, and illustrate its application with reference to two high-profile case studies of such malfunctions: (1) the severe breakdowns in patient care at the UK’s Mid-Staffordshire NHS Foundation Trust hospital in the period 2005–2009, and (2) the fatal Grayrigg rail accident in Cumbria, UK, in 2007. Having first identified the socio-technical and behavioural antecedents of these malfunctions, we then consider how the PreMiSTS method could be used to predict and prevent future malfunctions of this nature. Finally, we evaluate the method, consider its advantages and disadvantages, and suggest where it can be most usefully applied.
Personal disaster and emergency support networks of rural older adults are described before and after participation in a disaster preparedness intervention, PrepWise.
At baseline, a total of 194 disaster support network members were identified by 27 older adults in a rural Midwest community. After the intervention, these participants identified 232 support network members. Multilevel logistic regression models were constructed to identify characteristics of the network members and social interactions associated with support providers at baseline as well as newly added support sources after the PrepWise intervention.
Member and interaction characteristics associated with being identified as emergency support sources at baseline were as follows: family, lived in close proximity, weekly or more frequent contact, and being someone whom participants shared concerns with, trusted, and exchanged emotional support with. After receiving PrepWise, participants on average identified 3 new sources of emergency support within their networks. Support sources added at follow-up tended to be nonfamily members and those participants trusted.
Enhancements in personal emergency support networks occurred after the intervention. Understanding characteristics of the network members and social interactions may assist in identifying additional emergency support sources. Larger studies investigating the impacts of enhanced support networks on disaster-related behaviors and outcomes will be beneficial. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;11:110–119)
The active management of the experience of living with dementia appears to improve quality of life despite the lack of disease modification. However, research to date has been largely of modest scale and explanatory factors for improvements have been under-conceptualised. Thus, although promulgated through national strategies, the evidence base is relatively weak. This paper reports on a nation-wide study of the influence of the National Dementia Strategy for England in relation to Dementia Adviser and Peer Support Network services in 40 demonstration sites. The research aimed to identify ways in which the services contribute to the wellbeing and resilience of people with dementia and care partners. A mixed-methods research design collected data through: activity and outcome monitoring; organisational surveys; in-depth case studies, including qualitative interviews with people with dementia (N = 47) and care partners (N = 54), wellbeing and quality of life measures, and interviews with staff and other stakeholders (N = 82). Three themes are explored: addressing individual and community needs; promoting independence, control and choice; and getting a life back. Services promoted independence, control and choice, and consequently enabled people to re-narrate their lives as purposeful within their communities. Ways in which these are achieved resemble the public health model of lay health advisor and this research adds to the imperative to approach dementia as a key public health concern.
Background: Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis is a recently described life-threatening autoimmune disorder associated with a characteristic multi-stage neuropsychiatric syndrome. Although it is known that the majority of patients experience neuropsychological disturbance post-treatment, some aspects of the cognitive profile remain unclear. Methods: This study sought to investigate patterns of cognitive functioning in a sample of anti-NMDAR encephalitis patients. Seven (6F:1M; mean age, 26.4 years; range, 16–37 years) treated patients completed a comprehensive set of neurocognitive and social functioning measures. Performance was analyzed using normative data (where available), and comparison with matched controls (10F:4M; mean age, 25.8 years; range, 16–38 years). Results: Individual cognitive profiles ranged from within normal limits to extensive dysfunction. Relative to controls, the patient group’s performance was affected in the domains of verbal/ visual memory, working memory, attention, processing speed, executive functioning, and social cognition. The patient group also reported significantly higher levels of anxiety compared to controls. Conclusions: These results add to the accumulating evidence that neurocognitive deficits, consistent with the distribution and functions of the NMDAR system can persist during recovery from anti-NMDAR encephalitis. This is the first study to provide evidence of performance decrements on measures of social cognition, including some involving theory of mind. (JINS, 2016, 22, 828–838)
Current calibration methods for single and replicate 14C dates are compared. Various forms of tabular and graphic output are discussed. Results from all the methods show reasonable agreement but further methodological development and improvements in computer output are required. Comparison of existing techniques for a series of non-contemporaneous dates showed less agreement amongst participants on this issue. We recommend that calibrated dates should be presented as a combination of graphs and ranges, in preference to mean and standard deviation.
We have obtained high spectral resolution, high signal-to-noise ratio longslit spectra of a sample of Planetary Nebulae with the purpose of studying their physical conditions, chemical composition and ionisation structure. In particular, we are interested in disentangling the effects of radiation and shock ionisation.
Since the discovery of fading X-rays from Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) with BeppoSAX (Piro et al. 1997, Costa et al. 1997), world-wide follow-up observations in optical band have achieved the fruitful results. The case of GRB 970228, there was an optical transient, coincides with the BeppoSAX position and faded (Paradijs et al. 1997, Sahu et al. 1997). These optical observations also confirmed the extended component, which was associated with the optical transient. The new transient are fading with a power-law function in time and the later observation of HST confirmed the extended emission is stable (Fruchter et al. 1997). This extended object seems to be a distant galaxy and strongly suggests to be the host.
We present an overview of the survey for radio emission from active stars that has been in progress for the last six years using the observatories at Fleurs, Molonglo, Parkes and Tidbinbilla. The role of complementary optical observations at the Anglo-Australian Observatory, Mount Burnett, Mount Stromlo and Siding Spring Observatories and Mount Tamborine are also outlined. We describe the different types of star that have been included in our survey and discuss some of the problems in making the radio observations.
We present observations of Hα and CaII resonance lines in 4 stars having Hα features which place them intermediately between the non-(e) and (e) classifications of dK/dM stars. There is considerable variety in the shape of the Hα line, presumably due in part to differences in rotation rates. As expected, the energy fluxes in the CaII emission lines lie between those typical of non-(e) and (e) stars. There is some evidence (especially from the binary Gl 876A) that the energy fluxes in the CaII and Hα emission lines do not vary from star to star according to a simple proportionality. An intriguing result is the apparent detection of spatially displaced chromospheric emission in Gl 907.1 and Gl 890.
BE UMa is a close binary star, not transferring mass, with an extremely hot primary star irradiating the inner face of the cool secondary star. The light curve shows a large-amplitude, sinusoidal variation with a period of 2.29 d, and an eclipse that is centered on the minimum of the variation , . According to , the eclipse is partial, not total. However, it has been argued  that the eclipse was really flat bottomed and thus total. This has important repercussions for the deduced model of the system. To resolve this issue we obtained simultaneous UBVR photometry of BE UMa using the Stiening 4-channel, high-speed photometer on the 82-inch telescope at McDonald Observatory. The mean light curves are shown in Fig. 1. The eclipse in all colours is round bottomed and partial. The different depths are caused by the different contribution from the red secondary star in each bandpass.
The 71-s modulation in the light curve of the old nova DQ Her has a mean semi-amplitude of 1.8% at 2180 Å, although the amplitude varies by at least a factor of two from orbit to orbit. The disturbance in the amplitude and phase of the modulation during eclipses is similar to that observed at visual wavelengths. We conclude that at 2180 Å, as at visual wavelengths, the modulated flux is reprocessed and comes from the accretion disk.
Surveys with ISO (Kessler et al 1996), in particular with the CAM (Cesarsky et al 1996) and PHOT (Lemke et al 1996) instruments, will greatly extend our understanding of extra-galactic populations and their cosmological evolution. The main advantages that ISO surveys have over e.g IRAS are increased sensitivity/depth and wavelength coverage. Within the Guaranteed and Open Time programmes there are many field surveys which will efficiently map the limits in these parameters. In this talk I will briefly overview those surveys before concentrating in more detail on one survey in particular, the ISO survey of the Hubble Deep Field (HDF), to illustrate the kind of results that can be expected.
To develop an automated method for ventilator-associated condition (VAC) surveillance and to compare its accuracy and efficiency with manual VAC surveillance
The intensive care units (ICUs) of 4 hospitals
This study was conducted at Detroit Medical Center, a tertiary care center in metropolitan Detroit. A total of 128 ICU beds in 4 acute care hospitals were included during the study period from August to October 2013. The automated VAC algorithm was implemented and utilized for 1 month by all study hospitals. Simultaneous manual VAC surveillance was conducted by 2 infection preventionists and 1 infection control fellow who were blinded to each another’s findings and to the automated VAC algorithm results. The VACs identified by the 2 surveillance processes were compared.
During the study period, 110 patients from all the included hospitals were mechanically ventilated and were evaluated for VAC for a total of 992 mechanical ventilation days. The automated VAC algorithm identified 39 VACs with sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of 100%. In comparison, the combined efforts of the IPs and the infection control fellow detected 58.9% of VACs, with 59% sensitivity, 99% specificity, 91% PPV, and 92% NPV. Moreover, the automated VAC algorithm was extremely efficient, requiring only 1 minute to detect VACs over a 1-month period, compared to 60.7 minutes using manual surveillance.
The automated VAC algorithm is efficient and accurate and is ready to be used routinely for VAC surveillance. Furthermore, its implementation can optimize the sensitivity and specificity of VAC identification.
Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 2015;36(9):999–1003