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A number of laser facilities coming online all over the world promise the capability of high-power laser experiments with shot repetition rates between 1 and 10 Hz. Target availability and technical issues related to the interaction environment could become a bottleneck for the exploitation of such facilities. In this paper, we report on target needs for three different classes of experiments: dynamic compression physics, electron transport and isochoric heating, and laser-driven particle and radiation sources. We also review some of the most challenging issues in target fabrication and high repetition rate operation. Finally, we discuss current target supply strategies and future perspectives to establish a sustainable target provision infrastructure for advanced laser facilities.
Seeds of some eastern Australian Grevillea species show the characteristics of non-deep physiological dormancy, which is broken by exposure to heat shock and/or smoke. The current study tested whether the restrictive effect of the seed coat on germination was localized to specific regions, whether the fire cues affected the growth potential of the embryo, the mechanical strength of the seed coat itself, and the anatomy of fracturing of the seed coat. Removal of the micropylar seed coat allowed germination, while retaining it in place restricted germination. The growth potential of the embryo was increased by exposure to heat shock or to smoke, and increased the most if exposed to both cues. Estimation of the minimum force required by embryos to germinate from intact seeds suggested that this force was reduced for seeds treated with fire cues. The fire cues did not affect the resistance of the seed coat to compressive force when tested after 24 h of imbibition. Fracturing of the seed coat occurred between cell walls, except for the palisade layer, where fracturing occurred across palisade and sclerenchyma cells. While the micropylar end of the seed coat imposes dormancy, most likely by mechanical constraint, heat shock and smoke overcome dormancy by increasing the embryo's growth potential and possibly weakening the seed coat, either directly or via the embryo.
We have compiled a catalogue of H ii regions detected with the Murchison Widefield Array between 72 and 231 MHz. The multiple frequency bands provided by the Murchison Widefield Array allow us identify the characteristic spectrum generated by the thermal Bremsstrahlung process in H ii regions. We detect 306 H ii regions between 260° < l < 340° and report on the positions, sizes, peak, integrated flux density, and spectral indices of these H ii regions. By identifying the point at which H ii regions transition from the optically thin to thick regime, we derive the physical properties including the electron density, ionised gas mass, and ionising photon flux, towards 61 H ii regions. This catalogue of H ii regions represents the most extensive and uniform low frequency survey of H ii regions in the Galaxy to date.
We review the first six years of radio observations of Supernova 1987A. The evolution can be divided into two phases: the initial radio outburst which lasted a few weeks, and the period from mid-1990 to the present, during which the radio emission has steadily increased. Both phases can be explained by a small fraction (0.1-0.5%) of the post-shock thermal energy being converted to energy in relativistic particles and magnetic fields, which give rise to synchrotron radiation. The optical depths, densities and density profiles for the pre-shocked circumstellar material are somewhat different for the two phases, but consistent with models of the density structure of the material within the circumstellar ring. New high-resolution radio observations show that the SN shock front is already at about three-quarters of the radius of the circumstellar ring, and that there exists a bright equatorial component of emission aligned with this ring which is probably due to a polar density gradient in the ‘hourglass’ structure.
We compare first-order (refractive) ionospheric effects seen by the MWA with the ionosphere as inferred from GPS data. The first-order ionosphere manifests itself as a bulk position shift of the observed sources across an MWA field of view. These effects can be computed from global ionosphere maps provided by GPS analysis centres, namely the CODE. However, for precision radio astronomy applications, data from local GPS networks needs to be incorporated into ionospheric modelling. For GPS observations, the ionospheric parameters are biased by GPS receiver instrument delays, among other effects, also known as receiver DCBs. The receiver DCBs need to be estimated for any non-CODE GPS station used for ionosphere modelling. In this work, single GPS station-based ionospheric modelling is performed at a time resolution of 10 min. Also the receiver DCBs are estimated for selected Geoscience Australia GPS receivers, located at Murchison Radio Observatory, Yarragadee, Mount Magnet and Wiluna. The ionospheric gradients estimated from GPS are compared with that inferred from MWA. The ionospheric gradients at all the GPS stations show a correlation with the gradients observed with the MWA. The ionosphere estimates obtained using GPS measurements show promise in terms of providing calibration information for the MWA.
GLEAM, the GaLactic and Extragalactic All-sky MWA survey, is a survey of the entire radio sky south of declination + 25° at frequencies between 72 and 231 MHz, made with the MWA using a drift scan method that makes efficient use of the MWA’s very large field-of-view. We present the observation details, imaging strategies, and theoretical sensitivity for GLEAM. The survey ran for two years, the first year using 40-kHz frequency resolution and 0.5-s time resolution; the second year using 10-kHz frequency resolution and 2 s time resolution. The resulting image resolution and sensitivity depends on observing frequency, sky pointing, and image weighting scheme. At 154 MHz, the image resolution is approximately 2.5 × 2.2/cos (δ + 26.7°) arcmin with sensitivity to structures up to ~ 10° in angular size. We provide tables to calculate the expected thermal noise for GLEAM mosaics depending on pointing and frequency and discuss limitations to achieving theoretical noise in Stokes I images. We discuss challenges, and their solutions, that arise for GLEAM including ionospheric effects on source positions and linearly polarised emission, and the instrumental polarisation effects inherent to the MWA’s primary beam.
The Murchison Widefield Array is a Square Kilometre Array Precursor. The telescope is located at the Murchison Radio–astronomy Observatory in Western Australia. The MWA consists of 4 096 dipoles arranged into 128 dual polarisation aperture arrays forming a connected element interferometer that cross-correlates signals from all 256 inputs. A hybrid approach to the correlation task is employed, with some processing stages being performed by bespoke hardware, based on Field Programmable Gate Arrays, and others by Graphics Processing Units housed in general purpose rack mounted servers. The correlation capability required is approximately 8 tera floating point operations per second. The MWA has commenced operations and the correlator is generating 8.3 TB day−1 of correlation products, that are subsequently transferred 700 km from the MRO to Perth (WA) in real-time for storage and offline processing. In this paper, we outline the correlator design, signal path, and processing elements and present the data format for the internal and external interfaces.
The Murchison Widefield Array is a new low-frequency interferometric radio telescope built in Western Australia at one of the locations of the future Square Kilometre Array. We describe the automated radio-frequency interference detection strategy implemented for the Murchison Widefield Array, which is based on the aoflagger platform, and present 72–231 MHz radio-frequency interference statistics from 10 observing nights. Radio-frequency interference detection removes 1.1% of the data. Radio-frequency interference from digital TV is observed 3% of the time due to occasional ionospheric or atmospheric propagation. After radio-frequency interference detection and excision, almost all data can be calibrated and imaged without further radio-frequency interference mitigation efforts, including observations within the FM and digital TV bands. The results are compared to a previously published Low-Frequency Array radio-frequency interference survey. The remote location of the Murchison Widefield Array results in a substantially cleaner radio-frequency interference environment compared to Low-Frequency Array’s radio environment, but adequate detection of radio-frequency interference is still required before data can be analysed. We include specific recommendations designed to make the Square Kilometre Array more robust to radio-frequency interference, including: the availability of sufficient computing power for radio-frequency interference detection; accounting for radio-frequency interference in the receiver design; a smooth band-pass response; and the capability of radio-frequency interference detection at high time and frequency resolution (second and kHz-scale respectively).
The science cases for incorporating high time resolution capabilities into modern radio telescopes are as numerous as they are compelling. Science targets range from exotic sources such as pulsars, to our Sun, to recently detected possible extragalactic bursts of radio emission, the so-called fast radio bursts (FRBs). Originally conceived purely as an imaging telescope, the initial design of the Murchison Widefield Array (MWA) did not include the ability to access high time and frequency resolution voltage data. However, the flexibility of the MWA’s software correlator allowed an off-the-shelf solution for adding this capability. This paper describes the system that records the 100 μs and 10 kHz resolution voltage data from the MWA. Example science applications, where this capability is critical, are presented, as well as accompanying commissioning results from this mode to demonstrate verification.
We present the results of an approximately 6 100 deg2 104–196 MHz radio sky survey performed with the Murchison Widefield Array during instrument commissioning between 2012 September and 2012 December: the MWACS. The data were taken as meridian drift scans with two different 32-antenna sub-arrays that were available during the commissioning period. The survey covers approximately 20.5 h < RA < 8.5 h, − 58° < Dec < −14°over three frequency bands centred on 119, 150 and 180 MHz, with image resolutions of 6–3 arcmin. The catalogue has 3 arcmin angular resolution and a typical noise level of 40 mJy beam− 1, with reduced sensitivity near the field boundaries and bright sources. We describe the data reduction strategy, based upon mosaicked snapshots, flux density calibration, and source-finding method. We present a catalogue of flux density and spectral index measurements for 14 110 sources, extracted from the mosaic, 1 247 of which are sub-components of complexes of sources.
Owing to its wide sky coverage and broad energy range, the Fermi
Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) is an excellent observer of the transient hard
X-ray sky. GBM detects about 240 triggered Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) per year, including
over 30 which also trigger the Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT). The
number of GRBs seen in common with Swift is smaller than expected from
the overlap in sky coverage because GBM is not as sensitive as the BAT and the GBM GRB
population is thus skewed to the brighter, closer bursts. This population includes about
45 short GRBs per year, giving GBM an excellent opportunity to observe the electromagnetic
counterpart to any gravitational wave candidate resulting from the merger of compact
binary members. The same characteristics make GBM an ideal partner for neutrino searches
from nearby GRBs, and for the elusive Very-High Energy (VHE) counterparts to GRBs. With
the deployment of the next-generation gravitational-wave detectors (Advanced LIGO/VIRGO)
and VHE experiments (CTA and HAWC) potentially within the lifetime of the Fermi
Gamma-ray Space Telescope, the prospects for breakthrough observations are
Significant new opportunities for astrophysics and cosmology have been identified at low radio frequencies. The Murchison Widefield Array is the first telescope in the southern hemisphere designed specifically to explore the low-frequency astronomical sky between 80 and 300 MHz with arcminute angular resolution and high survey efficiency. The telescope will enable new advances along four key science themes, including searching for redshifted 21-cm emission from the EoR in the early Universe; Galactic and extragalactic all-sky southern hemisphere surveys; time-domain astrophysics; and solar, heliospheric, and ionospheric science and space weather. The Murchison Widefield Array is located in Western Australia at the site of the planned Square Kilometre Array (SKA) low-band telescope and is the only low-frequency SKA precursor facility. In this paper, we review the performance properties of the Murchison Widefield Array and describe its primary scientific objectives.
The Murchison Widefield Array (MWA) is one of three Square Kilometre Array Precursor telescopes and is located at the Murchison Radio-astronomy Observatory in the Murchison Shire of the mid-west of Western Australia, a location chosen for its extremely low levels of radio frequency interference. The MWA operates at low radio frequencies, 80–300 MHz, with a processed bandwidth of 30.72 MHz for both linear polarisations, and consists of 128 aperture arrays (known as tiles) distributed over a ~3-km diameter area. Novel hybrid hardware/software correlation and a real-time imaging and calibration systems comprise the MWA signal processing backend. In this paper, the as-built MWA is described both at a system and sub-system level, the expected performance of the array is presented, and the science goals of the instrument are summarised.
Accurate data on West Nile virus (WNV) cases help guide public health education and control activities, and impact regional WNV blood product screening procedures. During an outbreak of WNV disease in Arizona, records from patients with meningitis or encephalitis were reviewed to determine the proportion tested for WNV. Of 60 patients identified with meningitis or encephalitis, 24 (40%) were tested for WNV. Only 12 (28%) of 43 patients aged <50 years were tested for WNV compared to 12 (71%) of 17 patients aged ⩾50 years (P<0·01). Patients with clinical signs of weakness or paralysis, elevated CSF protein, admitted to an inpatient facility, or discharged to a rehabilitation facility were also more likely to have WNV testing performed. The lack of testing in younger age groups and in those with less severe disease probably resulted in substantial underestimates of WNV neuroinvasive disease burden.
The Lower Carboniferous of northern Britain is dominated by non-marine sequences which yield fish and crustacean faunas. These are rarely preserved and occur in thin layers. The sedimentology of twelve shrimp-bearing localities is described, in most cases for the first time, to shed light upon the habitats occupied by eumalacostracan crustaceans during their early Carboniferous adaptive radiation. Nearly all these sequences were deposited in coastal delta-plain settings or in interdistributary bays, environments of transitional salinity. The Gullane shrimp bed, however, was laid down in a thermally stratified non-marine lake, and its sole crustacean representative, Tealliocaris, seems to have been generally confined to waters of low salinity. None of the shrimp-beds was deposited in a fully marine environment, though most show evidence of at least some marine influence. Crustacean diversity increases with salinity, and the lack of shrimps in fully marine sediments is largely due to taphonomic factors rather than an environmental control.
Newly discovered crustaceans from the Granton ‘shrimp-bed’ (Dinantian, Lower Oil Shale Group) are described: Bairdops elegans, Minicaris sp., Palaemysis, Tealliocaris cf. woodwardi, Pseudogalathea ornatissima, Anthracocaris scotica, Paraparchites cf. okeni, Beyrichiopsis plicata, and Eocypridina cf. aciculata, and new observations on Waterstonella grantonensis are reported. Tealliocaris woodwardi alone is recorded from bed o, a level ca 1 m below the ‘shrimp-bed’. The Granton ‘shrimp-bed’ biota is reviewed—the geological and lithological context of the deposit, the distribution and taphonomy of the biota, its life environment, palaeoecology, the likely causes of mortality, and comparisons are made with contemporaneous shrimp biotas. The nature of this unusual Konservat-Lagerstätte reflects conditions in the sheltered, periodically emergent lagoon which it represents.
Hafnium oxide-based resistive memory devices have been fabricated on copper bottom electrodes. The HfOx active layers in these devices were deposited by atomic layer deposition at 250 °C with tetrakis(dimethylamido)hafnium(IV) as the metal precursor and an O2 plasma as the reactant. Depth profiles of the HfOx by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and secondary ion mass spectroscopy revealed a copper concentration on the order of five atomic percent throughout the HfOx film. This phenomenon has not been previously reported in resistive switching literature and therefore may have gone unnoticed by other investigators. The MIM structures fabricated from the HfOx exhibited non-polar behavior, independent of the top metal electrode (Ni, Pt, Al, Au). These results are analogous to the non-polar switching behavior observed by Yang et al.  for intentionally Cu-doped HfOx resistive memory devices. The distinguishing characteristic of the material structure produced in this research is that the copper concentration increases to 60 % in a conducting surface copper oxide layer ~20 nm thick. Lastly, the results from both sweep- and pulse-mode current-voltage measurements are presented and preliminary work on fabricating sub-100 nm devices is summarized.
The results of extensive theoretical studies of group IV impurities and surface and interface properties of nitrides are presented and compared with available experimental data. Among the impurities, we have considered substitutional C, Si, and Ge. CN is a very shallow acceptor, and thus a promising p-type dopant. Both Si and Ge are excellent donors in GaN. However, in AlGaN alloys the DX configurations are stable for a sufficiently high Al content, which quenches the doping efficiency. At high concentrations, it is energetically favorable for group IV impurities to form nearest-neighbor Xcation-XN pairs. Turning to surfaces, AIN is known to exhibit NEA. We find that the NEA property depends sensitively on surface reconstruction and termination. At interfaces, the strain effects on the band offsets range from 20% to 40%, depending on the substrate. The AIN/GaN/InN interfaces are all of type I, while the A10.5Ga0.5 N/A1N zinc-blende (001) interface may be of type II. Further, the calculated bulk polarizations in wurtzite AIN and GaN are -1.2 and -0.45 μC/cm2, respectively, and the interface contribution to the polarization in the GaN/AlN wurtzite multi-quantum-well is small.
The results of theoretical studies of the bulk and interface properties of nitrides are presented. As a test the bulk properties, including phonons of GaN at the Γ-point, are calculated and found to be in excellent agreement with the experimental data. At interfaces, the strain effects on the band offsets range from 20% to 40%, depending on the substrate. The AlN/GaN/InN interfaces are all of type I, while the Al0.5Ga0.5N on A1N zinc-blende (001) interface is of type II. Further, an interface similar to those used in the recent blue laser diodes is of type I and does not have any electronically active interface states. The valence band-offset in the (0001) GaN on A1N interface is -0.57 eV and the conduction band-offset is 1.87 eV.
The results of extensive theoretical studies of the properties of interfaces and surfaces of the wide-gap III-V nitride semiconductors are reviewed. The phenomena that we have investigated include band offsets and transport properties in nitride-based devices, surface reconstruction energetics and adsorbate-substrate interactions. In the modelling of realistic blue-laser multiquantum well structures such as In0.2Ga0.8N/In1−xGaxN (x > 0.8) superlattices, pyro- and piezo-electric effects are found to be strong enough to reduce the interband recombination rate and limit the efficiency of an actual device. We have also studied the influence of growth conditions and surface polarity upon the morphology of (0001) GaN surfaces, which are the primary growth faces. The charge transfer between the Ga and N atoms in GaN and the very large electronegativity of nitrogen are found to play decisive roles in determining the stable reconstructions. The behavior of Mg at the Ga-terminated (0001) surface has also been investigated. We find that Mg in the Gasubstitutional site is preferred to adatom sites on the surface. Further, our results suggest that Mg prefers to segregate to the surface.