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Several photocatalysts, based on titanium dioxide, were synthesized by spark anodization techniques and anodic spark oxidation. Photocatalytic activity was determined by methylene blue oxidation and the catalytic activities of the catalysts were evaluated after 70 hours of reaction. Scanning Electron Microscopy and X Ray Diffraction analysis were used to characterize the catalysts. The photocatalyst prepared with a solution of sulfuric acid and 100 V presented the best performance in terms of oxidation of the dye (62%). The electric potential during the synthesis (10 V, low potential; 100 V, high potential) affected the surface characteristics: under low potential, catalyst presented smooth and homogeneous surfaces with spots (high TiO2 concentration) of amorphous solids; under low potential, catalyst presented porous surfaces with crystalline solids homogeneously distributed.
Through diversity of composition, sequence, and interfacial structure, hybrid materials greatly expand the palette of materials available to access novel functionality. The NSF Division of Materials Research recently supported a workshop (October 17–18, 2019) aiming to (1) identify fundamental questions and potential solutions common to multiple disciplines within the hybrid materials community; (2) initiate interfield collaborations between hybrid materials researchers; and (3) raise awareness in the wider community about experimental toolsets, simulation capabilities, and shared facilities that can accelerate this research. This article reports on the outcomes of the workshop as a basis for cross-community discussion. The interdisciplinary challenges and opportunities are presented, and followed with a discussion of current areas of progress in subdisciplines including hybrid synthesis, functional surfaces, and functional interfaces.
One of the great challenges in the use of nanomaterials is their production at low costs and high yields. In this work aluminum nanoparticles, from aluminum powder, were produced by wet mechanical milling through a combination of different attrition milling conditions such as ball-powder ratio (BPR) and the amount of solvent used. It was observed that at 600 rpm with a BPR of 500/30 g for 12 h, it was possible to produce nanoparticles with a size close to 20 nm, while at 750 rpm with a BPR of 380/12.6 g for 12 h, nanoparticles of approximately 10 nm were obtained. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy confirmed that the milling product is an agglomeration of nanoparticles with different sizes. These results show the feasibility of obtaining aluminum nanoparticles by mechanical milling using only ethanol as solvent, avoiding hazardous by-products obtained from chemical routes, and the use of complicated methods such as laser ablation and arc discharge.
The present work considers the stability of a high-
, large aspect ratio, circular plasma with diffuse profiles for the safety factor and the angular toroidal frequency (López & Guazzotto, Phys. Plasmas, vol. 24, 032501). An application of the Frieman–Rotenberg formalism results in a system of scalar eigenmode equations whose coupling is retained at the plasma–vacuum transition but is disregarded across the plasma column, which is a standard practice. The solution technique consists of a multidimensional shooting method for the poloidal harmonics; robust initial guesses are constructed by solving the dispersion relation in the static scenario with vanishing magnetic shear. Flow shear appears as a high-
toroidal contribution, and we illustrate its destabilizing influence on
external kink modes in the presence of ideal and resistive walls. Internal resonances are avoided by means of the selection of appropriate equilibrium parameters. The stabilizing influence of a finite positive average magnetic shear is also exemplified.
Maternal milk consumption can cause changes in the mammary epithelium of the offspring that result in the expression of molecules involved in the induction of differentiation, reducing the risk of developing mammary cancer later in life. We previously showed that animals that maintained a higher intake of maternal milk had a lower incidence of mammary cancer. In the present study, we evaluated one of the possible mechanisms by which the consumption of maternal milk could modify the susceptibility to mammary carcinogenesis. We used Sprague Dawley rats reared in litters of 3 (L3), 8 (L8), or 12 (L12) pups per mother in order to generate a differential consumption of milk. Whole mounts of mammary glands were performed to analyze the changes in morphology. Using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), we analyzed the expression of mammary Pinc, Tbx3, Stat6, and Gata3 genes. We use the real-time methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction method to assess the methylation status of Stat6 and Gata3 CpG sites. Our findings show an increase in the size of the epithelial tree and a smaller number of ducts called terminal end buds in L3 vs. L12. We observed an increased expression of mRNA of Stat6, Gata3, Tbx3, and a lower expression of Pinc in L3 with respect to L12. Stat6 and Gata3 are more methylated in the CpG islands of the promoter analyzed in L12 vs. L3. In conclusion, the increased consumption of maternal milk during the postnatal stage generates epigenetic and morphological changes associated with the differentiation of the mammary gland.
The majority of available US-published reports present populations with community spread in urban areas. The objective of this report is to describe a rural healthcare system's utilisation of therapeutic options available to treat Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) and subsequent patient outcomes. A total of 150 patients were treated for COVID-19 at three hospitals in the Dakotas from 21 March 2020 to 30 April 2020. The most common pharmacological treatment regimens administered were zinc, hydroxychloroquine plus azithromycin and convalescent plasma. Adjunctive treatments included therapeutic anticoagulation, tocilizumab and corticosteroids. As of 1 June 2020, 127 patients have survived to hospital discharge, 12 patients remain hospitalised and 11 patients have expired. The efficacy of hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin use has yet to be determined but was not without risks of corrected QT interval prolongation and arrhythmias in our cohort. We did not appreciate any adverse effects that appeared related to tocilizumab or convalescent plasma administration in those patient subsets. These findings may provide insight into disease severity and treatment options in the rural setting with limited resources to participate in clinical trials and encourage larger comparative studies evaluating treatment efficacy.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: BURRITO is an efficient strategy that provides full disclosure in the electronic medical record of a patient’s preference in real time. BURRITO uses printed materials only to inform patients and has a <50% rates of consent. We hypothesized that adding an informational video to the printed materials would increase donations. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: This study was IRB-approved and was considered minimal risk. The BURRITO self-consent workflow process (Soares et. al, Biopreservation and Biobanking, IN PRINT) was developed in an outpatient cardiology clinic. In the same clinic, patients were randomized to receiving printed materials only (standard procedure) or the printed materials plus a 2.5-minute informational video (intervention) while waiting for the physician in the exam room. Randomization occurred at the level of the day in clinic. Patients were blinded to the nature of the study. Following the presentation of information, the patient’s decision on consent for donation was documented in the electronic record by ancillary clinical staff. Rates of consent were analyzed by a statistician not involved in the experiment and after completion of trial. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Thirty-five clinic days were randomized to either intervention (17 days) or standard (18 days), and a total of 255 patients decided during their visit to either “opt-in” or “opt-out” to donating remnant biospecimens for future research. One hundred patients opted to defer deciding (28%). No significant demographic differences were noted between the study arms. The rate of consent was 73% vs. 58% in the intervention group and the control group, respectively (p-value = 0.014). This represents an increase in the odds of consenting with an informational video by 96% (OR = 1.96, 95% CI = 1.15 to 3.34). DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: This is the first randomized trial to show that an informational video with printed materials is superior for when patients are self-consenting to opt-in for clinical remnant biospecimen donation. This result adds to the evidence that the BURRITO process plus video (BURRITOv) is an effective approach for biospecimen universal consenting.
One hypothesis proposed to underlie formal thought disorder (FTD), the incoherent speech is seen in some patients with schizophrenia, is that it reflects impairment in frontal/executive function. While this proposal has received support in neuropsychological studies, it has been relatively little tested using functional imaging. This study aimed to examine brain activations associated with FTD, and its two main factor-analytically derived subsyndromes, during the performance of a working memory task.
Seventy patients with schizophrenia showing a full range of FTD scores and 70 matched healthy controls underwent fMRI during the performance of the 2-back version of the n-back task. Whole-brain corrected, voxel-based correlations with FTD scores were examined in the patient group.
During 2-back performance the patients showed clusters of significant inverse correlation with FTD scores in the inferior frontal cortex and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex bilaterally, the left temporal cortex and subcortically in the basal ganglia and thalamus. Further analysis revealed that these correlations reflected an association only with ‘alogia’ (poverty of speech, poverty of content of speech and perseveration) and not with the ‘fluent disorganization’ component of FTD.
This study provides functional imaging support for the view that FTD in schizophrenia may involve impaired executive/frontal function. However, the relationship appears to be exclusively with alogia and not with the variables contributing to fluent disorganization.
Schizophrenia is a chronic disease. Several etiopathogenic aetiologies have been posed, among them the existence of cerebral inflammation. S100B is a calcium-binding protein, mainly produced and secreted by astrocytes, that mediates the interaction among glial cells and between glial cells and neurons. Serum S100B levels have been proposed as a peripheral marker of brain inflammation.
The aim of this research is to study if the serum level of the protein S100B has relationship with positive psychopathology.
31 paranoid schizophrenic inpatients (22 male and 9 female, 36.7±10.3 years) meeting DSM-IV criteria participated in the study. Blood was sampled by venipuncture at 12:00 and 24:00 hours. Blood extractions were carried out during the first 48 hours after hospital admission. Psychopathology was assessed by the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). Serum S100B levels were measured by sandwich ELISA techniques.
Correlations between serum levels of S100B protein and PANSS positive scores are shown in the following table. The first figure corresponds to the Pearson's correlation coefficient, while the figure in brackets corresponds to its statistical significance.
Total Positive Score
Serum levels of S100B protein may be used as a biological marker of positive psychopathology in paranoid schizophrenia.Acknowledgement
Until now, no reliable biological markers of risk and relapse in substance-dependent patients have been identified. The yawn-inducing test with apomorphine has been proposed as a marker of the functional status of the dopaminergic system and therefore a predictor of suffering an addiction or predisposition to relapse.
Studying the safety and efficacy of apomorphine test as a predictor of relapse in intranasal cocaine dependent, diagnosed according to DSM-IV-TR.
We performed the test of apomorphine at the beginning (day 1) and end (day 11/12) of a detoxification program in 33 patients (29 men). The majority of patients relapsed after 22 weeks of follow up (87% relapse). The average yawns in the sample were 10.9 ± 9.3 in the initial test (Apo 1) and 10.2 ± 10.2 in the final test (Apo 2). The 42% of patients relapsed early (before 4 weeks) and 45% late (afther 4 weeks). 58% of the sample (N = 19), which did not fall belatedly filled an average of 8.0 yawns in Apo1 and 8.1 on Apo2 and 42% who did so early (N = 14), 14,8 in Apo1 and 14.6 in Apo2. Therefore there are an increased number of yawns in patients with early relapse. No important side effects were reported.
Patients with early relapse have a higher number of yawns that those falling late or abstainers The apomorphine test is a safe test and it is a readily applicable tool in clinical practice and may be a biological marker of risk.
To analyse the consequences of broadening DSM-IV criteria for generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) on the utilization of health care resources and corresponding costs.
Multicentre, prospective and observational study conducted in outpatient psychiatric clinics selected at random and weighted by geographical density of population. Patients with GAD according to DSM-IV criteria and subjects with anxiety symptoms fulfilling broader criteria were compared. Broadening criteria was considered 1-month of excessive or non-excessive worry and only 2 associated symptoms listed on DSM-IV for GAD. Socio-demographic data, medical history and health care resources and corresponding costs were recorded during a 6-month period.
A total of 3,549 patients were systematically recruited; 12.8% excluded because not fulfilling inclusion criteria, 1,815 patients in DSM-IV criteria group (DG) and 1,264 in broad criteria group (BG). Both groups were similar on their sociodemographic characteristics at baseline. Type of treatments prescribed at psychiatric clinics during the study were similar in frequency; anti-depressives (77.0% in DG vs. 75.3% in BG, ns), benzodiazepines (71.5% vs. 67.2% respectively, ns), and anti-convulsants (72.1% vs. 67.0% respectively, ns). Health care resources utilization were statistically reduced to a similar extent in both groups as a consequences of treatments yielding to a cost-of-illness in the 6-month period of 1,196 (1,158) and 1,112 (874), respectively; p=0.304.
In a large sample of subjects, broadening of GAD criteria could lead to earlier diagnosis that would not be associated necessarily to an increase in health care resources utilization or costs to the National Health System.
The European Foundation for Quality Management (EFQM) Excellence Model is a non-prescriptive framework based on nine criteria. The aim of this work is to describe the implementation of the EFQM model as a quality framework for the improvement of an inpatient medium-stay psychiatric unit.
In 2005 a multidisciplinary performance improvement work group was convened to begin a project with these aims:
- The definition of the unit's mission.
- The identification of the unit's main processes.
- The identification of performance and quality results.
- The establishment of an audit period of clinical outcomes.
- The creation of a protocol for admissions.
Between 2005 and 2008 the group designed the following:
- A map showing the medium-stay unit process as well as the main processes.
- The key performance indicators.
- An ECT protocol.
- The Quality Indicators.
- A patient satisfaction survey.
Every year we decide the objectives of each indicator and revise them every month. Efficiency in the use of resources improved, due to an increase in annual admissions (from 190 in 2005 to 213 in 2009) as well as a decrease in length of hospital stays (from 62 days in 2005 to 48 days in 2009).
The management through processes according to the EFQM model is an instrument for the improvement of the quality of assistance. This type of management allows for the definition of the unit's mission, the measure and analysis of results and for the establishment of areas of improvement.
The purpose of this study is to investigate if the MDA plasma concentrations are correlated to negative psychopathology in paranoid schizophrenic inpatients.
The sample was comprised by 38 patients who were admitted in the psychiatric ward of the University Hospital of the Canaries. Thirty eight patients were male and 9 were female with medium average age of 37.41±11.23. Exclusion criteria were psychoactive substance use, presence of acute or chronic organic pathology, treatment with immunosuppressive medication, pregnancy and mental retardation or severe cognitive impairment. There were performed two blood extractions following the circadian rhythm, at 12:00 and at 24:00 hours. One hour before night blood collection, each patient was placed in a reclined position in bed, with the eyes closed, in complete darkness and with eyes covered with a mask. Blood was centrifuged at 3.000 rpm for 10 minutes. Specific biological and psychopathological determinations were performed at admission and at discharge. Psychopathology was assessed with PANSS and by the same psychiatrist. Statistical analyses were carried out with the Social Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS). MDA was determined spectrophotometrically.
MDA level at night was 1.94±1.54 while MDA level at midday was 2.23±1.36.Mean PANSS negative score was 15.73±6.31.Serum MDA level correlated positively with PANSS negative scores, both at midday and night (midday r=0.39, p< 0.01, midnight r=0.41, p< 0.01).
The total negative subscale score correlated positively with day and night time levels of MDA, therefore we can conclude that MDA may be used as a marker of negative psychopathology.
We present the case of a schizophrenic patient with severe insomnia that had a partial response to high doses of benzodiazepines and sedating antipsychotics. Treatment with agomelatine allowed to suspend benzodiazepine treatment and restore quality of sleep.
Mr. Y is a 36 year old male patient diagnosed with simple schizophrenia that has complained of insomnia since the age of sixteen. During the last three years the treatment that the patient was following was stable and consisted of 100 mg of diazepam, 300 mg of levomepromazine and 120 mg of clotiapine every night. During the last year 60 mg of duloxetine were added to treat a moderate depression. His mood improved with the prescribed treatment, but eleven months later it worsened. In an attempt to simultaneously treat the mood and the sleep disorder, during a period of 4 days, a dosis of 12.5 mg of aglomelatin at dinner was introduced while the morning dose of duloxetine was reduced to 30mg. On the fifth day, agomelatine was increased to 25 mg at dinner while duloxetine was suspended. The antipsychotic treatment was kept stable while the patient was instructed to reduce 10 mg of diazepam every week until next appointment one month later. In the next appointment the patient had completely suspended diazepam one week before the appointment. The patient referred improved sleep quality and no rebound insomnia.
Agomelatine may be a valid treatment of insomnia in schizophrenia.
Suicide is a major public health problem, one of the leading causes of death and one of the first causes of years of life lost. It is a voluntary act that can be carried out by men and women, children and adults, rich and poor, people of every race and religion.
The aim of this text is to outline the most popular suicides and briefly discuss the representation of suicide in art. Painters such as Vincent Van Gogh, Edvard Munch, Jackson Pollock, musicians as Kurt Cobain, Jim Morrison, Janis Joplin, Jimi Hendrix, the actresses Lupe Vélez, Carole Landis, Pier Angeli, Capucine, Marylin Monroe, Lucy Gordon and the actors Heath Ledger and Freddie Prinze decided the end of their lives in different ways and at different stages.
In the literary field, we find the world renowned suicides of Socrates, Seneca and Caton. Other famous and more recent suicidal writers are Ernest Hemingway, Dylan Thomas, Virginia Woolf, Yukio Mishima, Alfonsina Stormi and Cesare Pavese among others.
Suicide has been represented in several plays and operas, not only people of flesh and blood kill themselves but also fictional characters. the love-death of Liu in Turandot and Tosca in the opera of the same name Are noteworthy, both were composed by Giacomo Puccini. In Hamlet, tragedy written by William Shakespeare, is Ophelia who dies drowning at the sea.
Stress and trauma have been reported as leading contributing factors in schizophrenia. And certainly child abuse (neglect, emotional, physical and sexual abuse among others) has a lasting negative impact, which is well established in literature.
To consider the presence of infant trauma and its relationship with psychopathology in paranoid schizophrenics.Methods. 37 patients (mean age 29±6.3; years from onset 9.20±4.7), meeting DSM IV paranoid schizophrenia criteria, undergoing treatment in a university hospital are studied. The PANSS is administered in order to rate psychopathology.
27 patients had infant trauma (55.8%). Main traumas are: sexual abuse (12.8%), child abuse (7.7%), both sexual and child abuse (5.18%), parental separation (7.7%), extra-rigid parents (2.6%), alcoholic parents (18.2%), child abuse and mother's death in childhood (2.6%). Infant trauma and psychopathology showed a significant relationship concerning Hostility (No 1.75±1.209, Yes 2.26±1.759), Unnatural Movements and Posture (No 1.55±0.945, Yes 1.16±0.545), Depression (No 1.25±0.550, Yes 1.74±1.284) and Preoccupation (No 2.75±1.410, Yes 3.26±1.996).
Infant trauma is common in paranoid schizophrenia and our findings give some evidence to a relationship with psychopathology, especially with dimensions as Hostility, Unnatural Movements and Posture, Depression and Preoccupation. Despite sample size, a high proportion (55.8%) of the patients presented infant trauma and future research is needed in order to open new avenues in this field, particularly studies concerning infant trauma and symptomatology specificity will be greatly appreciated as well as the plausible link to personality traits and personality disorders.
The use of psychoactive substances has been frequently associated with cognitive impairment. More and more people, including adolescents, use the plant hallucinogen beverage “ayahuasca” throughout the world. Long-term ayahuasca use by adolescents might eventually result in impaired cognitive performance.
The objective of this study is to assess neuropsychological performance of adolescents who consume ayahuasca within a religious ritual setting.
Forty ayahuasca consuming adolescents and forty adolescents who never used ayahuasca were compared on their performance on a battery of neuropsychological tests. Groups were matched by sex, age, and educational level.
Both groups performed well on all neuropsychological tests. However, there were differences between the groups. Controls outperformed subjects on more complex tests, that is, those requiring more cognitive functions to perform a specific task.
Adolescents who consume ayahuasca performed well on all the neuropsychological tests. However they did not perform as well as the control group whenever extra cognitive strength was required. It is possible that ayahuasca may have some subtle effect on cognition that can only be observed before highly demanding tasks. However, other variables may have interfered with these findings.
Diagnostic stability is the measure of the degree to which a diagnosis remains the same at subsequent assessments of the patient and constitutes a longitudinal validation of the original baseline diagnosis. Follow-up studies including evidence of diagnostic stability and diagnostic consistency over time have been proposed to test the validity of psychiatric diagnoses. Until this moment definitions for psychiatric diagnoses are based on expert opinion rather than on their biological basis, and the modest knowledge base regarding underlying etiologies has hindered the use of etiological factors in psychiatric classification systems. But it is assumed that the higher the diagnostic stability, the more likely is to reflect a consistent psychopathological or pathophysiological process. Being that the main clinical purpose of diagnosis, as a formulation, is to furnish the informational basis for planning and conducting clinical care, stability of a diagnosis gives a relevant base not only for prediction of the course and outcome of a disorder but also for effective planning and provision of treatment. The availability of longitudinal data, however, may cause significant fluctuations in diagnostic stability as changes in clinical presentation are seen. Thus, evolving longitudinal observations should lead to periodic updating of the comprehensive diagnostic formulation, and yet, despite the inherent problems derived from criteria based on cross-sectional observations, our diagnostic system relies on stable diagnoses. Accounting for the potentially harmful consequences of unsuitable treatment options or clinical interventions, the study of diagnostic stability remains an essential issue in psychiatry.