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Previous studies, based on clinic samples, report that enuresis in children is associated with behavior problems but the relationship between behavior problems and enuresis remains controversial. This population-based study investigates the prevalence and behavioral correlates of enuresis in a group of preschool children.
This cross-sectional survey involved 370 parents and their 5 to 7 years old children, all residents of Istanbul, Turkey. Parents completed the Child Behavior Checklist and sociodemographic data form. Fifty-three children with enuresis were compared to 303 nonsymptomatic children. Differences in the mean scores and the percentages of children falling beyond preselected clinical thresholds were compared across the groups.
The prevalence of enuresis was 14,9 and enuresis was more frequent among boys. Children with enuresis were reported by their parents to have greater social problems and total problem scores compared with control children (p = 0,019, p = 0,048 respectively). However there were no differences in the percentages of children falling beyond preselected clinical thresholds among the groups.
Enuresis is common in 5 to 7 years-old children. As a group, children with enuresis differ from children without enuresis on behavioral parameters, children with enuresis had the higher mean scores of behavioral problems than do controls, however clinically relevant behavioral problems did not showed differences between groups. Given the inconsistent research findings across studies, the longitudinal research and outcome effect studies could help determine whether there is a causal relationship between psychopathology and enuresis.
The relationship between obesity and Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder(ADHD) has been studied in recent years. It was indicated that the proportion of ADHD in children with obesity was high and body mass index (BMI) of children with ADHD was also higher than healthy controls . Impulsivity as a trait was found to be associated with obesity and predictor of future weight gain among children with obesity (2,3). From here, we aim to evaluate the impulsivity and ADHD symptoms among adults with obesity.
32 female patients with obesity (BMI>30) who admitted to the diet clinic of Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University Medical Faculty were recruited for the study. ADHD symptoms were evaluated with Wender Utah Rating Scale(WURS) while impulsivity was measured with Barratt Impulsiveness Scale(BIS).
Mean age, BMI, WURS and BIS scores of the patiens were 35.3 ± 10.8 years, 39.2 ± 6.2 kg., 35.8 ± 19.2 and 61.3 ± 10.4, respectively. 42.3% of the patiens had child and adolescent ADHD symptoms and one third still had ADHD symptoms in adulthood (12.5% inattentive, 9.4% hyperactive-impulsive, 6.2% combined). BIS total(p+0.003), BIS attention(p < 0.01) and self control(p = 0.004) sub-item scores were positively correlated with WURS total scores.
Our findings were consistent the literature that patients with obesity were more impulsive than healthy controls(4).
ADHD and impulsivity might have implications for weight regulation. Our findings may provide a frame work for future studies with bigger sample sizes aiming to detect the relationship between impulsivity and ADHD symptoms in patients with obesity.
Previous research indicates a high prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression among refugees. Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) is an effective treatment for PTSD for victims of natural disasters, car accidents or other traumatic events. The current study examined the effect of EMDR on symptoms of PTSD and depression by comparing the treatment with a wait-list control condition in Syrian refugees.
Adult refugees located in Kilis Refugee Camp at the Turkish–Syrian border with a PTSD diagnosis were randomly allocated to either EMDR (n = 37) or wait-list control (n = 33) conditions. All participants were assessed with the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview Plus at pre-intervention, at 1 week after finishing the intervention and at 5 weeks after finishing the intervention. The main outcome measures were the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (HTQ) and the Impact of Event Scale-Revised. The Beck Depression Inventory and the Hopkins Symptoms Checklist-25 were included as secondary outcome measures. The Trial Registration no. is NCT01847742.
Mixed-model analyses adjusted for the baseline scores indicated a significant effect of group at post-treatment indicating that the EMDR therapy group showed a significantly larger reduction of PTSD symptoms as assessed with the HTQ. Similar findings were found on the other outcome measures. There was no effect of time or group × time interaction on any measure, showing that the difference between the groups at the post-treatment was maintained to the 5-week follow-up.
EMDR may be effective in reducing PTSD and depression symptoms among Syrian refugees with PTSD located in a refugee camp.
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