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This study investigates how dietary patterns and scores are associated with subsequent BMI and waist:height ratio (WHtR), and how BMI and WHtR are associated with subsequent dietary patterns or scores, from 2–3 to 10–11 and 4–5 to 14–15 years of age. In the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children, height, weight and waist circumference were measured biennially in children, yielding BMI z-score and WHtR. Parents, latterly children, reported frequency of child consumption of 12–16 food/drink items during the previous 24 h. At each wave, we empirically derived dietary patterns using factor analyses, and dietary scores based on the 2013 Australian Dietary Guidelines. We used structural-equation modelling to investigate cross-lagged associations (n 1972–2882) between diet and body composition measures in univariable and multivariable analyses. Dietary scores/patterns did not consistently predict WHtR and BMI z-score in the next wave, nor did BMI z-score and WHtR consistently predict diet in the next wave. The few associations seen were weak and often in the opposite direction to that hypothesised. The largest effect, associated with each standard deviation increase in BMI in wave 5 of the K cohort (age 12–13 years), was a 0·06 standard deviation estimated mean increase in dietary score (higher quality diet) in the subsequent wave (95 % CI 0·02, 0·11, P=0·003). Associations between dietary patterns/scores and body composition were not strongly evident in either direction. Better quantitative childhood dietary tools feasible for large-scale administration are needed to quantify how dietary patterns, energy intake and anthropometry co-develop.
With the intention to inform future public health initiatives, we aimed to determine the extent to which typical childhood dietary trajectories predict adolescent cardiovascular phenotypes.
Longitudinal study. Exposure was determined by a 4 d food diary repeated over eight waves (ages 4–15 years), coded by Australian Dietary Guidelines and summed into a continuous diet score (0–14). Outcomes were adolescent (Wave 8, age 15 years) blood pressure, resting heart rate, pulse wave velocity, carotid intima-media thickness, retinal arteriole-to-venule ratio. Latent class analysis identified ‘typical’ dietary trajectories from childhood to adolescence. Adjusted linear regression models assessed relationships between trajectories and cardiovascular outcomes, adjusted for a priori potential confounders.
Community sample, Melbourne, Australia.
Children (n 188) followed from age 4 to 15 years.
Four dietary trajectories were identified: unhealthy (8 %); moderately unhealthy (25 %); moderately healthy (46 %); healthy (21 %). There was little evidence that vascular phenotypes associated with the trajectories. However, resting heart rate (beats/min) increased (β; 95 % CI) across the healthy (reference), moderately healthy (4·1; −0·6, 8·9; P=0·08), moderately unhealthy (4·5; −0·7, 9·7; P=0·09) and unhealthy (10·5; 2·9, 18·0; P=0·01) trajectories.
Decade-long dietary trajectories did not appear to influence macro- or microvascular structure or stiffness by mid-adolescence, but were associated with resting heart rate, suggesting an early-life window for prevention. Larger studies are needed to confirm these findings, the threshold of diet quality associated with these physiological changes and whether functional changes in heart rate are followed by phenotypic change.
To determine which parental health behaviours early in childhood most strongly predict whole-of-childhood dietary trajectories.
Population-based Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (LSAC, waves 1–6; 2004–2014). Exposures were parents’ fruit/vegetable consumption, alcohol, smoking and physical activity at child age 0–1 years (B Cohort) or 4–5 years (K Cohort). Outcomes, from repeated biennial short diet diaries, were group-based trajectories of (i) dietary scores and empirically derived patterns of (ii) healthful and (iii) unhealthful foods consumed, spanning ages 2–3 to 10–11 years (B Cohort) and 4–5 to 14–15 years (K Cohort). We investigated associations of baseline parental health behaviours with child dietary trajectories using multinomial logistic regression.
Of children, 4443 (87·0 %) from the B Cohort and 4620 (92·7 %) from the K Cohort were included in all trajectories. Multivariable analyses included 2719 to 2905 children and both parents.
Children whose primary caregiver reported the lowest fruit/vegetable consumption had markedly higher odds of belonging to the least healthy score and pattern trajectories (K Cohort: OR=8·7, 95 % CI 5·0, 15·1 and OR=8·4, 95 % CI 4·8, 14·7, respectively); associations were weaker (K Cohort: OR=2·3, 95 % CI 1·0, 5·2) for the unhealthiest pattern trajectory. Secondary caregiver fruit/vegetable associations were smaller and inconsistent. Parental alcohol, smoking and physical activity were not predictive in multivariable analyses. Results were largely replicated for the B Cohort.
Low primary caregiver fruit/vegetable consumption increased nearly ninefold the odds of children being in the lowest intake of healthy, but only weakly predicted unhealthy, food trajectories. Healthy and unhealthy food intake may have different determinants.
Antipsychotics are commonly used, and the rate of use is highest, among those aged 65 years or over, where the risk of adverse events is also high. Up to 20% of younger adults use more than one antipsychotic concurrently; however there are few studies on the prevalence of antipsychotic polypharmacy in older people. We aimed to analyze antipsychotic use in elderly Australians, focusing on the prevalence of antipsychotic polypharmacy and the use of medicines to manage adverse events associated with antipsychotics.
A cross-sectional study was conducted using Australian Department of Veterans’ Affairs (DVA) administrative claims data for the period 1 March 2014 to 30 June 2014. Veterans dispensed at least one antipsychotic medicine during the study period was included. We determined the number of participants dispensed antipsychotic polypharmacy and the number of participants dispensed medicines to manage antipsychotic side effects.
There were 7,412 participants with a median age of 86 years. Fifty-one percent (n=3,784) were women and 48% (n=3,569) lived in residential aged-care. Fifty one participants (0.7%) were dispensed anticholinergic medicines indicated for the management of antipsychotic-associated extrapyramidal movement disorders and eight (0.1%) were dispensed medicines for the management of hyperprolactinemia. Five percent of participants (n=365) received dual antipsychotics. Dual antipsychotic users were more likely to be under the care of a psychiatrist or to have had a mental health hospitalization than those using a single antipsychotic.
Antipsychotic polypharmacy occurred in one in 20 elderly persons, indicating that there is room for improvement in antipsychotic use in elderly patients.
To determine perception v. actual intakes of energy-dense nutrient-poor ‘junk food’ (JF) and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) in young adults, using the mobile food record (mFR).
Before-and-after eating images using a 4 d mFR were assessed for standardised 600 kJ (143 kcal) servings of JF and SSB (excluding diet drinks). Participants reported their concern about the health aspects of their diet, perceptions and intentions regarding JF and SSB.
Perth, Western Australia.
Adults (n 246) aged 18–30 years.
The mean (sd) intake of JF+SSB was 3·7 (2·0) servings/d. Women thinking about drinking less SSB consumed more SSB servings/d (1·5 (1·2)) than men (0·7 (0·5); P<0·05) who were thinking about drinking less. Men not thinking about cutting down JF consumed more servings/d (4·6 (2·4)) than women (2·5 (0·7); P<0·01) who were not thinking about cutting down. Those who paid a lot of attention to the health aspects of their diet consumed less JF+SSB than those who took only a bit of notice (P<0·001), were not really thinking much about it (P<0·001) or who didn’t think at all about the health aspects of food (P<0·01).
Perceptions and attitudes regarding JF and SSB were associated with level of consumption. Those not thinking about cutting down their intake of these foods represent an important target group as they consume more than their peers. Further research is needed to identify how amenable young adults are to changing their intake, particularly given the lack of attention paid to the health aspects of their diet.
This study aimed to derive and compare longitudinal trajectories of dietary scores and patterns from 2–3 to 10–11 years and from 4–5 to 14–15 years of age. In waves two to six of the Baby (B) Cohort and one to six of the Kindergarten (K) Cohort of the population-based Longitudinal Study of Australian Children, parents or children reported biennially on the study child’s consumption of twelve to sixteen healthy and less healthy food or drink items for the previous 24 h. For each wave, we derived a dietary score from 0 to 14, based on the 2013 Australian Dietary Guidelines (higher scores indicating healthier diet). We then used factor analyses to empirically derive dietary patterns for separate waves. Using group-based trajectory modelling, we generated trajectories of dietary scores and empirical patterns in 4504 B and 4640 K Cohort children. Four similar trajectories of dietary scores emerged for the B and K Cohorts, containing comparable proportions of children in each cohort: ‘never healthy’ (8·8 and 11·9 %, respectively), ‘moderately healthy’ (24·0 and 20·7 %), ‘becoming less healthy’ (16·6 and 27·3 %) and ‘always healthy’ (50·7 and 40·2 %). Deriving trajectories based on dietary patterns, rather than dietary scores, produced similar findings. For ‘becoming less healthy’ trajectories, dietary quality appeared to worsen from 7 years of age in both cohorts. In conclusion, a brief dietary measure administered repeatedly across childhood generated robust, nuanced dietary trajectories that were replicable across two cohorts and two methodologies. These trajectories appear ideal for future research into dietary determinants and health outcomes.
For nutrition practitioners and researchers, assessing dietary intake of children and adults with a high level of accuracy continues to be a challenge. Developments in mobile technologies have created a role for images in the assessment of dietary intake. The objective of this review was to examine peer-reviewed published papers covering development, evaluation and/or validation of image-assisted or image-based dietary assessment methods from December 2013 to January 2016. Images taken with handheld devices or wearable cameras have been used to assist traditional dietary assessment methods for portion size estimations made by dietitians (image-assisted methods). Image-assisted approaches can supplement either dietary records or 24-h dietary recalls. In recent years, image-based approaches integrating application technology for mobile devices have been developed (image-based methods). Image-based approaches aim at capturing all eating occasions by images as the primary record of dietary intake, and therefore follow the methodology of food records. The present paper reviews several image-assisted and image-based methods, their benefits and challenges; followed by details on an image-based mobile food record. Mobile technology offers a wide range of feasible options for dietary assessment, which are easier to incorporate into daily routines. The presented studies illustrate that image-assisted methods can improve the accuracy of conventional dietary assessment methods by adding eating occasion detail via pictures captured by an individual (dynamic images). All of the studies reduced underreporting with the help of images compared with results with traditional assessment methods. Studies with larger sample sizes are needed to better delineate attributes with regards to age of user, degree of error and cost.
The Paramyxida, closely related to haplosporidians, paradinids, and mikrocytids, is an obscure order of parasitic protists within the class Ascetosporea. All characterized ascetosporeans are parasites of invertebrate hosts, including molluscs, crustaceans and polychaetes. Representatives of the genus Marteilia are the best studied paramyxids, largely due to their impact on cultured oyster stocks, and their listing in international legislative frameworks. Although several examples of microsporidian hyperparasitism of paramyxids have been reported, phylogenetic data for these taxa are lacking. Recently, a microsporidian parasite was described infecting the paramyxid Marteilia cochillia, a serious pathogen of European cockles. In the current study, we investigated the phylogeny of the microsporidian hyperparasite infecting M. cochillia in cockles and, a further hyperparasite, Unikaryon legeri infecting the digenean Meiogymnophallus minutus, also in cockles. We show that rather than representing basally branching taxa in the increasingly replete Cryptomycota/Rozellomycota outgroup (containing taxa such as Mitosporidium and Paramicrosoridium), these hyperparasites instead group with other known microsporidian parasites infecting aquatic crustaceans. In doing so, we erect a new genus and species (Hyperspora aquatica n. gn., n.sp.) to contain the hyperparasite of M. cochillia and clarify the phylogenetic position of U. legeri. We propose that in both cases, hyperparasitism may provide a strategy for the vectoring of microsporidians between hosts of different trophic status (e.g. molluscs to crustaceans) within aquatic systems. In particular, we propose that the paramyxid hyperparasite H. aquatica may eventually be detected as a parasite of marine crustaceans. The potential route of transmission of the microsporidian between the paramyxid (in its host cockle) to crustaceans, and, the ‘hitch-hiking’ strategy employed by H. aquatica is discussed.
The present report is drastically shorter and, therefore, different in form from previous reports. While galactic research has increased considerably in recent years, the financial situation in the IAU made it necessary to reduce the size of the reports to half their previous size. This obliged us to adopt an almost telegraphic style in our report. However, an extended version of the report, including also the necessary references, will be published by the University of Thessaloniki and distributed to members of Commission 33. Any other interested astronomer may write to ask for a copy.
The report has been prepared by G. Contopoulos (Sections I, V, VI) and S. McCuskey (Sections II, III, IV). In our work we have been helped by Drs Kerr (radio astronomy) and Haradze (Russian contributions). Dr Elvius has written the Report of the Committee “Selected Areas”. We could cover the literature up to the fall of 1969, plus work in progress, reported by members of our commission.
The present study aimed to evaluate the precision, ease of use and likelihood of future use of portion size estimation aids (PSEA).
A range of PSEA were used to estimate the serving sizes of a range of commonly eaten foods and rated for ease of use and likelihood of future usage.
For each food, participants selected their preferred PSEA from a range of options including: quantities and measures; reference objects; measuring; and indicators on food packets. These PSEA were used to serve out various foods (e.g. liquid, amorphous, and composite dishes). Ease of use and likelihood of future use were noted. The foods were weighed to determine the precision of each PSEA.
Males and females aged 18–64 years (n 120).
The quantities and measures were the most precise PSEA (lowest range of weights for estimated portion sizes). However, participants preferred household measures (e.g. 200 ml disposable cup) – deemed easy to use (median rating of 5), likely to use again in future (all scored either 4 or 5 on a scale from 1=‘not very likely’ to 5=‘very likely to use again’) and precise (narrow range of weights for estimated portion sizes). The majority indicated they would most likely use the PSEA preparing a meal (94 %), particularly dinner (86 %) in the home (89 %; all P<0·001) for amorphous grain foods.
Household measures may be precise, easy to use and acceptable aids for estimating the appropriate portion size of amorphous grain foods.
Extensive research into the impact of nutrition labelling across Europe has shown that many consumers can effectively use a nutrition label to rank a food for healthiness. The present paper considers observational and laboratory evidence which has examined the impact of nutrition labelling (on food packaging and at point of purchase) on dietary behaviour. In addition, the potential counterproductive effects of foods bearing ‘healthy’ nutrition labels are examined. The observational evidence provides a useful insight into the key characteristics of nutrition label use. Those most likely to engage with nutrition labels are more likely to have a diet related disease and/or be on a weight loss diet and have a good overall diet quality. Experimental evidence, while limited, suggests that serving size information may be overlooked by consumers. In fact, there may be a tendency among consumers to overeat foods that are perceived to be healthier. The findings from the present paper suggest that if nutrition labelling is to be considered a strategy to facilitate consumers in managing their energy intake, it must coincide with salient, consistent and simple serving size information on the front of food packages and at the point of purchase. There is a clear need for more experimental research using robust methodologies, to examine the impact of nutrition information on dietary intake. In the meantime, there should be greater attention given to portion size within national dietary guidance.
Inclusion of fermentable fibres in the diet can have an impact on the hindgut microbiome and provide numerous health benefits to the host. Potato fibre (PF), a co-product of potato starch isolation, has a favourable chemical composition of pectins, resistant and digestible starch, cellulose, and hemicelluloses. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of increasing dietary PF concentrations on the faecal microbiome of healthy adult dogs. Fresh faecal samples were collected from ten female dogs with hound bloodlines (6·13 (sem 0·17) years; 22·0 (sem 2·1) kg) fed five test diets containing graded concentrations of PF (0, 1·5, 3, 4·5 or 6 % as-fed; Roquette Frères) in a replicated 5 × 5 Latin square design. Extraction of DNA was followed by amplification of the V4–V6 variable region of the 16S rRNA gene using barcoded primers. Sequences were classified into taxonomic levels using Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLASTn) against a curated GreenGenes database. Inclusion of PF increased (P< 0·05) the faecal proportions of Firmicutes, while those of Fusobacteria decreased (P< 0·05). Similar shifts were observed at the genus level and were confirmed by quantitative PCR (qPCR) analysis. With increasing concentrations of PF, faecal proportions of Faecalibacterium increased (P< 0·05). Post hoc Pearson's correlation analysis showed positive (P< 0·05) correlations with Bifidobacterium spp. and butyrate production and Lactobacillus spp. concentrations. Overall, increases in the proportion of Faecalibacterium (not Lactobacillus/Bifidobacterium, as confirmed by qPCR analysis) and faecal SCFA concentrations with increasing dietary PF concentrations suggest that PF is a possible prebiotic fibre.
Extruded cat foods differ greatly in macronutrient distribution compared with wild-type diets (i.e. small mammals, reptiles, birds and insects). Based on the literature, this variability likely impacts faecal microbial populations. A completely randomised design was utilised to test the impacts of two dietary treatments on faecal microbial populations: (1) chicken-based extruded diet (EXT; n 3 cats) and (2) raw 1–3-d-old chicks (CHI; n 5 cats). Cats were adapted to diets for 10 d. Bacterial DNA was isolated from faecal samples and amplicons of the 16S rRNA V4–V6 region were generated and analysed by 454 pyrosequencing. Faeces of cats fed CHI had greater (P < 0·05) proportions of the following bacterial genera: unidentified Lachnospiraceae (15 v. 5 %), Peptococcus (9 v. 3 %) and Pseudobutyrivibrio (4 v. 1 %). Faeces of cats fed EXT had greater (P < 0·05) proportions of Faecalibacterium (1·0 v. 0·2 %) and Succinivibrio (1·2 v. < 0·1 %). Five genera, including Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium, were present in a majority of samples (two to three out of three) from cats fed EXT, but were not detected in the samples (zero of five) for cats fed CHI. These shifts in faecal bacterial populations compared with feeding a whole-prey diet may impact the functional capacities of the microbiota and its interaction with the host. Further research is warranted to determine the impacts of these shifts on long-term health of domestic cats.
There has been a recent increase in the feeding of unconventional diets, including whole-prey diets, to domestic pet cats. Our objective was to characterise faecal microbial populations of domestic cats fed whole and ground (6·35 mm grind) raw 1–3-d-old chicks (Rodent Pro). Faecal samples were collected from neutered male domestic cats (mean age = 5·7 years) fed these diet items in a crossover design. Bacterial DNA was isolated from faecal samples and amplicons of the 16S rRNA V4–V6 region were generated and analysed by 454 pyrosequencing. Faecal microbial populations of cats fed whole v. ground chicks did not differ. During the study, three cats presented with symptoms of infection (anorexia or diarrhoea) and tested clinically positive for Salmonella using a standard PCR method. The remaining cats tested negative. Data were analysed post hoc to test for differences in microbial populations due to clinical status. The predominant genera were Clostridium (9–30 %), unidentified Lachnospiraceae (10–28 %), Blautia (4–19 %), Peptococcus (2–19 %) and Fusobacterium (2–14 %). Faeces of cats testing clinically positive for Salmonella had higher (P ≤ 0·05) proportions of the genera Coprococcus (5·6 v. 0·4 %) and Escherichia (subgenera Shigella; 1·1 v. 0·3 %). Salmonella was not detected in faecal samples utilising the pyrosequencing method; however, there was a shift in microbial populations due to clinical status. The clinical symptoms reported herein may be not only due to the Salmonella itself, but also shifts in other gut microbial populations.
Childhood obesity is of concern worldwide. The portion size (PS) and energy density (ED) of food are two major determinants of children's energy intake (EI). Trends towards increasing PS are most apparent and best documented in the USA, where PS of numerous food products have increased in the marketplace over the past three decades, particularly high-energy dense foods. Analyses of population-level dietary surveys have confirmed this trend in children for both in- and out-of-home eating, and a plethora of observational evidence positively associates PS, ED and adiposity in children. A limited number of intervention studies provide clear evidence that children, even as young as 2 years, respond acutely to increasing PS, with some studies also demonstrating the additive effects of increased ED in promoting excessive EI. However, most of the evidence is based on children aged 3–6 years and there is a paucity of data in older children and adolescents. It is unclear whether decreasing PS can have the opposite effect on children's EI but recent acute studies have demonstrated that the incorporation of lower energy dense foods, such as fruit and vegetables, into children's meals down-regulates EI. Although a direct causal link between PS and obesity remains to be established, the regular consumption of larger PS of energy dense foods do favour obesity-promoting eating behaviours in children. Further research is required to establish the most feasible and effective interventions and policies to counteract the deleterious impact of PS and ED on children's EI.