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The naturalization of alien Reeves's muntjacs (Muntiacus reevesi) on Izu-Oshima Island, Tokyo, Japan, has proceeded intensively over the last five decades. To clarify whether the gastrointestinal helminths of these animals were brought from their original endemic area or were newly acquired in Japan, 32 Reeves's muntjacs trapped on the island were parasitologically examined. In addition to Gongylonema pulchrum in the oesophagus (34.4% prevalence), Chabaudstrongylus ninhae (Dróżdż, 1967) (Trichostrongylidae: Cooperiinae) and Oesophagostomum muntiacum Jian, 1989 (Chabertiidae: Oesophagostominae) were prevalent in the small (28.1%) and large (46.9%) intestines, respectively. For the first time, these trichostrongylid or chabertiid worms were genetically characterized based on partial nucleotide sequences of the nuclear ribosomal RNA gene (rDNA) and mitochondrial DNA cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene (cox-1), and the phylogenetic relationships with other members of their family were explored. Since these two intestinal nematode species are inherent in muntjacs, this study demonstrates a new distribution of exotic helminth species in Japan in accordance with the naturalization of alien mammalian hosts. The molecular genetic data collected here could assist the taxonomic assessment of morphological variants in different Muntiacus spp. and/or of different geographical origins. Furthermore, our data may help to define the phylogenetic relationships among such isolates.
Latin American fiscal policy presents a stark challenge to standard analytical models of political economy. Most importantly, since about 1990 the combination of drastic inequality, electoral democracy, and weak redistributive efforts appears to contradict the economists’ workhorse, the median-voter model, which predicts significant fiscal redistribution under these conditions (Meltzer and Richard, 1981; Profeta and Scabrosetti, 2008: 70–71; Huber and Stephens, 2012). However, recent innovations – a “basic universalism” in social welfare and a couple of progressive tax reforms – might be thought to bring the region more in line with the model's predictions, or perhaps those of other approaches. In short, this field could benefit from theoretical clarification. This paper evaluates the performance of median-voter and several other models in an attempt to explain longstanding differences in fiscal policy. It compares Latin America with other world regions, first and mainly, before examining variation across the region. It then turns its attention to the new developments in policy.
We wholeheartedly agree with Miner et al. (2018) that industrial and organizational (I-O) psychologists should take a lead in addressing gender inequity in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields. The focal article is particularly timely in light of the recent controversial “Google memo” (Damore, 2017), in which a senior software engineer endorsed the same individual-level myths regarding the gender gap in STEM that were critiqued by Miner et al. (2018). However, we caution against painting all STEM fields with the same broad brush. We argue that it is critical for I-O psychologists to be aware of important differences between STEM subfields, as these distinctions suggest that a “one-size-fits-all” approach may be inadequate for addressing existing gender disparities in STEM. In order to be maximally effective, interventions may need to emphasize distinct issues and target different points in the career pipeline depending on the specific STEM subfield in question.
The Neolithic in north-east Asia is defined by the presence of ceramic containers, rather than agriculture, among hunter-gatherer communities. The role of pottery in such groups has, however, hitherto been unclear. This article presents the results of organic residue analysis of Neolithic pottery from Sakhalin Island in the Russian Far East. Results indicate that early pottery on Sakhalin was used for the processing of aquatic species, and that its adoption formed part of a wider Neolithic transition involving the reorientation of local lifeways towards the exploitation of marine resources.
The Global Muon Detector Network (GMDN) is composed by four ground cosmic ray detectors distributed around the Earth: Nagoya (Japan), Hobart (Australia), Sao Martinho da Serra (Brazil) and Kuwait city (Kuwait). The network has operated since March 2006. It has been upgraded a few times, increasing its detection area. Each detector is sensitive to muons produced by the interactions of ~50 GeV Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR) with the Earth′s atmosphere. At these energies, GCR are known to be affected by interplanetary disturbances in the vicinity of the earth. Of special interest are the interplanetary counterparts of coronal mass ejections (ICMEs) and their driven shocks because they are known to be the main origins of geomagnetic storms. It has been observed that these ICMEs produce changes in the cosmic ray gradient, which can be measured by GMDN observations. In terms of applications for space weather, some attempts have been made to use GMDN for forecasting ICME arrival at the earth with lead times of the order of few hours. Scientific space weather studies benefit the most from the GMDN network. As an example, studies have been able to determine ICME orientation at the earth using cosmic ray gradient. Such determinations are of crucial importance for southward interplanetary magnetic field estimates, as well as ICME rotation.
Polarization measurements of the radio Arc were made with the VLA at 15 GHz. High frequency polarimetry made with high spatial resolution minimizes Faraday depolarization and reveals polarized filaments which correspond to the predominant filaments of the radio Arc. We notice a peculiar linear feature in the polarization map (“thorns”) which suggests the presence of a second magnetic field system. The total intensity maps show no evidence for an interaction between the two field systems, so the thorns may be foreground magnetized structures. However, if the two magnetic field systems do interact, it would allow a model in which the acceleration of relativistic particles takes place at their intersection. The accelerated particles would flow toward both ends of the radio Arc, and account for the intrinsic polarization observed along the entire length of the system. Thermal electrons responsible for the Faraday depolarization occuring at longer wavelengths may be supplied by the interaction of the streams of relativistic particles with relatively dense, ambient thermal clouds.
Two large sinusoidal variations with periods of 3.337 hrs and 2.018 hrs and other smaller variations have been detected from the period analysis of Hel Λ 6678 spectra obtained by our multi-site campaign for ζ Oph in May, 1993. The resultant periodgram is considerably improved (aliasing free) from those in previous publications. The periodicity may be consistent with previous studies except ambiguities of aliasing. It is surprising that almost all detected periods have a common superperiodicity of about 10.05 hrs. We emphasise the importance of multi-site campaign for the study of line-profile variations (lpv) in early-type stars.
Alumina matrix solidification is a hot isostatic pressing (HIP) technique used to immobilize radioactive iodine (129I) in the form of silver iodide. In the present study, an alumina matrix solidification sample with a porosity of 12.9% was obtained by performing HIP at 175 MPa and 1200°C for 3 hours on a simulated spent silver-sorbent saturated with stable iodine. Material Characterization Centre-1 (MCC-1) leaching tests for the simulated waste form were performed using hydrosulfide (HS-) as a reductant at concentrations ranging from 3 × 10-7 M to 3 × 10-3 M and at pH values ranging from 8.0 to 12.5. Leached iodine concentrations were below the detection limit for ICP-MS measurements at HS- concentrations of 3 × 10-7 M and 3 × 10-5 M. This result was due to the stability of AgI. At an HS- concentration of 3 × 10-3 M, iodine leaching rapidly increased within 10 days. The maximum iodine concentration in the solution was 4.33 × 10-3 M, which corresponds to 85% dissolution of the initial iodine. This value was measured after 552 days under an HS- concentration of 3 × 10-3 M at pH 11. An analysis of specimen cross-sections suggested the following reaction: 2AgI + HS- = Ag2S + 2I- + H+. The pH affected matrix aluminum dissolution but did not significantly affect the iodine leaching behavior. Furthermore, the normalized mass loss of iodine was larger than that of aluminum by a factor greater than 104, which is due to the large porosity and the dissolution of interior AgI of the solid.
We studied GeTe structures in topological switching random access memories (TRAMs) with a [GeTe/Sb2Te3] superlattice by using X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. We examined the electrical characteristics of the TRAMs deposited at different temperatures. We found that XRD spectra differed between the films deposited at 200 and 240°C and that the differences corresponded to the differences in the GeTe sequences in the films.
AFM induced local anodic oxidation of HOPG was carried out in various conditions such as humidity, applied voltage and scan speed. A clear evidence of different oxidation features between HOPG and graphene has been confirmed and discussed.
These results should contribute to the progress of the micro/nano fabrication of graphene by the local anodic oxidation.
SiC bulk single crystal growth by sublimation was investigated. A new crucible design, double-walled crucible, was proposed, and its effect was confirmed numerically and experimentally. On the point of heat transfer in a growth cavity, double-walled crucible is better than conventional crucible. With a double-walled crucible, temperature of seed and source surfaces could be kept constant with better uniformity than that with a conventional crucible. It was deduced that a crystal growth rate could be kept constant with flat surface. Furthermore, in case of a double walled crucible, crystal enlarged rapidly with less inclusion. As the results, a double-walled crucible is useful to grow high quality SiC single crystal by sublimation.
n-type 3C-SiC was heteroepitaxially grown on n-type Si(100) substrates using HMDS (hexamethyldisilane) and characterized by DLTS (deep level transient spectroscopy) measurements. In order to investigate relationship of defect density with epilayer thickness, epilayers with various thicknesses were grown. Relatively thin (<1.0μm thick) epilayers were found to contain defects with energy levels distributed in a wide energy range, while relatively thick (>2.2μm thick) epilayers contain a defect with an activation energy of 0.25eV. This defect level is slightly shallower than that in 3C-SiC grown by SiH4 and C3H8 (∼0.3eV).
Organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) containing cathode buffer layers of nanometer thickness were fabricated and their electrical and emitting properties were investigated. The OLEDs have an indium tin oxide (ITO) anode/ copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) / N, N'-dephenyl-N,N'-bis(3-methylphenyl)-1,1'-diphenyl-4,4'-diamine (TPD) / 8- hydroxyquinoline aluminum (Alq3) / buffer layer / Al cathode structure with the buffer layers made from alternating thin films of Alq3 and Al with nanometer thickness. Improvement of driving voltage and the efficiency for the devices were observed by insertion of the buffer layer. It was estimated that some modulations of the Schottky barrier at the Alq3 and the Al cathode interface were induced due to the insertion of the buffer layer and it caused an enhancement of electron injection from the Al cathode. A model of the band structure at the buffer layer was proposed.
Agglomeration has occurred during zone-melting to obtain single-crystal germanium layers because of insufficient wettability between germanium and silicon-dioxide. The agglomeration could be suppressed by controlling the capping layer thickness, germanium layer thickness, and the island shape. A rotation of crystal orientation was found in the stripe shape island, which was presumably caused by the stress relieving within an island.
Stoichiometric and Ti-doped LiNbO3 films could be synthesized by the organometallic route. The films were epitaxially crystallized at temperatures around 400°C on sapphire substrates. The reaction control of alkoxides in solvent was found to be very critical for adjusting the stoichiometry and the low temperature crystallization, as well as the crystallization in water vapor stream.
Homoionic-montmorillonite-p-aminoazobenzene intercalation compounds were prepared by novel solid-solid reactions at room temperature. When Na-, Ca- and Ni-montmorillonites were used as host materials, the absorption maxima of p-aminoazobenzene changed considerably upon intercalation, causing the difficulty of studying photochemical behavior of the intercalated dyes. The n-dodecylammonium-montmorillonite-p-aminoazobenzene intercalation compound gave an absorption spectrum similar to that observed for p-aminoazobenzene dissolved in benzene. The intercalated paminoazobenzene in the interlayer space of n-dodecylammoniummontmorillonite exhibited reversible cis-trans photoisomerization by irradiation of UV light.
Methylviologen dication was intercalated to some layered semiconducting oxides, and the photoinduced electron transfer between the hosts and the guest was investigated. K4 Nb6O17, H2 Ti4O9, and HTiNbO5 were used as the layered oxides. The arrangements of methylviologen in the interlayers were deduced from the XRD results. UV irradiation of the intercalation compounds caused electron transfer from the hosts to the guest to form methylviologen radical cations. The radical cations were stable within a few minutes even in the presence of oxygen, and the decaying rates altered with the hosts. The difference was discussed on the basis of the structure of the intercalation compounds.
Removal of natural pore during capsule hot isostatic pressing (HIP) and normal sintering were examined directly with the novel liquid immersion technique, which can reveal details of micro-structure and characterize flaw-forming defects of microns-size in lightly densified specimens. The results were supplemented by the pore size measurement with the mercury porosimetry, microstructural examination with SEM as well as microstructural examination of specimens after final densification. The behaviors in both pore size and shape changes were different in HIP and normal sintering. Removal of large pores of microns-size started from the beginning of densification in HIP. Whereas large pores grow with densification in normal sintering. Large pores changes their shape drastically in HIP, but hardly changes in normal sintering. The behavior of pore in the early stage of densification is closely related to the microstructure of densified specimen; without HIP, large defects of processing origin are present in near-fully dense specimen. These observations were discussed in terms of current sintering theory.
Two types of plastic modules for laser diodes and photodiodes are developed and tested under various environmental conditions. The stable operations for both types of modules are confirmed under various long-term aging tests, high humidity high temperature tests (85°C, 85% RH), and temperature cycling tests (-40 / +85°C). These plastic moduless are potentially suitable for economic access networks.