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To determine whether the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America (SHEA) and the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) severity criteria adequately predicts poor outcomes.
Retrospective validation study.
Setting and participants:
Patients with CDI in the Veterans’ Affairs Health System from January 1, 2006, to December 31, 2016.
For the 2010 criteria, patients with leukocytosis or a serum creatinine (SCr) value ≥1.5 times the baseline were classified as severe. For the 2018 criteria, patients with leukocytosis or a SCr value ≥1.5 mg/dL were classified as severe. Poor outcomes were defined as hospital or intensive care admission within 7 days of diagnosis, colectomy within 14 days, or 30-day all-cause mortality; they were modeled as a function of the 2010 and 2018 criteria separately using logistic regression.
We analyzed data from 86,112 episodes of CDI. Severity was unclassifiable in a large proportion of episodes diagnosed in subacute care (2010, 58.8%; 2018, 49.2%). Sensitivity ranged from 0.48 for subacute care using 2010 criteria to 0.73 for acute care using 2018 criteria. Areas under the curve were poor and similar (0.60 for subacute care and 0.57 for acute care) for both versions, but negative predictive values were >0.80.
Model performances across care settings and criteria versions were generally poor but had reasonably high negative predictive value. Many patients in the subacute-care setting, an increasing fraction of CDI cases, could not be classified. More work is needed to develop criteria to identify patients at risk of poor outcomes.
Introduction: Patients with Heart failure (HF) experience frequent decompensation necessitating multiple emergency department (ED) visits and hospitalizations. If patients are able to receive timely interventions and optimize self-management, recurrent ED visits may be reduced. In this feasibility study, we piloted the application of home telemonitoring to support the discharge of HF patients from hospital to home. We hypothesized that TEC4Home would decrease ED revisits and hospital admissions and improve patient health outcomes. Methods: Upon discharge from the ED or hospital, patients with HF received a blood pressure cuff, weight scale, pulse oximeter, and a touchscreen tablet. Participants submitted measurements and answered questions on the tablet about their HF symptoms daily for 60 days. Data were reviewed by a monitoring nurse. From November 2016 to July 2017, 69 participants were recruited from Vancouver General Hospital (VGH), St. Pauls Hospital (SPH) and Kelowna General Hospital (KGH). Participants completed pre-surveys at enrollement and post-surveys 30 days after monitoring finished. Administrative data related to ED visits and hospital admissions were reviewed. Interviews were conducted with the monitoring nurses to assess the impact of monitoring on patient health outcomes. Results: A preliminary analysis was conducted on a subsample of participants (n=22) enrolled across all 3 sites by March 31, 2017. At VGH and SPH (n=14), 25% fewer patients required an ED visit in the post-survey reporting compared to pre-survey. During the monitoring period, the monitoring nurse observed seven likely avoided ED admissions due to early intervention. In total, admissions were reduced by 20% and total hospital length of stay reduced by 69%. At KGH (n=8), 43% fewer patients required an ED visit in the post-survey reporting compared to the pre-survey. Hospital admissions were reduced by 20% and total hospital length of stay reduced by 50%. Overall, TEC4Home participants from all sites showed a significant improvement in health-related quality of life and in self-care behaviour pre- to 90 days post-monitoring. A full analysis of the 69 patients will be complete in February 2018. Conclusion: Preliminary findings indicate that home telemonitoring for HF patients can decrease ED revisits and improve patient experience. The length of stay data may also suggest the potential for early discharge of ED patients with home telemonitoring to avoid or reduce hospitalization. A stepped-wedge randomized controlled trial of TEC4Home in 22 BC communities will be conducted in 2018 to generate evidence and scale up the service in urban, regional and rural communities. This work is submitted on behalf of the TEC4Home Healthcare Innovation Community.
The effectiveness of salt iodisation in improving the mental development of young children has not been assessed. We implemented a community-based cluster-randomised effectiveness trial in sixty randomly selected districts in the Amhara region of Ethiopia. We randomly allocated each district to treatment and randomly selected one of its villages. In parallel to national salt iodisation efforts, iodised salt was brought early into the markets of the thirty intervention villages before it became widely available in the thirty control villages 4–6 months later. The primary outcome was children’s mental development scores on the Bayley Scales. This was an intention-to-treat analysis using mixed linear models adjusted for covariates and clusters. The trial was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT013496. We assessed 1835 infants aged 5–11 months at baseline. The same children (85 % of the sample) were re-assessed at 20–29 months when all villages had iodised salt. At endline, urinary iodine concentration was higher in children in the intervention group compared with those in the control group (median 228·0 v. 155·1 µg/l, P=0·001). The intervention group had higher scores compared with the control group on the Bayley composite score (raw scores:130·60 v. 128·51; standardised scores: 27·8 v. 26·9; d=0·13; 95 % CI 0·02, 0·23) and three of the four subscales: cognitive (53·27 v. 52·54, d=0·13; 95 % CI 0·03, 0·23), receptive language (20·71 v. 20·18, d=0·13; 95 % CI 0·03, 0·24) and fine motor (35·45 v. 34·94, d=0·15; 95 % CI 0·04, 0·25). The introduction of iodised salt contributes to children’s higher urinary iodine concentration and mental development.
Despite a reported worldwide increase, the incidence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) Escherichia coli and Klebsiella infections in the United States is unknown. Understanding the incidence and trends of ESBL infections will aid in directing research and prevention efforts.
To perform a literature review to identify the incidence of ESBL-producing E. coli and Klebsiella infections in the United States.
Systematic literature review.
MEDLINE via Ovid, CINAHL, Cochrane library, NHS Economic Evaluation Database, Web of Science, and Scopus were searched for multicenter (≥2 sites), US studies published between 2000 and 2015 that evaluated the incidence of ESBL-E. coli or ESBL-Klebsiella infections. We excluded studies that examined resistance rates alone or did not have a denominator that included uninfected patients such as patient days, device days, number of admissions, or number of discharges. Additionally, articles that were not written in English, contained duplicated data, or pertained to ESBL organisms from food, animals, or the environment were excluded.
Among 51,419 studies examined, 9 were included for review. Incidence rates differed by patient population, time, and ESBL definition and ranged from 0 infections per 100,000 patient days to 16.64 infections per 10,000 discharges and incidence rates increased over time from 1997 to 2011. Rates were slightly higher for ESBL-Klebsiella infections than for ESBL-E. coli infections.
The incidence of ESBL-E. coli and ESBL-Klebsiella infections in the United States has increased, with slightly higher rates of ESBL-Klebsiella infections. Appropriate estimates of ESBL infections when coupled with other mechanisms of resistance will allow for the appropriate targeting of resources toward research, drug discovery, antimicrobial stewardship, and infection prevention.
The purpose of this study was to quantify the effect of multidrug-resistant (MDR) gram-negative bacteria and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) on mortality following infection, regardless of patient location.
We conducted a retrospective cohort study of patients with an inpatient admission in the US Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) system between October 1, 2007, and November 30, 2010. We constructed multivariate log-binomial regressions to assess the impact of a positive culture on mortality in the 30- and 90-day periods following the first positive culture, using a propensity-score–matched subsample.
Patients identified with positive cultures due to MDR Acinetobacter (n=218), MDR Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n=1,026), and MDR Enterobacteriaceae (n=3,498) were propensity-score matched to 14,591 patients without positive cultures due to these organisms. In addition, 3,471 patients with positive cultures due to MRSA were propensity-score matched to 12,499 patients without positive MRSA cultures. Multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacteria were associated with a significantly elevated risk of mortality both for invasive (RR, 2.32; 95% CI, 1.85–2.92) and noninvasive cultures (RR, 1.33; 95% CI, 1.22–1.44) during the 30-day period. Similarly, patients with MRSA HAIs (RR, 2.77; 95% CI, 2.39–3.21) and colonizations (RR, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.22–1.50) had an increased risk of death at 30 days.
We found that HAIs due to gram-negative bacteria and MRSA conferred significantly elevated 30- and 90-day risks of mortality. This finding held true both for invasive cultures, which are likely to be true infections, and noninvasive infections, which are possibly colonizations.
Egg storage longer than 7 days is associated with negative effects on hatchability traits. Pre-storage incubation has been a suggested method to reduce the negative effects of long-term storage times by enhancing the developmental stage of the embryo and probably reducing the embryonic stress. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of pre-storage incubation and storage time on hatchability characteristics, chick quality and serum thyroid hormones, antioxidative properties and immunoglobulin Y (IgY) concentrations of newly hatched chicks at two breeder flock ages. A total of 8000 fertile eggs were obtained from two different ages of chicken breeder hens (Egyptian local cross, Inshas). Half of the eggs were collected from young breeder hens (28 weeks old) and the other half from old breeder hens (50 weeks old). In each breeder flock age, eggs were distributed in a completely randomized experimental design in a 2×4 factorial arrangement, with two storage periods (4 or 14 days) and four pre-storage incubation durations (0, 4, 6 or 8 h at 37.5°C). At 28 and 50 weeks of age, pre-storage incubation and its interaction with storage period influenced significantly the apparent fertility, hatchability of set eggs and hatchability of fertile eggs and this improvement in hatchability is attributed to the reduction in embryonic mortality (early, intermediate and late). Pre-storage incubation for 6 or 8 h elevated significantly the grade A chicks and reduced the grade B chicks in comparison with non-heated controls. Interestingly, for eggs stored for 14 days, pre-storage incubation for 6 or 8 h enhanced serum triiodothyronine, thyroxine, glutathione peroxidase activity, total antioxidant capacity and IgY concentrations significantly and decreased serum malondialdehyde concentration significantly in the newly hatched chicks. It could be concluded that pre-storage incubation enhanced the hatching results, improved the antioxidative properties, reduced lipid peroxidation and elevated the humoral immunity in the newly hatched chicks. Hence, several benefits might be gained by pre-storage incubation when fertilized eggs will be stored for long periods.
Information about the health and economic impact of infections caused by vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) can inform investments in infection prevention and development of novel therapeutics.
To systematically review the incidence of VRE infection in the United States and the clinical and economic outcomes.
We searched various databases for US studies published from January 1, 2000, through June 8, 2015, that evaluated incidence, mortality, length of stay, discharge to a long-term care facility, readmission, recurrence, or costs attributable to VRE infections. We included multicenter studies that evaluated incidence and single-center and multicenter studies that evaluated outcomes. We kept studies that did not have a denominator or uninfected controls only if they assessed postinfection length of stay, costs, or recurrence. We performed meta-analysis to pool the mortality data.
Five studies provided incidence data and 13 studies evaluated outcomes or costs. The incidence of VRE infections increased in Atlanta and Detroit but did not increase in national samples. Compared with uninfected controls, VRE infection was associated with increased mortality (pooled odds ratio, 2.55), longer length of stay (3-4.6 days longer or 1.4 times longer), increased risk of discharge to a long-term care facility (2.8- to 6.5-fold) or readmission (2.9-fold), and higher costs ($9,949 higher or 1.6-fold more).
VRE infection is associated with large attributable burdens, including excess mortality, prolonged in-hospital stay, and increased treatment costs. Multicenter studies that use suitable controls and adjust for time at risk or confounders are needed to estimate the burden of VRE infections.
Our objective was to estimate the per-infection and cumulative mortality and cost burden of multidrug-resistant (MDR) Acinetobacter healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) in the United States using data from published studies.
We identified studies that estimated the excess cost, length of stay (LOS), or mortality attributable to MDR Acinetobacter HAIs. We generated estimates of the cost per HAI using 3 methods: (1) overall cost estimates, (2) multiplying LOS estimates by a cost per inpatient-day ($4,350) from the payer perspective, and (3) multiplying LOS estimates by a cost per inpatient-day from the hospital ($2,030) perspective. We deflated our estimates for time-dependent bias using an adjustment factor derived from studies that estimated attributable LOS using both time-fixed methods and either multistate models (70.4% decrease) or matching patients with and without HAIs using the timing of infection (47.4% decrease). Finally, we used the incidence rate of MDR Acinetobacter HAIs to generate cumulative incidence, cost, and mortality associated with these infections.
Our estimates of the cost per infection were $129,917 (method 1), $72,025 (method 2), and $33,510 (method 3). The pooled relative risk of mortality was 4.51 (95% CI, 1.10–32.65), which yielded a mortality rate of 10.6% (95% CI, 2.5%–29.4%). With an incidence rate of 0.141 (95% CI, 0.136–0.161) per 1,000 patient-days at risk, we estimated an annual cumulative incidence of 12,524 (95% CI, 11,509–13,625) in the United States.
The estimates presented here are relevant to understanding the expenditures and lives that could be saved by preventing MDR Acinetobacter HAIs.
Estimates of the excess length of stay (LOS) attributable to healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) in which total LOS of patients with and without HAIs are biased because of failure to account for the timing of infection. Alternate methods that appropriately treat HAI as a time-varying exposure are multistate models and cohort studies, which match regarding the time of infection. We examined the magnitude of this time-dependent bias in published studies that compared different methodological approaches.
We conducted a systematic review of the published literature to identify studies that report attributable LOS estimates using both total LOS (time-fixed) methods and either multistate models or matching patients with and without HAIs using the timing of infection.
Of the 7 studies that compared time-fixed methods to multistate models, conventional methods resulted in estimates of the LOS to HAIs that were, on average, 9.4 days longer or 238% greater than those generated using multistate models. Of the 5 studies that compared time-fixed methods to matching on timing of infection, conventional methods resulted in estimates of the LOS to HAIs that were, on average, 12.6 days longer or 139% greater than those generated by matching on timing of infection.
Our results suggest that estimates of the attributable LOS due to HAIs depend heavily on the methods used to generate those estimates. Overestimation of this effect can lead to incorrect assumptions of the likely cost savings from HAI prevention measures.
Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 2015;36(9):1089–1094
Standard estimates of the impact of Clostridium difficile infections (CDI) on inpatient lengths of stay (LOS) may overstate inpatient care costs attributable to CDI. In this study, we used multistate modeling (MSM) of CDI timing to reduce bias in estimates of excess LOS.
A retrospective cohort study of all hospitalizations at any of 120 acute care facilities within the US Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) between 2005 and 2012 was conducted. We estimated the excess LOS attributable to CDI using an MSM to address time-dependent bias. Bootstrapping was used to generate 95% confidence intervals (CI). These estimates were compared to unadjusted differences in mean LOS for hospitalizations with and without CDI.
During the study period, there were 3.96 million hospitalizations and 43,540 CDIs. A comparison of unadjusted means suggested an excess LOS of 14.0 days (19.4 vs 5.4 days). In contrast, the MSM estimated an attributable LOS of only 2.27 days (95% CI, 2.14–2.40). The excess LOS for mild-to-moderate CDI was 0.75 days (95% CI, 0.59–0.89), and for severe CDI, it was 4.11 days (95% CI, 3.90–4.32). Substantial variation across the Veteran Integrated Services Networks (VISN) was observed.
CDI significantly contributes to LOS, but the magnitude of its estimated impact is smaller when methods are used that account for the time-varying nature of infection. The greatest impact on LOS occurred among patients with severe CDI. Significant geographic variability was observed. MSM is a useful tool for obtaining more accurate estimates of the inpatient care costs of CDI.
Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 2015;36(9):1024–1030
To describe the epidemiology of infections related to the use of implantable central venous access devices (CVADs) in cancer patients and to evaluate measures aimed at reducing the rates of such infections.
Prospective cohort study.
Referral hospital for cancer in São Paulo, Brazil.
We prospectively evaluated all implantable CVADs employed between January 2009 and December 2011. Inpatients and outpatients were followed until catheter removal, transfer to another facility, or death.
Outcome measures were bloodstream infection and pocket infection. We also evaluated the effects that the creation of a multidisciplinary team for CVAD care, avoiding in-hospital implantation of CVADs, and limiting CVAD insertion in neutropenic patients have on the rates of such infections.
During the study period, 966 CVADs (mostly venous ports) were implanted in 933 patients, for a combined total of 243,792 catheter-days. We identified 184 episodes of infection: 154 (84%) were bloodstream infections, 21 (11%) were pocket infections, and 9 (5%) were surgical site infections. During the study period, the rate of CVAD-related infection dropped from 2.2 to 0.24 per 1,000 catheter-days (P < .001). Multivariate analysis revealed that relevant risk factors for such infection include surgical reintervention, implantation in a neutropenic patient, in-hospital implantation, use of a cuffed catheter, and nonchemotherapy indication for catheter use.
Establishing a multidisciplinary team specifically focused on CVAD care, together with systematic reporting of infections, appears to reduce the rates of infection related to the use of these devices.