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Conventional alloy design based on a single primary element has reached its limits in terms of performance optimization. An alloy design strategy with multi-principal elements has recently been uncovered to overcome this bottleneck. Multicomponent alloys, generally referred to as high-entropy alloys (HEAs), exhibit many promising properties, especially outstanding mechanical performance at cryogenic, ambient, and elevated temperatures. In this article, we focus on precipitation-hardened HEAs, which are potential candidates for next-generation structural materials, especially at high temperatures. The key issues involved include precipitation behaviors, phase stability, and phase control, all of which provide useful guidelines for further development of high-temperature materials with superior performance. In particular, we address the formation of cellular γ′ precipitates at grain boundaries, which is closely related to the embrittlement of HEAs at intermediate temperatures. Critical issues and design strategies in developing HEAs for high-temperature applications are also discussed.
Tougher, lighter, and more formable and machinable metals for broader ranges of applications at higher temperatures are needed now more than ever. High-performance computing, high-resolution microscopy, and advanced spectroscopy methods, including neutrons and synchrotron x-rays, together with advances in metallurgy and metal mixology, reveal the potential of multicomponent advanced metals, such as multicomponent bulk metallic glasses and advanced high-entropy alloys. The development of new experimental approaches relates bulk properties and voxel-associated optimized properties throughout structures with high resolution. The correlations from in situ measurements greatly improve crystal plasticity-based models. This issue of MRS Bulletin overviews recent progress in the field, and this article highlights the importance of these new perspectives. The latest progress and directions in the science and technology for prospective high-temperature metals for structural applications are reported.
Magnesium alloys usually lack “operative deformation slip mechanisms” because of their hexagonal close-packed structure. Therefore, the mechanical behavior of magnesium alloys at different temperatures is dictated by other deformation mechanisms such as twinning, detwinning, secondary twinning, or dynamic recrystallization (DRX). Twinning and DRX can affect the development of grain size and orientation distribution, as well as the deformation behavior of magnesium alloys. The current understanding of the mechanisms and mechanics of these different deformation modes and their implementation in crystal plasticity-based modeling are highlighted in this article. Future directions in the development of constitutive models are also discussed.