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Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) can be found in a range of hosts. Their epidemiology is predicted to vary with mean and variance in number of mating partners and, in more refined models, contact and social structure. Weak dependence of mating rate on host density leads to a prediction of density-independent dynamics, including the possibility that sterilising infections could drive their hosts extinct. Infection’s impact on the host is predicted to select for mate choice against infected partners and reduced mating rates. We examine these predictions against STIs in nature, with a particular focus on studies of beetle–ectoparasitic mite interactions. The Adalia bipunctata–Coccipolipus interaction has given rich insights, with ease of scoring infection and mating activity in natural populations enabling detailed documentation of dynamics. Laboratory study has allowed precise estimation of transmission parameters to inform models and focused analysis of behaviour. These studies have confirmed the core impact of mating rate on STI dynamics, but revealed unexpected drivers such as food supply (positively driving mating rate) and sex ratio (enhancing spread and producing male-biased prevalence), alongside constraints on spread from host phenology.
Much of suicide research focuses on suicide attempt (SA) survivors. Given that more than half of the suicide decedent population dies on their first attempt, this means a significant proportion of the population that dies by suicide is overlooked in research. Little is known about persons who die by suicide on their first attempt–and characterizing this understudied population may improve efforts to identify more individuals at risk for suicide.
Data were derived from the National Violent Death Reporting System, from 2005 to 2013. Suicide cases were included if they were 18–89 years old, with a known circumstance leading to their death based on law enforcement and/or medical examiner reports. Decedents with and without a history of SA were compared on demographic, clinical, and suicide characteristics, and circumstances that contributed to their suicide.
A total of 73 490 cases met criteria, and 57 920 (79%) died on their first SA. First attempt decedents were more likely to be male, married, African-American, and over 64. Demographic-adjusted models showed that first attempt decedents were more likely to use highly lethal methods, less likely to have a known mental health problem or to have disclosed their intent to others, and more likely to die in the context of physical health or criminal/legal problem.
First attempt suicide decedents are demographically different from decedents with a history of SA, are more likely to use lethal methods and are more likely to die in the context of specific stressful life circumstances.
A non-contacting displacement measuring system utilizing focussed x-rays is being developed for use in hostile environments. Ultimately, this method will be used to measure mechnical strain under adverse conditions such as high temperatures, flame, cutting fluids, and gases with high velocity and pressure gradients. The foundation of the technique is the use of xrays, which are immune to the various environmental factors mentioned above. The proposed system uses a highly focussed, intense x-ray line which is scanned across markers that fluoresce secondary radiation. This secondary radiation level is then monitored using a photon detector and marker-focussed line overlap can be discerned. These targets can be used as fiducial markers demarcating a gage length, and the change in pointing angle of the focussed beam at target overlap is used as a measure of relative displacement. The present experimental systemcan consistently resolve 1.27 microns at ambient conditions, and 2.54 microns have been measured at a target temperature of 1900 de-grees F through an open flame. Given the performance of the current apparatus, equipment improvements should permit increases in resolution by a least a factor of 10 and measurements at much higher temperatures are possible.
Functional circuits of the human brain emerge and change dramatically over the second half of gestation. It is possible that variation in neural functional system connectivity in utero predicts individual differences in infant behavioral development, but this possibility has yet to be examined. The current study examines the association between fetal sensorimotor brain system functional connectivity and infant postnatal motor ability. Resting-state functional connectivity data was obtained in 96 healthy human fetuses during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy. Infant motor ability was measured 7 months after birth using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development. Increased connectivity between the emerging motor network and regions of the prefrontal cortex, temporal lobes, posterior cingulate, and supplementary motor regions was observed in infants that showed more mature motor functions. In addition, females demonstrated stronger fetal-brain to infant-behavior associations. These observations extend prior longitudinal research back into prenatal brain development and raise exciting new ideas about the advent of risk and the ontogeny of early sex differences.
A pragmatist philosophy of psychological science offers to the direct replication debate concrete recommendations and novel benefits that are not discussed in Zwaan et al. This philosophy guides our work as field experimentalists interested in behavioral measurement. Furthermore, all psychologists can relate to its ultimate aim set out by William James: to study mental processes that provide explanations for why people behave as they do in the world.
The earliest durable cooking technologies found in Alaska are stone bowls and griddle stones recovered from the Aleutian Islands. This article aims to identify the function of these artefacts. Molecular and chemical analyses of carbonised residues found on their surfaces confirm that these artefacts were used to process marine resources. Both artefacts have high lipid content and C:N ratios, suggesting they were used to process oily substances. Stable isotope results of individual lipids suggest that they were used to process different sets of resources within the aquatic spectrum as griddle stones have slightly more 13C-depleted lipids than stone bowls, possibly indicating more variable use. Integration of these results with archaeological and ethnographic data leads us to infer that griddle stones were used for cooking a diversity of aquatic resources, possibly with the addition of plant foods, whereas stone bowls were specifically used to render marine mammal fats. We further hypothesize that a sudden peak in stone bowl frequencies at 4000–3000 cal yr BP was connected to a Neoglacial cold spell bringing sea ice conditions to the Aleutian Islands. This may have led to new subsistence strategies in which the rendering of marine mammal fats played a central role.
BACKGROUND: IGTS is a rare phenomenon of paradoxical germ cell tumor (GCT) growth during or following treatment despite normalization of tumor markers. We sought to evaluate the frequency, clinical characteristics and outcome of IGTS in patients in 21 North-American and Australian institutions. METHODS: Patients with IGTS diagnosed from 2000-2017 were retrospectively evaluated. RESULTS: Out of 739 GCT diagnoses, IGTS was identified in 33 patients (4.5%). IGTS occurred in 9/191 (4.7%) mixed-malignant GCTs, 4/22 (18.2%) immature teratomas (ITs), 3/472 (0.6%) germinomas/germinomas with mature teratoma, and in 17 secreting non-biopsied tumours. Median age at GCT diagnosis was 10.9 years (range 1.8-19.4). Male gender (84%) and pineal location (88%) predominated. Of 27 patients with elevated markers, median serum AFP and Beta-HCG were 70 ng/mL (range 9.2-932) and 44 IU/L (range 4.2-493), respectively. IGTS occurred at a median time of 2 months (range 0.5-32) from diagnosis, during chemotherapy in 85%, radiation in 3%, and after treatment completion in 12%. Surgical resection was attempted in all, leading to gross total resection in 76%. Most patients (79%) resumed GCT chemotherapy/radiation after surgery. At a median follow-up of 5.3 years (range 0.3-12), all but 2 patients are alive (1 succumbed to progressive disease, 1 to malignant transformation of GCT). CONCLUSION: IGTS occurred in less than 5% of patients with GCT and most commonly after initiation of chemotherapy. IGTS was more common in patients with IT-only on biopsy than with mixed-malignant GCT. Surgical resection is a principal treatment modality. Survival outcomes for patients who developed IGTS are favourable.
We present a multi-frequency study of the intermediate spiral SAB(r)bc type galaxy NGC 6744, using available data from the Chandra X-Ray telescope, radio continuum data from the Australia Telescope Compact Array and Murchison Widefield Array, and Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer infrared observations. We identify 117 X-ray sources and 280 radio sources. Of these, we find nine sources in common between the X-ray and radio catalogues, one of which is a faint central black hole with a bolometric radio luminosity similar to the Milky Way’s central black hole. We classify 5 objects as supernova remnant (SNR) candidates, 2 objects as likely SNRs, 17 as H ii regions, 1 source as an AGN; the remaining 255 radio sources are categorised as background objects and one X-ray source is classified as a foreground star. We find the star-formation rate (SFR) of NGC 6744 to be in the range 2.8–4.7 M⊙~yr − 1 signifying the galaxy is still actively forming stars. The specific SFR of NGC 6744 is greater than that of late-type spirals such as the Milky Way, but considerably less that that of a typical starburst galaxy.
This paper summarises developments in understanding sea level change during the Quaternary in Scotland since the publication of the Quaternary of Scotland Geological Conservation Review volume in 1993. We present a review of progress in methodology, particularly in the study of sediments in isolation basins and estuaries as well as in techniques in the field and laboratory, which have together disclosed greater detail in the record of relative sea level (RSL) change than was available in 1993. However, progress in determining the record of RSL change varies in different areas. Studies of sediments and stratigraphy offshore on the continental shelf have increased greatly, but the record of RSL change there remains patchy. Studies onshore have resulted in improvements in the knowledge of rock shorelines, including the processes by which they are formed, but much remains to be understood. Studies of Late Devensian and Holocene RSLs around present coasts have improved knowledge of both the extent and age range of the evidence. The record of RSL change on the W and NW coasts has disclosed a much longer dated RSL record than was available before 1993, possibly with evidence of Meltwater Pulse 1A, while studies in estuaries on the E and SW coasts have disclosed widespread and consistent fluctuations in Holocene RSLs. Evidence for the meltwater pulse associated with the Early Holocene discharge of Lakes Agassiz–Ojibway in N America has been found on both E and W coasts. The effects of the impact of storminess, in particular in cliff-top storm deposits, have been widely identified. Further information on the Holocene Storegga Slide tsunami has enabled a better understanding of the event, but evidence for other tsunami events on Scottish coasts remains uncertain. Methodological developments have led to new reconstructions of RSL change for the last 2000 years, utilising state-of-the-art GIA models and alongside coastal biostratigraphy to determine trends to compare with modern tide gauge and documentary evidence. Developments in GIA modelling have provided valuable information on patterns of land uplift during and following deglaciation. The studies undertaken raise a number of research questions which will require addressing in future work.
The Neolithic in north-east Asia is defined by the presence of ceramic containers, rather than agriculture, among hunter-gatherer communities. The role of pottery in such groups has, however, hitherto been unclear. This article presents the results of organic residue analysis of Neolithic pottery from Sakhalin Island in the Russian Far East. Results indicate that early pottery on Sakhalin was used for the processing of aquatic species, and that its adoption formed part of a wider Neolithic transition involving the reorientation of local lifeways towards the exploitation of marine resources.
Objectives: The aim of this study was to examine the evidence payers cited in their coverage policies for multi-gene panels and sequencing tests (panels), and to compare these findings with the evidence payers cited in their coverage policies for other types of medical interventions.
Methods: We used the University of California at San Francisco TRANSPERS Payer Coverage Registry to identify coverage policies for panels issued by five of the largest US private payers. We reviewed each policy and categorized the evidence cited within as: clinical studies, systematic reviews, technology assessments, cost-effectiveness analyses (CEAs), budget impact studies, and clinical guidelines. We compared the evidence cited in these coverage policies for panels with the evidence cited in policies for other intervention types (pharmaceuticals, medical devices, diagnostic tests and imaging, and surgical interventions) as reported in a previous study.
Results: Fifty-five coverage policies for panels were included. On average, payers cited clinical guidelines in 84 percent of their coverage policies (range, 73–100 percent), clinical studies in 69 percent (50–87 percent), technology assessments 47 percent (33–86 percent), systematic reviews or meta-analyses 31 percent (7–71 percent), and CEAs 5 percent (0–7 percent). No payers cited budget impact studies in their policies. Payers less often cited clinical studies, systematic reviews, technology assessments, and CEAs in their coverage policies for panels than in their policies for other intervention types. Payers cited clinical guidelines in a comparable proportion of policies for panels and other technology types.
Conclusions: Payers in our sample less often cited clinical studies and other evidence types in their coverage policies for panels than they did in their coverage policies for other types of medical interventions.
Preston et al (1976) and Burke (1982, these proceedings) have long extolled the virtues of launching a radio telescope into space to increase VLBI baseline lengths and thus angular resolution, and to provide a much enhanced image formation capability. The scientific motivation for this has been covered in a number of memoranda referenced by Burke in these proceedings, and by Anderson et al (1982). Efforts to mobilise western astronomical support for space VLBI met with success in late 1982 at a meeting of US and European radio astronomers in Toulouse, France, at which a decision was taken to propose a joint mission to ESA and NASA. Shortly thereafter, a formal proposal was made to ESA (Anderson et al 1982) for a free flying satellite in an elliptical orbit out to 15000 km from the Earth, designed to observe in concert with the major ground-based VLBI networks and arrays. The mission, dubbed QUASAT, was received favourably in both ESA and NASA, with the result that formal Assessment Studies are scheduled to begin in both agencies in October 1983.
An antenna in geostationary orbit was used for VLBI observations at 2.3 GHz, in combination with ground antennas in Australia and Japan. 23 of the 25 observed sources were detected on orbiter-ground baselines, with baseline lengths as large as 2.15 earth diameters. Brightness temperatures between 1012 K and 4 × 1012 K were measured for 10 sources.
The vast majority of stars will become white dwarfs at the end of the stellar life cycle. These remnants are precise cosmic clocks owing to their well constrained cooling rates. Gaia Data Release 2 is expected to discover hundreds of thousands of white dwarfs, which can then be observed spectroscopically with WEAVE and 4MOST. By employing spectroscopically derived atmospheric parameters combined with Gaia parallaxes, white dwarfs can constrain the stellar formation history in the early developing phases of the Milky Way, the initial mass function in the 1.5 to 8 M⊙ range, and the stellar mass loss as well as the state of planetary systems during the post main-sequence evolution.
Hallucinations are classically associated with psychotic disorders. Recent
research, however, has highlighted that hallucinations frequently occur
outside of the context of psychosis. Despite this, to our knowledge, there
has been no epidemiological research to compare the prevalence of
hallucinations across common mental disorders with the prevalence in
borderline personality disorder (BPD). Using data from the Adult Psychiatric
Morbidity Survey (n = 7403), we investigated the prevalence
of hallucinations in individuals with a range of mental disorders and BPD.
Hallucinations were prevalent in all disorders (range 11–24%).
Hallucinations were no more prevalent in individuals with BPD (13.7%) than
in individuals with a (non-psychotic) mental disorder (12.6%) (χ2
= 0.03, P = 0.92).