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The near-infrared reflectance spectra of Pluto and its satellites are rich with diagnostic absorption bands of ices of CH4, N2, CO, H2O, and an incompletely identified ammonia-bearing molecule. Following years of investigation of the spectra of Pluto and Charon with ground-based telescopes, NASA’s New Horizons spacecraft obtained spectral maps of these bodies and three small satellites on its passage through the system on July 14, 2015, showing the distribution of these ices, as well as a colored, non-ice component. Spectral modeling mapped the distribution of the various ices and showed their abundance and mixing details in relationship to regions of differing surface elevation, albedo, and geologic structure. Additionally, owing to their greatly different degrees of volatility, the ices of Pluto are distributed in patterns responsive to Pluto’s climatic changes on both short and long terms. The surface of Charon is dominated spectrally by H2O ice with one or more ammoniated compounds, and three of the four very small satellites show both H2O ice and the ammonia signature.
We compared the fluorescent gel removal rate using fewer high-touch surfaces (HTSs) and rooms and determined the optimum number of HTSs and rooms needed to ensure accuracy using 2,942 HTSs in 228 rooms on 13 units. Randomly selecting 3 HTS in 2 rooms predicted the optimal removal rate.
Studies were conducted at six locations across North Carolina to determine tolerance of ‘Sunbelt’ grape (bunch grape) and muscadine grape (‘Carlos’, ‘Triumph’, ‘Summit’) to indaziflam herbicide. Treatments included indaziflam (0, 50, 73 g ai ha–1) or flumioxazin (213 g ai ha–1) applied alone in April, and sequential applications of indaziflam (36, 50, 73 g ai ha–1) or flumioxazin (213 g ai ha–1) applied in April followed by the same rate applied in June. No crop injury was observed across locations. Muscadine yield was not affected by herbicide treatments. Yield of ‘Sunbelt’ grape increased with sequential applications of indaziflam at 73 g ha–1 when compared to a single application of indaziflam at 50 g ha–1 or flumioxazin at 213 g ha–1 in 2015. Sequential applications of flumioxazin at 213 g ha–1 reduced ‘Sunbelt’ yield compared to a single application of indaziflam at 73 g ha–1 in 2016. Trunk cross-sectional area was unaffected by herbicide treatments. Fruit quality (soluble solids concentration, titratable acidity, and pH) for muscadine and bunch grape was not affected by herbicide treatments. Indaziflam was safe to use at registered rates and could be integrated into weed management programs for southern US vineyards.
This special issue brings together a selection of papers that not merely present agronomic research findings, but critically review orientations, methodologies and research practices in agronomy. The focus is on agronomic research as it conducted as component of rural development efforts in the global South or, in short, development-oriented agronomy. Aiming to contribute to development challenges like food security, human welfare and wellbeing, and environmental sustainability, a focus on development-oriented agronomy implies a step beyond a narrow understanding of agronomy as the science of crop production and soil management. Doing development-oriented agronomy forefronts the juggling with productivity enhancing, environmental and social developmental goals entailed when doing agronomy. What is more, development-oriented agronomy generally takes place within a complex environment of (inter)national research and development policy organisations, development donor-funded projects, governmental, NGO and private sector agencies and global professional networks and (public–private) partnerships. Consequently, development-oriented agronomy is a field where debate and contestations over goals and direction, research methodologies and findings of agronomic research are first likely to emerge and become apparent.
In this systematic evaluation of fluorescent gel markers (FGM) applied to high-touch surfaces with a metered applicator (MA) made for the purpose versus a generic cotton swab (CS), removal rates were 60.5% (476 of 787) for the MA and 64.3% (506 of 787) for the CS. MA-FGM removal interpretation was more consistent, 83% versus 50% not removed, possibly due to less varied application and more adhesive gel.
We study air entrainment by a solid plate plunging into a viscous liquid, theoretically and numerically. At dimensionless speeds
of order unity, a near-cusp forms due to the presence of a moving contact line. The radius of curvature of the cusp’s tip scales with the slip length multiplied by an exponential of
. The pressure from the air flow drawn inside the cusp leads to a bifurcation, at which air is entrained, i.e. there is ‘wetting failure’. We develop an analytical theory of the threshold to air entrainment, which predicts the critical capillary number to depend logarithmically on the viscosity ratio, with corrections coming from the slip in the gas phase.
This paper discusses a pulse electroplating method for preparing copper (Cu)-coated gas diffusion electrodes (GDEs) for the electrochemical conversion of carbon dioxide (CO2) to hydrocarbons such as ethylene. Ionomer coating and air-plasma surface pre-treatments were explored as means of hydrophilizing the carbon surface to enable adhesion of electrodeposited material. The pulsed-current electrodeposition method used successfully generated copper and copper oxide micro- and nano-particles on the prepared surfaces. Copper(I) species identified on the ionomer-treated GDEs are presumed to be highly active for the selective generation of ethylene as compared to other gaseous byproducts of CO2 reduction. Conversely, copper catalysts deposited onto plasma-treated GDEs were found to have poor activity for hydrocarbon production, likely due to substantial metallic character. Of note, plasma treatment of an ionomer-treated GDE after copper plating yielded further improvements in catalytic activity and durability towards ethylene production.
The morphology of englacial drainage networks and their temporal evolution are poorly characterised, particularly within cold ice masses. At present, direct observations of englacial channels are restricted in both spatial and temporal resolution. Through novel use of a terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) system, the interior geometry of an englacial channel in Austre Brøggerbreen, Svalbard, was reconstructed and mapped. Twenty-eight laser scan surveys were conducted in March 2016, capturing the glacier surface around a moulin entrance and the uppermost 122 m reach of the adjoining conduit. The resulting point clouds provide detailed 3-D visualisation of the channel with point accuracy of 6.54 mm, despite low (<60%) overall laser returns as a result of the physical and optical properties of the clean ice, snow, hoar frost and sediment surfaces forming the conduit interior. These point clouds are used to map the conduit morphology, enabling extraction of millimetre-to-centimetre scale geometric measurements. The conduit meanders at a depth of 48 m, with a sinuosity of 2.7, exhibiting teardrop shaped cross-section morphology. This improvement upon traditional surveying techniques demonstrates the potential of TLS as an investigative tool to elucidate the nature of glacier hydrological networks, through reconstruction of channel geometry and wall composition.
A field study was conducted in 2014 and 2015 in an established 5-yr old commercial blackberry planting to determine the effect of vegetation-free strip width (VFSW) on ‘Navaho’ blackberry vegetative growth, yield and fruit quality parameters, identify the optimum VFSW for blackberry plantings in the southeastern USA, and provide practical groundcover management recommendations that can increase the productivity of blackberry plantings. In Fall 2013, tall fescue was seeded in-row and allowed to establish. In Spring 2014, VFSW treatments (0, 0.6, 0.9, 1.2, and 1.8 m) were established in a randomized complete block statistical design with four replications. Blackberry growth measurements included primocane and floricane number, cane diam, individual fruit weight and yield. Fruit quality measurements included, soluble solids concentration (SSC), titratable acidity (TA) and pH. Primocane number increased with increasing VFSW in both years. Floricane number increased with increasing VFSW in 2014. Primocane diam decreased with increasing VFSW in 2014 but had a quadratic response in 2015. Berry weight and cumulative yield increased with increasing VFSW in both years. The only berry quality component affected by VFSW was pH, which decreased as VFSW increased. Results indicate that widening the VFSW in blackberry from the current recommendation of 1.2 m to 1.8 m could provide growers a means to increase plant growth, berry weight, and cumulative yield blackberry of a planting.
As part of further investigations into three linked haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) cases in Wales and England, 21 rats from a breeding colony in Cherwell, and three rats from a household in Cheltenham were screened for hantavirus. Hantavirus RNA was detected in either the lungs and/or kidney of 17/21 (81%) of the Cherwell rats tested, higher than previously detected by blood testing alone (7/21, 33%), and in the kidneys of all three Cheltenham rats. The partial L gene sequences obtained from 10 of the Cherwell rats and the three Cheltenham rats were identical to each other and the previously reported UK Cherwell strain. Seoul hantavirus (SEOV) RNA was detected in the heart, kidney, lung, salivary gland and spleen (but not in the liver) of an individual rat from the Cherwell colony suspected of being the source of SEOV. Serum from 20/20 of the Cherwell rats and two associated HFRS cases had high levels of SEOV-specific antibodies (by virus neutralisation). The high prevalence of SEOV in both sites and the moderately severe disease in the pet rat owners suggest that SEOV in pet rats poses a greater public health risk than previously considered.
Cerebrovascular reactivity monitoring has been used to identify the lower limit of pressure autoregulation in adult patients with brain injury. We hypothesise that impaired cerebrovascular reactivity and time spent below the lower limit of autoregulation during cardiopulmonary bypass will result in hypoperfusion injuries to the brain detectable by elevation in serum glial fibrillary acidic protein level.
We designed a multicentre observational pilot study combining concurrent cerebrovascular reactivity and biomarker monitoring during cardiopulmonary bypass. All children undergoing bypass for CHD were eligible. Autoregulation was monitored with the haemoglobin volume index, a moving correlation coefficient between the mean arterial blood pressure and the near-infrared spectroscopy-based trend of cerebral blood volume. Both haemoglobin volume index and glial fibrillary acidic protein data were analysed by phases of bypass. Each patient’s autoregulation curve was analysed to identify the lower limit of autoregulation and optimal arterial blood pressure.
A total of 57 children had autoregulation and biomarker data for all phases of bypass. The mean baseline haemoglobin volume index was 0.084. Haemoglobin volume index increased with lowering of pressure with 82% demonstrating a lower limit of autoregulation (41±9 mmHg), whereas 100% demonstrated optimal blood pressure (48±11 mmHg). There was a significant association between an individual’s peak autoregulation and biomarker values (p=0.01).
Individual, dynamic non-invasive cerebrovascular reactivity monitoring demonstrated transient periods of impairment related to possible silent brain injury. The association between an impaired autoregulation burden and elevation in the serum brain biomarker may identify brain perfusion risk that could result in injury.
Greenhouse studies were conducted to investigate the absorption, translocation, and metabolism of foliar-applied [14C]halosulfuron-methyl in cucumber, summer squash, pitted morningglory, and velvetleaf. Cucumber and summer squash were treated at the 4-leaf stage, whereas velvetleaf and pitted morningglory were treated at 10 cm. All plants were collected at 4, 24, 48, and 72 h after treatment (HAT) for absorption and translocation studies and an additional 96-HAT interval was included in the metabolism study. Absorption did not exceed 45% in summer squash, whereas it plateaued around 60% in velvetleaf and cucumber and reached 80% in pitted morningglory 72 HAT. None of the four species translocated more than 23% of absorbed halosulfuron out of the treated leaf. Translocation in cucumber and summer squash was predominantly basipetal, while acropetal movement prevailed in velvetleaf. No significant direction of movement was observed for pitted morningglory. Negligible translocation occurred toward the roots, regardless of plant species. Of the total amount of [14C]halosulfuron-methyl absorbed into the plants at 96 HAT, more than 80% remained in the form of the parent compound in velvetleaf, summer squash, and pitted morningglory, whereas less than 20% was detected in cucumber. Rapid and high herbicide metabolism may explain cucumber tolerance to halosulfuron-methyl, while lack of metabolism contributes to summer squash and velvetleaf susceptibility. Pitted morningglory tolerance may be due to limited translocation associated with some level of metabolism, but further research would be needed to investigate other potential causes.
The precomputation theories of the first chapter were to a large extent patterned on ordinary recursion theory, ORT. In part B we gave an analysis of “higher recursion theory” through the notion of a finite theory which generalizes ORT by moving up in types over the basic domain.
But there are different ways of extending ORT, e.g. from the integers to all or part of the ordinals. Or ORT can be rephrased as a recursion theory on HF, the hereditarily finite sets, and then be extended to other domains of sets, even to the total universe. Both approaches were followed, and we duly got various notions of ordinal and set recursion, leading to theories of primitive recursive functions, to the rudimentary functions, and to admissibility theory.
We shall not in this book retrace in any detail the line of development from ORT to recursion on ordinals and to the notion of an admissible ordinal The literature on this topic is vast, but the reader would do well to consult one of the classics in the field, the 1967 paper of R. Jensen and C. Karp, Primitive recursive set functions . From this one could go to the recent survey of R. Shore, a-recursion theory , and the Short course on admissible recursion theory  by S. Simpson, the latter being an advertisement—which we endorse—of a book-length exposition to come.
Pure a-recursion theory was soon transformed into a general theory of admissible structures. A thorough exposition of this field is given by J. Barwise in his book, Admissible Sets and Structures .
Remark. The references above are strictly pedagogical and do not imply a history of ordinal recursion theory and admissibility theory in any way—the names of S. Kripke and R. Platek have not even been mentioned.
Barwise and Shore give some historical remarks in their respective introduc-tions. It remains to be seen what Simpson will do with the history of the subject in his book. We shall try to document the sources for those parts of the theory that we discuss. The reader should in particular see Section 5.3.