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We describe the design and deployment of GREENBURST, a commensal Fast Radio Burst (FRB) search system at the Green Bank Telescope. GREENBURST uses the dedicated L-band receiver tap to search over the 960–1 920 MHz frequency range for pulses with dispersion measures out to
. Due to its unique design, GREENBURST is capable of conducting searches for FRBs when the L-band receiver is not being used for scheduled observing. This makes it a sensitive single pixel detector capable of reaching deeper in the radio sky. While single pulses from Galactic pulsars and rotating radio transients will be detectable in our observations, and will form part of the database we archive, the primary goal is to detect and study FRBs. Based on recent determinations of the all-sky rate, we predict that the system will detect approximately one FRB for every 2–3 months of continuous operation. The high sensitivity of GREENBURST means that it will also be able to probe the slope of the FRB fluence distribution, which is currently uncertain in this observing band.
Little is known about prescribers’ attitudes regarding clinical nurses and antimicrobial stewardship. We conducted focus groups of prescribers and inquired about attitudes regarding nurses and stewardship. During 6 focus groups, prescribers were receptive to nursing involvement in stewardship activities, but noted structural barriers and knowledge gaps that should be addressed.
Recent years have seen an exponential increase in the variety of healthcare data captured across numerous sources. However, mechanisms to leverage these data sources to support scientific investigation have remained limited. In 2013 the Pediatric Heart Network (PHN), funded by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, developed the Integrated CARdiac Data and Outcomes (iCARD) Collaborative with the goals of leveraging available data sources to aid in efficiently planning and conducting PHN studies; supporting integration of PHN data with other sources to foster novel research otherwise not possible; and mentoring young investigators in these areas. This review describes lessons learned through the development of iCARD, initial efforts and scientific output, challenges, and future directions. This information can aid in the use and optimisation of data integration methodologies across other research networks and organisations.
Internalizing and externalizing psychopathology factors explain much of the covariance among psychiatric conditions, especially at the level of genetic risk. However, few studies have examined internalizing and externalizing factors in middle-aged samples, especially their ability to predict later symptoms across midlife. The goals of the current study were (i) to quantify the genetic and environmental influences on internalizing and externalizing psychopathology in individuals in their early 40s, and (ii) examine the extent to which these genetic and environmental influences predict self-reported measures of internalizing and externalizing symptoms 15–20 years later.
1484 male twins completed diagnostic interviews of psychopathology at mean age 41 and self-reported measures of anxiety, depression, substance use, and related variables at up to two time-points in late middle age (mean ages 56 and 62).
Structural equation modeling of the diagnostic interviews confirmed that internalizing and externalizing factors accounted for most of the genetic variance in individual disorders, with substantial genetic (ra = 0.70) and environmental (re = 0.77) correlations between the factors. Internalizing psychopathology at age 41 was correlated with latent factors capturing anxiety, depression, and/or post-traumatic stress symptoms at ages 56 (r = 0.51) and 62 (r = 0.43). Externalizing psychopathology at age 41 was correlated r = 0.67 with a latent factor capturing aggression, tobacco use, and alcohol use at age 56. Stability of both factors was driven by genetic influences.
These findings demonstrate the considerable stability of internalizing and externalizing psychopathology symptoms across middle age, especially their genetic influences. Diagnostic interviews effectively predict self-reported symptoms and behaviors 15–20 years later.
This document is a resource for Emergency Medical Services (EMS) treating an injured law enforcement K9 (LEK9) in the field and/or during transport by ambulance to a veterinary hospital. A Joint Task Force on Working Dog Care was created, which included veterinarians, EMS directors, EMS physicians, and canine handlers, who met to develop a treatment protocol for injured LEK9s. The protocol covers many major life-threatening injuries that LEK9s may sustain in the line of duty, and also discusses personnel safety and necessary equipment. This protocol may help train EMS providers to save the life of an injured LEK9.
There are a variety of causes of acute heart failure in children including myocarditis, genetic/metabolic conditions, and congenital heart defects. In cases with a structurally normal heart and a negative personal and family history, myocarditis is often presumed to be the cause, but we hypothesise that genetic disorders contribute to a significant portion of these cases. We reviewed our cases of children who presented with acute heart failure and underwent genetic testing from 2008 to 2017. Eighty-seven percent of these individuals were found to have either a genetic syndrome or pathogenic or likely pathogenic variant in a cardiac-related gene. None of these individuals had a personal or family history of cardiomyopathy that was suggestive of a genetic aetiology prior to presentation. All of these individuals either passed away or were listed for cardiac transplantation indicating genetic testing may provide important information regarding prognosis in addition to providing information critical to assessment of family members.
Much of the peace agreement durability literature assumes that stronger peace agreements are more likely to survive the trials of the post-conflict environment. This work does an excellent job identifying which provisions indicate that agreements are more likely to endure. However, there is no widely accepted way to directly measure the strength of agreements, and existing measures suffer from a lack of nuance or reliance on subjective weighting. We use a Bayesian item response theory model to develop a principled measure of the latent strength of peace agreements in civil conflicts from 1975 to 2005. We illustrate the measure's utility by exploring how various international factors such as sanctions and mediation contribute to the strength or weakness of agreements.
Introduction: Adolescents who present to emergency departments (ED) following intentional injuries present a challenge in terms of ascertaining their intent and risk for future self-injurious or suicidal behaviour. Our ED has seen an 80% increase in visits for mental health issues over the past ten years. As usage of our Emergency Mental Health and Addictions Services (EMHAS) team continues to rise, it is increasingly important to understand the incidence of NSSI among our youth, explore if NSSI is reported at triage and identify characteristics that may distinguish these adolescents from others presenting for mental health assessment. Methods: This is an exploratory research study using retrospective data. Patients who had an Emergency Mental Health Triage (EMHT) form on their health record from an ED visit between June 1, 2017 and May 31, 2018 were eligible. Trained research assistants, using a structured data collection form in REDCap. abstracted data from the EMHT form, the EMHAS Assessment form, the Assessment of Suicide Risk Inventory and our CHIRPP (Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program) database. We calculated kappa values and 95% confidence intervals to describe the extent to which the forms agree with respect to identifying NSSI. We will compare the cohort who reports NSSI with the cohort who does not report NSSI using chi-square statistics depending. We will use descriptive statistics to characterize the NSSI patients. Results: During the one-year study period 955 patients had an EMHT form completed. In preliminary analysis 558 (58.4%) reported a history of NSSI. Patients reported NSSI on both the EMHT form and the EMHAS assessment form 64.7% of the time (kappa 0.56) indicating moderate agreement. In patients with NSSI, 9.5% of patients reported it only at triage and 25.8% of patients reported it only during their EMHAS assessment. Between group comparisons and descriptive analysis is underway. Conclusion: More than half of youth triaged with an emergency mental health complaint in our ED reported a history of NSSI. Screening at triage was moderately effective in identifying adolescents with NSSI compared to an in-depth assessment by the mental health team. Further research is needed to clarify how NSSI relates to risk for suicide.
Research showing that risk for schizophrenia, bipolar disorder with psychosis, and other psychosis-spectrum diagnoses in adulthood is multidetermined has underscored the necessity of studying the additive and interactive factors in childhood that precede and predict future disorders. In this study, risk for the development of psychosis-spectrum disorders was examined in a 2-generation, 30-year prospective longitudinal study of 3,905 urban families against a sociocultural backdrop of changing economic and social conditions. Peer nominations of aggression, withdrawal, and likeability and national census information on neighborhood-level socioeconomic disadvantage in childhood, as well as changes in neighborhood socioeconomic conditions over the lifespan, were examined as predictors of diagnoses of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and other psychosis-spectrum disorders in adulthood relative to developing only nonpsychotic disorders or no psychiatric disorders. Individuals who were both highly aggressive and highly withdrawn were at greater risk for other psychosis-spectrum diagnoses when they experienced greater neighborhood disadvantage in childhood or worsening neighborhood conditions over maturation. Males who were highly aggressive but low on withdrawal were at greater risk for schizophrenia diagnoses. Childhood neighborhood disadvantage predicted both schizophrenia and bipolar diagnoses, regardless of childhood social behavior. Results provided strong support for multiple-domain models of psychopathology, and suggest that universal preventive interventions and social policies aimed at improving neighborhood conditions may be particularly important for decreasing the prevalence of psychosis-spectrum diagnoses in the future.
We have been using the technique of pulsed neutron powder diffraction to study several problems in the physics and chemistry of the actinide elements. In these elements one often encounters very complex structures resulting from polymorphic transformations presumably induced by the presence of 5f-electrons. For exampie, at least five distinct structures of plutonium metal are found between room temperature and its melting point of 640°C, and two of the structures are monoclinic! Single crystals are usually not available, and the high resolution which is intrinsic to the time-of-flight powder technique is a powerful tool in the solution of complex structural problems. The relatively low absorption coefficients for neutrons for at least some actinide isotopes is an advantage when surface oxidation is a problem (as in high-temperature experiments) and provides good particle statistics so that high-quality data are available for Rietveld refinement. The low absorption of neutrons by other materials such as vanadium and fused silica enables the use of these materials for the containment of samples in high- and low-temperature environments, and the fixed geometry of the time-of-flight technique simplifies the design of furnaces and cryostats.
A time-sharing computer was used in conjunction with a semiconductor detector and radioisotopic sources to evaluate energy dispersion x-ray analysis for the rapid analysis of copper base alloys. The time-sharing computer served two purposes: to aid in the development of the analytical method and to simulate the action of a dedicated computer that would eventually be used as part of an on-line analytical device. Some of the general capabilities of time-sharing computers are discussed in this paper with some emphasis on the differences between the computer requirements of energy dispersive x-ray methods and conventional x-ray spectrography.
An annular source of americium 24l was used with a secondary fluorescer to excite 23 brass and bronze alloys. The 400 channel spectrum from a multichannel analyzer was recorded on paper tape. A telephone coupled teletype was used to transmit the X-ray spectrum to the central processing facility. Curve fitting and statistical analysis programs similar to those available from most commercial time-sharing computer operations were utilised as well as other programs written at this laboratory for processing digitized spectra.
X-ray diffraction topographs obtained in the anomalous transmission geometry contain images which are quite different from those obtained from thin crystals (μL<=l). In this paper various topographic images which are unique to thick crystals (μL>10) will be presented and discussed in terms of dynamical diffraction in imperfect crystals. First, it is observed in topographs that images of crystal imperfections caused by disruption of the anomalous transmission effect are slightly broader or more diffuse in the H-diffracted (Bragg-diffracted) beam than in the O-diffracted (transmitted beam). These observations have been made in both copper and nickel crystals. Such broadening can be explained by the presence of unique extinction terms in the expression for the intensity of the dynamically diffracted beam in an imperfect crystal.
To study the relationship between crystal growth conditions and resultant crystalline perfection, large nickel single crystals more than 12 cm long and 2 to 3 cm in diameter have been grown from the melt by the Czochralski method. Unlike semiconducting materials, one cannot easily thin metal crystals, without straining them, for the purpose of applying ordinary Lang topography with μL∼l where kinematical scattering in imperfect crystals is a good approximation. This situation with metal crystals necessitates the use of dynamical diffraction effects in imperfect crystals to permit sample crystals to be thick enough to demonstrate their imperfections as in the bulk.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: More men than women develop urinary stones and their prevalence alters in women with menopause suggesting a steroidal influence. In men the incidence of stones is highest during July and August suggesting that environmental factors such as Vitamin D (VitD), a steroid, may affect stone formation. Previous studies have found differences in the development of stones between men and women; however, the reasons for sex differences in stone formation and type remain unclear. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: We examined VitD levels in men and women (n = 18,753) that had no diseases based on a lack of an ICD-9 or ICD-10 code in their electronic medical record. We found that normal, healthy women had significantly higher levels of sera VitD compared to men (p = 6x10-6). We then examined whether sex differences existed for key endpoints/data from the Mayo Clinic Urinary Stone Disease (USD) Registry, which has around 1,600 urinary stone patients that are well-phenotyped according to sex, age and stone type. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Control women were found to have higher sera VitD levels than men, but the sex difference no longer exists in kidney stone disease patients. When we further separated by race, we found that differences in VitD levels reappeared; this suggests that race also plays a role in sera VitD variances. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: We are developing a disease severity score, which we will use to correlate to sera VitD levels in patients according to sex, age and race. Future analyses will take into account whether subjects had VitD and calcium supplementation. This project begins to explore the mechanism behind the sex differences known to exist in urinary stone disease, which is critically needed to provide improved diagnosis and therapy for this debilitating disease.
Candida auris is an emerging fungal pathogen that is often resistant to major classes of antifungal drugs. It is considered a serious global health threat because it can cause severe infections with frequent mortality in more than a dozen countries. It can survive on healthcare environmental surfaces for at least 7 days and can cause outbreaks in healthcare facilities. Clearly, infection prevention strategies, such as surface disinfection, will be essential to controlling Candida transmission. Unfortunately, data on the activity of antiseptics and disinfectants used in healthcare to inactivate this pathogen are limited.1–5 In this study, we investigated 12 different disinfectants (ie, 8 low- and intermediate-level disinfectants in 2 dilutions of sodium hypochlorite and 5 high-level disinfectants/chemical sterilants) and 9 antiseptics commonly used in healthcare facilities for their antimicrobial activity against C. auris and C. albicans.