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The primary objective of this systematic review was to identify and synthesise analytic studies examining the association between exposure to parental psychopathology in childhood and the nature of subsequent suicide-related thoughts (SRT) and suicide-related behaviour (SRB) (severity of ideation, planned/unplanned attempts/lethality) and to describe the direction, and magnitude of associations. The secondary objective was to determine if the associations from the primary objective differ by the type(s) and timing of parental psychopathology, sex/gender of the parent and child and is mediated by child psychiatric symptoms and family functioning.
A systematic review was conducted using guidelines from the PRISMA statement. MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, psycINFO, Web of Science and grey literature sources were searched by two reviewers to March, 2017. Studies were included if they examined any parental psychopathology (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders criteria or equivalent) or SRT or SRB and offspring SRT or SRB occurring from birth <25 years of age.
Out of 10 231 studies identified, 54 were included for review. Studies were clinically and methodologically heterogeneous with none at low risk of bias (ROB). Nine studies with moderate ROB indicated a significantly increased risk of offspring SRT, suicide attempts (SA) and suicide among those exposed to maternal SA and suicide in childhood or adolescence. In the remaining 45 studies with higher ROB this association persisted. Several studies (67%) did not confirm that the exposure occurred in the offspring's childhood or adolescence. Findings were suggestive of a mediating effect of offspring psychiatric symptoms, however, few studies examined mediation and effect modification of contextual variables.
Offspring exposed to maternal SA are at an increased risk of these same behaviours early in life. Prospective attention to the types and timing of maternal and paternal psychopathology and the intermediate pathways to offspring SRT and SRB onset is needed and could have implications for informing modifiable targets for early intervention and prevention.
This paper briefly describes the principle of operation and science goals of the AMANDA high energy neutrino telescope located at the South Pole, Antarctica. Results from an earlier phase of the telescope, called AMANDA-BIO, demonstrate both reliable operation and the broad astrophysical reach of this device, which includes searches for a variety of sources of ultrahigh energy neutrinos: generic point sources, Gamma-Ray Bursts and diffuse sources. The predicted sensitivity and angular resolution of the telescope were confirmed by studies of atmospheric muon and neutrino backgrounds. We also report on the status of the analysis from AMANDA-II, a larger version with far greater capabilities. At this stage of analysis, details of the ice properties and other systematic uncertainties of the AMANDA-II telescope are under study, but we have made progress toward critical science objectives. In particular, we present the first preliminary flux limits from AMANDA-II on the search for continuous emission from astrophysical point sources, and report on the search for correlated neutrino emission from Gamma Ray Bursts detected by BATSE before decommissioning in May 2000. During the next two years, we expect to exploit the full potential of AMANDA-II with the installation of a new data acquisition system that records full waveforms from the in-ice optical sensors.
The unprecedented combination of spatial resolution and stability achieved by the Solar Oscillations Investigation/Michelson Doppler Imager on SOHO has opened up new opportunities for the analysis of solar surface oscillations of high spatial frequencies. In this regime the oscillations are essentially plane waves, amenable to the techniques of ring-diagram analysis of their three-dimensional power spectra. This approach holds the promise of measuring fluid motions and possibly magnetic fields in spatially-resolved structures within the uppermost levels of the convective envelope, a region unresolved by the global modes. Atmospheric g-modes trapped above the photosphere may also be detectable. We review the first results of plane-wave analysis of various types of SOI data and comparisons with the analyses of comparable ground-based datasets.
Benchmarks for antimicrobial consumption measured in antimicrobial days are beginning to emerge. The relationship between the traditional measure of days of therapy and antimicrobial days is unclear. We observed a high intermethod correlation (R2=0.99): antimicrobial days were 1.9-fold lower than days of therapy across agents. Individual institutions should correlate these measures.
The multicomponent Dry Creek site, located in the Nenana Valley, central Alaska, is arguably one of the most important archaeological sites in Beringia. Original work in the 1970s identified two separate cultural layers, called Components 1 and 2, thought to date to the terminal Pleistocene and suggesting that the site was visited by Upper Paleolithic huntergatherers between about 13,000 and 12,000 calendar years before present (cal B.P.). The oldest of these became the typeassemblage for the Nenana complex. Recently, some have questioned the geoarchaeological integrity of the site's early deposits, suggesting that the separated cultural layers resulted from natural postdepositional disturbances. In 2011, we revisited Dry Creek to independently assess the site's age and formation. Here we present our findings and reaffirm original interpretations of clear separation of two terminal Pleistocene cultural occupations. For the first time, we report direct radiocarbon dates on cultural features associated with both occupation zones, one dating to 13,485-13,305 and the other to 11,060-10,590 cal B.P.
In late February and early March 2002, an archaeological watching brief at Lynford Quarry, Mundford, Norfolk revealed a palaeochannel with a dark organic fill containing in situ mammoth remains and associated Mousterian stone tools and debitage buried under 2–3 m of bedded sands and gravels. Well-preserved in situ Middle Palaeolithic open air sites are very unusal in Europe and exceedingly rare within a British context. As such, the site was identified as being of national and international importance, and was subsequently excavated by the Norfolk Archaeological Unit with funding provided by English Heritage through the Aggregates Levy Sustainability Fund.
This report presents some of the initial results of the excavation. It sets out how the site was excavated, outlines the stratigraphic sequence for the site, and presents some provisional findings of the excavation based on the results of the assessment work carried out by project specialists and Norfolk Archaeological Unit staff.
Silicide formation by reaction of palladium metal (Pd0) with hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) substrates was studied with Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS), forward recoil spectrometry, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Upon low-temperature (200° C) annealing, RBS and TEM show a single-phase Pd2Si. This phase grows with the square root of time, and the activation energy is identical to that of the corresponding metal on single-crystal silicon substrates. The growth is slightly faster for hydrogenated amorphous silicon, which is attributed to its amorphous structure. During silicide formation, the hydrogen is released from silicides and presumably outdiffuses into a vacuum without interfacial accumulation. Thus, barrier formation does not occur, and the presence of hydrogen in the substrates has no effect on silicide growth.
The silicide electronic structure (core level binding energies, lineshapes, and d-band filling) of Pd2 Si on a-Si:H is identical to that of Pd2 Si formed on cr stalline silicon. Binding energy and peak shape analysis show the Pd2Si/Pd0 interface to be composed of one additional phase, Pd4Si, which has a well-defined binding energy (335.8 eV) and a narrow (FWHM = 1.1 eV), symmetric line shape. It has long been postulated that interface phases may be important in determining the phase sequence in silicide growth and the dominant diffusing species. This Pd4 Si interface phase may be important in understanding palladium silicide growth.
We present 195Pt NMR lineshapes as well as relaxation data in three different samples of platinum metal particles (46%, 26%, and 15% dispersion) supported on alumina. We show that the electronic properties of these particles are very much different from those of bulk Pt metal. A prominent peak in the lineshape has been identified as a “surface resonance” which arises from Pt nuclei on the surface of the Pt particles. We find that these surface Pt atoms are “nonmetallic” when coated with adsorbed molecules.
Monteverde, Costa Rica is home to a tropical montane cloud forest that illustrates the balances between habitat and development inherent to ecotourism. The Monteverde Cloud Forest Reserve, located on the leeward side of the Continental Divide, has experienced a 100-fold increase in visitors since its inception 20 years ago. The associated growth in population and commercial development has the potential to impact water resources. Over three years, more than 400 stream-water samples were collected from eight sites above and below the main road within the Rio Guacimal watershed to assess the effect of development on water quality. The chemistry of upstream samples reflects mineral weathering and cation exchange reactions in the forest soils. Comparisons of downstream samples to these baseline data showed evidence of anthropogenic impacts: chemical concentrations were two to five times higher at downstream locations. The highest concentrations were observed at the site with the highest population density. These results point to the value of forest preserves, specifically the Monteverde Cloud Forest Reserve and the Bosque Eterno de Los Niños (or the Children's Eternal Rainforest), in limiting growth in riparian areas, which in turn helps to protect the quality of water resources for downstream communities.
Monteverde, in north-western Costa Rica, is located on the leeward side of the Continental Divide, and experiences strong seasonal variations in precipitation. The majority of rainfall to the region occurs during the wet season (May–October) when the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) brings convective rainfall. In addition, trade winds produce orographic uplift and condensation, and this hydrological input is dominant during the transitional (November–January) and dry (February–April) seasons. This chapter assesses the viability of using stable isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen to identify and distinguish waters arisen from these two condensation mechanisms, with the future goal of using these signatures to trace precipitation through the hydrological cycle.
Open-field precipitation and throughfall were sampled at Monteverde at an elevation of 1460 m.a.s.l. from mid-June 2003 to mid-January 2004. Cumulative precipitation was collected over a variable sampling interval that ranged from 1 to 48 days. The sampling interval averaged 4 days during June–July 2003 and January 2004; otherwise, samples were collected on average every 26 days. The wet season yielded a wide range of isotopic values, from −13.1 to −3.0‰ (δ18O) and −96 to −15‰ (δ2H). The isotopically lightest samples were collected during June and September/October, when the ITCZ is over Costa Rica. Rain and fog samples collected during the transitional season were isotopically heavier, ranging from −4.3 to −1.9‰ (δ18O) and −16 to + 6‰ (δ2H). January precipitation samples all yielded positive δ2H values and had isotopic compositions similar to those of fog water samples reported elsewhere.
We present a study of the temporal changes in the sensitivities of the frequencies of the solar p-mode oscillations to corresponding changes in the levels of solar activity during Solar Cycle 23. From MDI and GONG++ full-disk Dopplergram three-day time series obtained between 1996 and 2008 we have computed a total of 221 sets of m-averaged power spectra for spherical harmonic degrees ranging up to 1000. We have then fit these 284 sets of m-averaged power spectra using our WMLTP fitting code and both symmetric Lorentzian profiles for the peaks as well as the asymmetric profile of Nigam and Kosovichev to obtain 568 tables of p-mode parameters. We then inter-compared these 568 tables, and we performed linear regression analyses of the differences in p-mode frequencies, widths, amplitudes, and asymmetries as functions of the differences in as many as ten different solar activity indices. From the linear regression analyses that we performed on the frequency difference data sets, we have discovered a new signature of the frequency shifts of the p-modes. Specifically, we have discovered that the temporal shifts of the solar oscillation frequencies are positively correlated with the changes in solar activity below a limiting frequency. They then become anti-correlated with the changes in activity for a range of frequencies before once again becoming positively-correlated with the activity changes at very high frequencies. We have also discovered that the two frequencies where the sensitivities of the temporal frequency shifts change sign also change in phase with the average level of solar activity.
Recent advances in molecular genetics and genomics have been embraced by many in natural resource conservation. Today, several major conservation and management journals are now using 'genetics' editors to deal solely with the influx of manuscripts that employ molecular data. The editors have attempted to synthesize some of the major uses of molecular markers in natural resource management in a book targeted not only at scientists but also at individuals actively making conservation and management decisions. To that end, the text features contributors who are major figures in molecular ecology and evolution - many having published books of their own. The aim is to direct and distil the thoughts of these outstanding scientists by compiling compelling case histories in molecular ecology as they apply to natural resource management.