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To examine the impact of multiple psychiatric disorders over the lifetime on risk of mortality in the general population.
Data came from a random community-based sample of 1397 adults in Atlantic Canada, recruited in 1992. Major depression, dysthymia, panic disorder, generalised anxiety disorder and alcohol use disorders were assessed using the Diagnostic Interview Schedule (DIS). Vital status of participants through 2011 was determined using probabilistic linkages to the Canadian Mortality Database. Cox proportional hazard models with age at study entry as the time scale were used to investigate the relationship between DIS diagnoses and mortality, adjusted for participant education, smoking and obesity at baseline.
Results suggested that mood and anxiety disorders rarely presented in isolation – the majority of participants experienced multiple psychiatric disorders over the lifetime. Elevated risk of death was found among men with both major depression and dysthymia (HR 2.56; 95% CI 1.12–5.89), depression and alcohol use disorders (HR 2.45; 95% CI 1.18–5.10) and among men and women who experienced both panic disorder and alcohol use disorders (HR 3.80; 95% CI 1.19–12.16).
The experience of multiple mental disorders over the lifetime is extremely common, and associated with increased risk of mortality, most notably among men. Clinicians should be aware of the importance of considering contemporaneous symptoms of multiple psychiatric conditions.
An insect trap constructed using three-dimensional (3D) printing technology was tested in potato (Solanum tuberosum Linnaeus; Solanaceae) fields to determine whether it could substitute for the standard yellow sticky card used to monitor Bactericera cockerelli (Šulc) (Hemiptera: Psylloidea: Triozidae). Sticky cards have shortcomings that prompted search for a replacement: cards are messy, require weekly replacement, are expensive to purchase, and accumulate large numbers of nontarget insects. Bactericera cockerelli on sticky cards also deteriorate enough that specimens cannot be tested reliably for the presence of vectored plant pathogens. A prototype trap constructed using 3D printing technology for monitoring Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psylloidea: Liviidae) was tested for monitoring B. cockerelli. The trap was designed to attract B. cockerelli visually to the trap and then funnel specimens into preservative-filled vials at the trap bottom. Prototype traps were paired against yellow sticky cards at multiple fields to compare the captures of B. cockerelli between cards and traps. The prototype trap was competitive with sticky cards early in the growing season when B. cockerelli numbers were low. We estimated that two or three prototype traps would collect as many B. cockerelli as one sticky card under these conditions. Efficacy of the prototype declined as B. cockerelli numbers increased seasonally. The prototype trap accumulated nontarget taxa that are common on sticky cards (especially Thysanoptera and Diptera), and was also found to capture taxa of possible interest in integrated pest management research, including predatory insects, parasitic Hymenoptera, and winged Aphididae (Hemiptera), suggesting that the traps could be useful outside of the purpose targeted here. We believe that 3D printing technology has substantial promise for developing monitoring tools that exploit behavioural traits of the targeted insect. Ongoing work includes the use of this technology to modify the prototype, with a focus on making it more effective at capturing psyllids and less susceptible to capture of nontarget species.
Effective methods to increase awareness of preventable infectious diseases are key components of successful control programmes. Rabies is an example of a disease with significant impact, where public awareness is variable. A recent awareness campaign in a rabies endemic region of Azerbaijan provided a unique opportunity to assess the efficacy of such campaigns. A cluster cross-sectional survey concerning rabies was undertaken following the awareness campaign in 600 households in 38 randomly selected towns, in districts covered by the campaign and matched control regions. This survey demonstrated that the relatively simple awareness campaign was effective at improving knowledge of rabies symptoms and vaccination schedules. Crucially, those in the awareness campaign group were also 1·4 times more likely to report that they had vaccinated their pets, an essential component of human rabies prevention. In addition, low knowledge of appropriate post-exposure treatment and animal sources of rabies provide information useful for future public awareness campaigns in the region and other similar areas.
Passive surveillance for lyssaviruses in UK bats has been ongoing since 1987 and has identified 13 cases of EBLV-2 from a single species; Myotis daubentonii. No other lyssavirus species has been detected. Between 2005 and 2015, 10 656 bats were submitted, representing 18 species, creating a spatially and temporally uneven sample of British bat fauna. Uniquely, three UK cases originate from a roost at Stokesay Castle in Shropshire, England, where daily checks for grounded and dead bats are undertaken and bat carcasses have been submitted for testing since 2007. Twenty per cent of Daubenton's bats submitted from Stokesay Castle since surveillance began, have tested positive for EBLV-2. Phylogenetic analysis reveals geographical clustering of UK viruses. Isolates from Stokesay Castle are more closely related to one another than to viruses from other regions. Daubenton's bats from Stokesay Castle represent a unique opportunity to study a natural population that appears to maintain EBLV-2 infection and may represent endemic infection at this site. Although the risk to public health from EBLV-2 is low, consequences of infection are severe and effective communication on the need for prompt post-exposure prophylaxis for anyone that has been bitten by a bat is essential.
To explore the modern psychometric properties of the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), we used the Rasch analysis in a sample of 767 primary care patients with depression.
The analysis highlighted dependency issues between items 1 and 2 (‘Little interest or pleasure in doing things’ and ‘Feeling down, depressed, or hopeless’), and items 3 and 4 (‘Trouble falling or staying asleep, or sleeping too much’ and ‘Feeling tired or having little energy’). Items 1 and 2 displayed an over-discrimination, suggesting their potential redundancy within the complete item set.
In its current format the PHQ-9 displays some problems with regard to its measurement structure among a sample of primary care patients. These problems can be addressed by removing potentially redundant items to deliver a stable screening tool. The results also lend support for the PHQ-2 to be used as a screening tool in a primary care setting.
Kuznetsov and co-authors in 2011‒14 introduced the family of hypergeometric Lévy processes. They appear naturally in the study of fluctuations of stable processes when one analyses stable processes through the theory of positive self-similar Markov processes. Hypergeometric Lévy processes are defined through their characteristic exponent, which, as a complex-valued function, has four independent parameters. In 2014 it was shown that the definition of a hypergeometric Lévy process could be taken to include a greater range of the aforesaid parameters than originally specified. In this short article, we push the parameter range even further.
The first observations by a worldwide network of advanced interferometric gravitational wave detectors offer a unique opportunity for the astronomical community. At design sensitivity, these facilities will be able to detect coalescing binary neutron stars to distances approaching 400 Mpc, and neutron star–black hole systems to 1 Gpc. Both of these sources are associated with gamma-ray bursts which are known to emit across the entire electromagnetic spectrum. Gravitational wave detections provide the opportunity for ‘multi-messenger’ observations, combining gravitational wave with electromagnetic, cosmic ray, or neutrino observations. This review provides an overview of how Australian astronomical facilities and collaborations with the gravitational wave community can contribute to this new era of discovery, via contemporaneous follow-up observations from the radio to the optical and high energy. We discuss some of the frontier discoveries that will be made possible when this new window to the Universe is opened.
Identifying childhood predictors of binge eating and understanding risk mechanisms could help improve prevention and detection efforts. The aim of this study was to examine whether features of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), as well as childhood eating disturbances, predicted binge eating later in adolescence.
We studied specific risk factors for the development of binge eating during mid-adolescence among 7120 males and females from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), a cohort study of children in the UK, using data from multiple informants to develop structural equation models. Repeated assessment of eating disturbances during childhood (mid-childhood overeating, late-childhood overeating and early-adolescent strong desire for food), as well as teacher- and parent-reported hyperactivity/inattention during mid- and late childhood, were considered as possible predictors of mid-adolescent binge eating.
Prevalence of binge eating during mid-adolescence in our sample was 11.6%. The final model of predictors of binge eating during mid-adolescence included direct effects of late-childhood overeating [standardized estimate 0.145, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.038–0.259, p = 0.009] and early-adolescent strong desire for food (standardized estimate 0.088, 95% CI −0.002 to 0.169, p = 0.05). Hyperactivity/inattention during late childhood indirectly predicted binge eating during mid-adolescence (standardized estimate 0.085, 95% CI 0.007–0.128, p = 0.03) via late-childhood overeating and early-adolescent strong desire for food.
Our findings indicate that early ADHD symptoms, in addition to an overeating phenotype, contribute to risk for adolescent binge eating. These findings lend support to the potential role of hyperactivity/inattention in the development of overeating and binge eating.
Landscape epidemiology and landscape genetics combine advances in molecular techniques, spatial analyses and epidemiological models to generate a more real-world understanding of infectious disease dynamics and provide powerful new tools for the study of RNA viruses. Using dog rabies as a model we have identified how key questions regarding viral spread and persistence can be addressed using a combination of these techniques. In contrast to wildlife rabies, investigations into the landscape epidemiology of domestic dog rabies requires more detailed assessment of the role of humans in disease spread, including the incorporation of anthropogenic landscape features, human movements and socio-cultural factors into spatial models. In particular, identifying and quantifying the influence of anthropogenic features on pathogen spread and measuring the permeability of dispersal barriers are important considerations for planning control strategies, and may differ according to cultural, social and geographical variation across countries or continents. Challenges for dog rabies research include the development of metapopulation models and transmission networks using genetic information to uncover potential source/sink dynamics and identify the main routes of viral dissemination. Information generated from a landscape genetics approach will facilitate spatially strategic control programmes that accommodate for heterogeneities in the landscape and therefore utilise resources in the most cost-effective way. This can include the efficient placement of vaccine barriers, surveillance points and adaptive management for large-scale control programmes.
The organic grain sector is one of the fastest growing sectors of the organic market, but farmers in the mid-Atlantic cannot meet the organic grain demand, including the demand for organic soybean. Weed management is cited by farmers as the largest challenge to organic soybean production. Recent soybean population studies show that lower seeding rates for genetically modified organism soybean farmers provide maximum economic return due to high seed technology fees and inexpensive herbicides. Such economic analysis may not be appropriate for organic soybean producers due to the absence of seed technology fees, stronger weed pressures, and price premiums for organic soybean. Soybean seeding rates in North Carolina have traditionally been suggested at approximately 247,000 live seeds/ha, depending on planting conditions. Higher seeding rates may result in a more competitive soybean population and better economic returns for organic soybean producers. Experiments were conducted in 2006 and 2007 to investigate seeding rates of 185,000, 309,000, 432,000, and 556,000 live seeds/ha. All rates were planted on 76-cm row spacing in organic and conventional weed management systems. Increased soybean seeding rates reduced weed ratings at three of the five sites. Increased soybean seeding rates also resulted in higher yield at three of the four sites. Maximum economic returns for organic treatments were achieved with the highest seeding rate in all sites. Results suggest that seeding rates as high as 556,000 live seeds/ha may provide organic soybean producers with better weed control, higher yield, and increased profits.
The mountain chicken Leptodactylus fallax, the largest amphibian in the Caribbean, restricted to Dominica and Montserrat, is Critically Endangered. We investigated the presence of disease in the mountain chicken and in the sympatric cane toad Bufo marinus and Johnstone's whistling frog Eleutherodactylus johnstonei in the Centre Hills on Montserrat. Skin swabs of mountain chickens and B. marinus, and toe clips from E. johnstonei, were tested for Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, the causative organism of cutaneous chytridiomycosis. Additionally, mountain chicken blood serum samples (n = 57) were examined for exposure to ranavirus. No chytrid or exposure to ranavirus was detected. We draw tentative conclusions about disease threats to the Montserrat mountain chicken population, and present preliminary recommendations for safeguarding this species.
The formation and evolution of Mars involved both physical and chemical processes that are revealed in the chemistry of the Martian meteorites, and in the chemistry of the surface of Mars determined by remote sensing from spacecraft in orbit and on the surface. The interpretation of the chemistry revealed by these studies has been strongly influenced by our knowledge of geochemical processes on the Earth, Moon, and asteroidal parent bodies. In a sense, the entire Earth, Moon, and a number of asteroid parent bodies can be considered Mars analogs! The most studied differentiated body (melted and chemically evolved) from the asteroid belt is the parent body of the Howardite, Eucrite, and Diogenite (HED) igneous meteorite classes, thought to be the asteroid 4 Vesta (Mittlefehldt et al., 1998). These HED meteorites are igneous rocks that are basaltic in nature with slightly different mineral assemblages (McSween, 1999). In this chapter we use data from samples on the Earth including the meteorites from the HED parent body and the Martian meteorites to understand the chemical fractionations that have affected Martian rocks and surface materials. These chemical fractionations are the changes in chemistry due to the different behavior of particular groups of chemical elements according to their properties. We will begin by looking at the evidence for the formation of Mars, the early differentiation of the planet, the later formation of igneous rocks by mantle melting, and end with surface processes leading to formation of the Martian fine-grained regolith OR soils.
Antibiotic-encapsulated PLA and PLGA nanoparticles were prepared by the single emulsion-solvent evaporation technique. Different PLA and PLGA systems were prepared, varying the copolymer composition and the amount of the surfactant polyvinyl alcohol. Characterization and drug loading studies were performed by UV-Visible spectrophotometry, dynamic light scattering, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM).
Simultaneously, in order to model the diffusion of the nanoparticles within the osteoblast, QDs such as functionalized InGaP/ZnS and polymer encapsulated InGaP/ZnS nanoparticles were added to confluent cultures of primary mouse osteoblasts. Following PreFer fixation, cultures were examined via confocal microscopy. QDs were clearly visible within osteoblasts.
Human Oesophagostomum infections are locally common in northern Ghana. The present study describes the results of a cross-sectional survey involving 1011 subjects, selected by a compound-based random sampling method from 1227 compounds in 24 villages. Selected persons were examined by both Kato and coproculture methods. Hookworm-like eggs, representing ova of Oesophagostomum bifurcum and hookworm were detected in 87·5% of the Kato smears. The geometric mean egg count of the infected subjects was 1018. Upon coproculture, third-stage larvae of O. bifurcum and hookworm were detected in 53·0% and 86·9% of subjects respectively. Oesophagostomum infections were clustered but no clear explanation for aggregation of infections could be found as yet. Subjects infected with hookworm had a 5-fold higher risk of being infected with O. bifurcum. Infection rates in adult women were higher than in adult men. No association was found with family size, level of hygiene or with the presence of animals in the compounds. Representatives of the Bimoba-tribe were significantly more infected than those of the other tribes. It appears, however, that this tribal association is a geographical phenomenon: Bimoba are mostly living in villages with the highest infection rates.
Asymptomatic carriage of Neisseria meningitidis is common (5–35% of individuals) while the incidence of invasive meningococcal disease is fairly low (<1–5 per 100000 per annum in Europe). Naturally acquired protective immunity may account for this difference. In this study, we investigated the relationship between anti-meningococcal salivary IgA and age and carriage. We showed that salivary IgA to a range of meningococcal antigens increased successively with age with some specificity for commonly circulating serosubtypes. In a group of 258 students 37 (14%) of whom were carriers of N. meningitidis serogroup B, higher levels of specific IgA were associated with carriage. Stratified analysis revealed a positive relationship between smoking and specific anti-N. meningitidis IgA independent of current carriage, weighted odds ratio (OR) 4·1 (95% CI 1·1–18) and OR 3·8 (95% CI 0·96–16) for reference strains B:1:P1.14 and B:4:P1.5,4 respectively. These data implicate IgA as a factor in host defence from meningococcal invasion, although the precise mechanisms remain uncertain.
Mass-casualty and hospital preparedness has been analyzed widely. However, information regarding the types of areas where these events occur is limited. Therefore, the characteristics of acute hazardous substances releases resulting in death/multiple-victim events occuring in rural/agricultural areas and in all other areas were studied and compared. Methods: Data reported to the Hazardous Substances Emergency Events Surveillance (HSEES) system from 16 state health departments during 1993–2000 were used to examine factors associated with events with death/multiple victims involving acute release of hazardous substances. A death/multiple-victim event is defined as any event resulting in a death and/or at least five people being transported to a hospital.
Of a total of 43,133 events, 6,661 occurred in rural/agricultural areas. Of these, 107 were death/multiple-victim events with 632 victims, of whom 91 died and 77 were hospitalized. All other areas had 472 death/multiple-victim events with 7,981 victims, of whom 116 died and 413 were hospitalized. Death/multiple-victim events in rural/agricultural areas were more likely to be associated with transportation (Proportional Ratio (PR) = 4.1, 95% CI = 3.1–5.4) and fires and/or explosions (PR = 1.4, 95% CI = 0.95–2.0) than were death/multiple-victim events in all other areas. Among transportation-related events in rural/agricultural areas, 19 were associated with air transport—mainly crop dusters—and resulted in 18 deaths. Responders were three times more likely to be injured in rural/agricultural areas. Of responders, volunteer firefighters constituted 52% compared with 6.7% in all other areas. The most frequently released chemicals in rural/agricultural areas were ammonia, chlorine, and pesticides. In all other areas, ammonia, chlorine, hydrochloric acid, carbon monoxide, and 0-chlorobenzylidene malononitrile, a tearing agent often associated with an illegal or unauthorized act, were released most frequently.
Findings from this analysis suggest that remedial actions should address safety measures in both transportation and fixed facilities containing acute hazardous substances. These include regular maintenance of equipment, education of workers about the substances used in their facility, rigorous training and licensing of drivers and crop duster operators, and education and training of employees and first responders in the use of protective equipment. These activities may reduce the number of events, casualties, and costs associated with hazardous substance events.
Due to their unique mechanical properties, bulk metallic glasses (BMG) have potential for biomedical applications. Biocompatibility and corrosion tests of a zirconium-based BMG showed comparable behavior to current implant alloys. Mechanical properties, such as an elastic limit of 2% and a yield strength of 1700 MPa, are significantly higher than current implant alloys. In addition, it was found that medical MRI images of BMG, possibly due to the amorphous structure, are significantly better than other alloys even though the reference alloy contains 14.6 at.% Ni. Nickel-free compositions also retained similar glass forming characteristics and showed even better MRI images. Edge holding for cutting tool applications was demonstrated. Fatigue tests were performed in simulated body conditions and directly compared to Ti-6 Al-4 V. While one specimen failed at more than 3,000,000 cycles at 500 MPa, there was much scatter in the data. Further concentration on processing issues to produce pore free material is needed to produce reliable materialfor prototype development. Potential uses, especially associated with an interventional MRI for MRI guided surgeries, will be discussed.
A new synthesis route, based on internal oxidation reactions in multiphase alloys, is proposed for the controlled production of near-surface, complex ceramic-ceramic or ceramic-metallic composite structures. Using this approach, a microdispersion of a complex nitride perovskite, Cr3PtN, was formed in Cr2N or Cr(Pt) by internal nitridation of a two-phase Cr(Pt) + Cr3Pt precursor alloy. A framework for use of this phenomenon to synthesize island micro- (and potentially meso- or nano-) composite functional surface structures is presented.