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Solution-processed metal oxide electronics on flexible substrates can enable applications from military to health care. Due to limited thermal budgets and mismatched coefficients of thermal expansion between oxides and substrates, achieving good performance in solution-processed oxide films remains a challenge. Additionally, the use of traditional photolithographic processes is incompatible with low-cost, high-throughput roll-to-roll processing. Here, we demonstrate solution-deposited oxide thin film transistors (TFTs) on a shape memory polymer substrate, which offers unique control of final device shape and modulus. The key enabling step is the exposure of the precursor film to UV-ozone through a shadow mask to perform patterning and photochemical conversion simultaneously. These TFTs exhibit mobility up to 160 cm2/(V s), subthreshold swing as low as 110 mV/dec, and threshold voltage between −2 and 0 V, while maintaining compatibility with a flexible form factor at processing temperatures below 250 °C.
In two experiments, we examine the processing of metaphoric reference, where a metaphoric description (e.g., creampuff) makes reference to an antecedent describing a cowardly boxer during the online comprehension of spoken sentences. We measured activation levels of figurative (e.g., boxer) and literal (e.g., pastry) interpretations of the metaphoric referential description. Experiment 1 measured meaning activation at 0 ms and 1000 ms after the metaphoric referential description. At the metaphoric reference offset, only activation for the nonliteral interpretation was observed. At 1000 ms only activation for the literal interpretation was evidenced. Experiment 2 involved Spanish-English bilinguals immersed in a bilingual community where usage of both languages is a common occurrence. Meaning activation was measured at 0 ms and 300 ms after metaphoric reference offset. Results revealed that bilinguals were much faster to name targets consistent with a figurative interpretation at 300 ms than at 0 ms after prime offset. The same pattern was observed for the literal target interpretation. Implications for theories of bilingual metaphoric language processing are discussed.
As a way to introduce the topic of this chapter, consider sentences (1a-c), below. The metaphoric expression, lawyers are sharks, in sentence (1a) is an example of the more conventionalized nominal metaphor of the form A is B.
Zinc Oxide (ZnO) Thin-Film Transistors (TFTs) using Aluminum (Al) and Aluminum-doped zinc Oxide (AZO) as Source-Drain (S-D) contacts are reported. The fabrication process was carried out using five photolithography steps with a maximum processing temperature of 100 °C, which makes the process compatible with flexible/transparent applications. The AZO and ZnO films were deposited using Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD). Aluminum was deposited using ebeam. The devices showed mobilities >10 cm2/V-s, threshold voltage in the range of 7 V and On/Off current ratios >105. The resistance analysis showed that AZO is a better contact with lower contact resistance as identified in the TFTs. The AZO and ZnO stacks characterized by UV-V shows an optical transmission >80 %.
The objective of the work was to evaluate the long-term capacity of sintered
glass to retain high-level nuclear wastes (HLW) in near-repository
conditions. We have studied the corrosion behavior of waste forms partially
devitrified (43 vol.%) in different aqueous media. Devitrified samples were
irradiated at doses (γ radiation from a Co 60 source) ranging
from 1.4 × 106 Gy to 2.0 × 108 Gy, in order to study
their aqueous corrosion resistance in simulated underground water. The
results show little or no effect of irradiation on the density,
microstructure and corrosion resistance. The global dissolution rate was
almost constant around a value of 5×10−5 g. cm−2
d−1. Elemental dissolution rates were also unaffected by
Dietary fatty acids (FA) play a role in several (patho)physiological processes at any age, and different FA have different effects on lipid status and health outcome. The present study aims to describe the FA intake and its main food sources in a population of healthy European adolescents and to assess the variation in intake as a function of non-dietary factors. FA intake was assessed with 24 h recall interviews in 1804 adolescents aged 12·5–17·5 years. Usual intakes were calculated using the multiple source method. Multilevel analyses, adjusting for study centre, were used to investigate the influence of non-dietary factors. The mean total fat intake was 33·3 (sd 1·2) % of total energy intake (%E). The mean SFA intake was 13·8 (sd 1·2) %E, with 99·8 % of the population exceeding the recommendations. SFA was mainly delivered by meat and cake, pies and biscuits. In most adolescents, the PUFA intake was too low, and 35·5 % of the population did not achieve the minimum recommended intake for α-linolenic acid (ALA). The main determinants of FA intake in the present study population were age and sex, as well as physical activity in the male subgroup. No contributions of body composition, socio-economic status or sexual maturation to the variance in FA intake were observed. In conclusion, the most important public health concerns regarding FA intake in this adolescent population were the low intake of ALA and the high intake of SFA, mainly seen in the younger-aged boys. In this group the major contributor to SFA was meat.
In this work, we report the composition, optical, and electrical properties of a- Si1-YGeY: H, F films to be used as sensing layer in uncooled microbolometers. The a-Si1-YGeY films where Y is Ge content in solid phase were deposited by low frequency PECVD from SiH4 and GeF4 feed gases, and H2 and Ar were used for dilution. The film composition, IR transmission and temperature dependence of conductivity were measured. The reduction of conductivity activation energy from 0.86 eV to 0.39 eV and the increase of room temperature conductivity from 1x10−9 to 2.1×10−3 Ohm−1cm−1 were observed with the change of Y from 0 (Si) to 1(Ge). These results demonstrate this material to be a good candidate as a sensing material in uncooled micro-bolometers, due to its high absorption in the range of λ = 10-13 μm, its relatively high activation energy, Ea=0.4 eV, consequently, a high temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR), and moderate resistivity at room temperature.
SrTiO3 and PbTiO3 perovskites are combined to form the xPbTiO3-(1−x)SrTiO3 (PST) solid solution. The effect of the PbTiO3 content on the microstructural and dielectric properties is studied for different compositions (x=0.1,0.3,0.5,0.7, and 0.9). Microstructural features of the PST system are studied by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) techniques. Electrical properties are studied by the thermoelectric analysis technique at both fixed frequency and varying frequency to study the behavior of the dielectric constant and dielectric loss.Films of 0.5PbTiO3-0.5SrTiO3 (PST50) have been obtained by RF ion sputtering on different substrates. We investigate the relation between the crystalline structure and the dielectric properties of PST50 films deposited on different metallic films. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and X-Ray Diffraction were used for the structural analysis of the PST50/TiN/Si and PST50/RuO2/TiN /Si systems. The dielectric properties of the PST50 films were measured for TiN/PST50/TiN/Si, and RuO2/PST50/RuO2/TiN/Si capacitors and the results were correlated to the structure and composition. The charge storage capabilities of the PST50 films are evaluated for possible application in integrated circuit technology.
Low and high temperature tensile tests were performed on single crystals of pure Ni3Al and Ni3Al+B in order to determine the effect of B additions on the ductility and fracture behavior. Tests were carried out in air at a constant strain rate of 1.3 × 10−3 s−1. The orientations tested were  for which the yield stress in tension is always greater than in compression, and those for which the tension/compression asymmetry is zero ([T=C]) for each particular composition. At room temperature, the results show a positive effect of B additions on both the fracture stress and on the ductility. The ductility at 800K appears to decrease monotonically with B additions. The largest ductilities are found for [T=C] at room temperature where an improvement of about 26% (resolved strain) for an addition of 0.2 at% B was obtained. However, the most dramatic increase in ductility occurs for the  oriented samples at room temperature where a 55% improvement was measured over that of pure Ni3Al. Fracture surfaces show a combination of massive slip, some cleavage, and heavily dimpled areas. These observations show that B additions not only increase the ductility of polycrystalline Ni3Al, as has been previously observed by many investigators, but also that of the already-ductile single crystalline material, indicating that a “bulk effect” should be added to the grain boundary strengthening effect of B when explaining the improvement in ductility of polycrystalline Ni3Al due to B additions.
Mechanical tests were performed on directionally solidified (DS) NiAl in-situ eutectic composites in order to evaluate the effect of ductile reinforcements on the fracture resistance of the B2 ordered intermetallic compound NiAl. Reinforcements consisted of i) Mo fibers, ii) Cr fibers, and iii) Cr(Mo) solid solution plates. Near stoichiometric NiAl ingots were prepared by induction melting as reference material to compare with the eutectic composites. Resistance curves were obtained for the NiAl/Mo fibrous eutectic alloy as well as for the NiAl/Cr(Mo) layered material. The initiation fracture toughness of the DS NiAl/Mo and NiAl/Cr(Mo) eutectic composites is larger than that of the stoichiometric NiAl, with the layered material. producing the better properties. The mechanisms for such increase in fracture toughness are discussed.
Textures of calcite crystals from ostrich (Struthio camelus) eggshells were examined with X ray diffractometry (XRD), transmission and scanning electron microscopy (TEM, SEM), and the thermal stability by thermal expansion analysis (TEA). Results showed that textures vary through the thickness of the eggshell and that expansion properties and thermal behaviour are unusual. Crystals from ostrich eggshell are arranged in two main configurations or layers; the outer layer with the c-axis of crystals oriented perpendicular to the eggshell surface and the inner layer with the c-axes of the crystals arranged almost parallel to eggshell surface; thermal expansion analysis show high stability through a wide range of temperatures until a steep growth near 450-460°C. These results show that the manipulation of crystal texture and properties is under biological control and a better understanding of this biological phenomenon will provide more and better data for improving new synthetic composite materials.
Arguing from the overall settlement plan and the form of buildings, the authors present a persuasive case that the Late Postclassic city of Tlaxcallan and its near neighbour Tizatlan constitute the central elements of a republican state. This is an unusual political prescription, not only in Mesoamerica but further afield.
The research about the structural stability of bone, as a composite material, compromises a complete understanding of the interaction between the mineral and organic phases. The thermal stability of human bone and type I collagen extracted from human bone by different methods was studied in order to understand the interactions between the mineral and organic phases when is affected by a degradation/combustion process. The experimental techniques employed were calorimetry and infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) techniques. The extracted type I collagens result to have a bigger thermal stability with a Tmax at 500 and 530 Celsius degrees compared with the collagen present in bone with Tmax at 350 Celsius degrees. The enthalpy value for the complete degradation/combustion process were similar for all the samples, being 8.4 +- 0.11 kJ/g for recent bones diminishing with the antiquity, while for extracted collagens were 8.9 +- 0.07 and 7.9 +-1.01 kJ/g. These findings demonstrate that the stability loss of type I collagen is due to its interactions with the mineral phase, namely carbonate hydroxyapatite. This cause a change in the molecular properties of the collagen during mineralization, specifically in its cross-links and other chemical interactions, which have a global effect over the fibers elasticity, but gaining tensile strength in bone as a whole tissue. We are applying this characterization to analyze the diagenetic process of bones with archaeological interest in order to identify how the environmental factors affect the molecular structure of type I collagen. In bone samples that proceed from an specific region with the same environmental conditions, the enthalpy value per unit mass was found to diminish exponentially with respect to the bone antiquity.
During the central Mexican late Postclassic period, the Aztec Triple Alliance became the largest and most powerful empire in Mesoamerica. Yet ancient Tlaxcallan (now Tlaxcala, Mexico) resisted incorporation into the empire despite being entirely surrounded by it and despite numerous Aztec military campaigns aimed at the defeat of the Tlaxcaltecas. How did it happen that a relatively small (1,400 km²) polity was able to resist a more powerful foe while its neighbors succumbed? We propose a resolution to this historical enigma that, we suggest, has implications for the broader study of social and cultural change, particularly in relation to theories of state formation and collective action. We find it particularly interesting that the Tlaxcaltecas abandoned a key tenet of traditional Nahua political structure in which kingship was vested in members of the nobility, substituting for it government by a council whose members could be recruited from the ranks of commoners. To achieve such a significant deviation from typical Nahua authority structure, the Tlaxcaltecas drew selectively from those aspects of Nahua mythic history and religion that were consistent with a comparatively egalitarian and collective political regime.