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The GALLEX collaboration aims at the detection of solar neutrinos in a radiochemical experiment employing 30 tons of Gallium in form of concentrated aqueous Gallium-chloride solution. The detector is primarily sensitive to the otherwise inaccessible pp-neutrinos. Details of the experiment have been repeatedly described before [1-7]. Here we report the present status of implementation in the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (Italy). So far, 12.2 tons of Gallium are at hand. The present status of development allows to start the first full scale run at the time when 30 tons of Gallium become available. This date is expected to be January, 1990.
We report results on solar prominences from our observations of the November 3, 1994 total solar eclipse from the North Chile alteplano. From the military base at Putre, we used our transportable CCD camera and telescope, as well as support photographic digitised observations from Putre and Parinacota volcano. The variation of density and equivalent temperature were derived in coronal holes (plumes and interplumes) and in equatorial streamers. We obtained images from the inner to the outer corona, as well as low-resolution spectra of prominences and of the inner corona. We present the analysis of images and spectra of prominences in the Balmer, He I and Ca II lines, and in the Thomson scattered continuum.
The Magnetism in Massive Stars (MiMeS) project represents the largest systematic survey of stellar magnetism ever undertaken. Based on a sample of over 550 Galactic B and O-type stars, the MiMeS project has derived the basic characteristics of magnetism in hot, massive stars. Herein we report preliminary results.
The scanning tunneling microscope has been used to image a reduced TiO2(110) surface in ultrahigh vacuum. Structural units with periodicities ranging from 21Å to 3.4Å have been clearly imaged and the observed surface structures can be explained by a model involving ordered arrangements of two dimensional defects known as crystallographic shear planes. An electronic state 0.5 eV below the conduction band edge, detected in tunneling spectra, has been assigned to reduced Ti cations which reside along the crystallographic shear planes. This state appears to be empty at the surface, possibly due to asmall amount of band bending. The results indicate that the topography of nonstoichiometric oxide surfaces can be rather complex and that the tunneling microscope provides an effective tool for studying the tomic scale surface features of wide band gap semiconductors.
Synchrotron radiation has been used to perform resonant photoemission measurements across the 3p→3d photoabsorption threshold from cleaved FexO (x ≃0.945), Fe3O4, and α-Fe2O3 single crystal surfaces. The resonant enhancement of the Fe 3d photoelectrons allows the Fe 3d-derived final states in the valence band to be distinguished from the overlapping O 2p states. Using well-characterized single crystals, the distributions of Fe 3d-derived states associated with the ferrous (Fe2+) and ferric (Fe3+) cations have been identified. The Fe 3d-derived states are found to extend about 18 eV below the Fermi level in each oxide, which can be attributed to a significant amount of hybridization between the Fe 3d and O 2p orbitals.
The fundamental interactions involved in the bonding of atoms and molecules to metal oxides are discussed. Surface defects play a major role in many of those interactions. Both acid/base and oxidation/reduction reactions occur at metal-oxide surfaces, with the latter dominating at point defect sites. The reaction of metals with oxide surfaces is governed largely by the relative heats of formation of the respective oxides, although surface point defects also play an important role. Preliminary studies of ceramic/ceramic interfaces indicate that interfacial interactions are much weaker than for metal/ceramic interfaces.
The electronic structure of single-crystal Cr2O3 has been studied by Cr 2p core-level XPS and valence-band UPS spectroscopies. A cluster configuration-interaction analysis was applied to investigate the nature of the satellite in the Cr 2p core-level photoemission spectrum. It is argued that the satellite can be understood as a charge-transfer satellite, and Cr2O3 is found to be situated at the boundary between the Mott-Hubbard and the charge-transfer regimes. The values of the charge-transfer energy, Δ, the Coulomb correlation energy, U, and the ligand 2p-cation 3d hybridization energy, T, found from fitting the Cr 2p XPS spectrum were also used to analyze the valence-band UPS spectrum. The comparison between the experimental spectrum and the spectrum from theoretical fitting is fair.
The electronic properties of oxides that are candidates for high-dielectric insulators in ULSI are discussed. The theoretical models that can be used to describe them are compared, and the properties of cation oxidation state and point defects associated with non-stoichiometry in the bulk and on the surface are considered. Metal-oxide surfaces often reconstruct, with the creation of a surface dipole moment The effect of overlayers on metal-oxide surfaces is also discussed.
The Center for Research on Interface Structures and Phenomena (CRISP) is a National Science Foundation (NSF) Materials Research Science and Engineering Center (MRSEC). CRISP is a partnership between Yale University, Southern Connecticut State University (SCSU) and Brookhaven National Laboratory. A main focus of CRISP research is complex oxide interfaces that are prepared using epitaxial techniques, including molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). Complex oxides exhibit a wealth of electronic, magnetic and chemical behaviors, and the surfaces and interfaces of complex oxides can have properties that differ substantially from those of the corresponding bulk materials. CRISP employs this research program in a concerted way to educate students at all levels. CRISP has constructed a robust MBE apparatus specifically designed for safe and productive use by undergraduates. Students can grow their own samples and then characterize them with facilities at both Yale and SCSU, providing a complete research and educational experience. This paper will focus on the implementation of the CRISP Teaching MBE facility and its use in the study of the synthesis and properties of the crystalline oxide-silicon interface.
The Magnetism in Massive Stars (MiMeS) Project is a consensus collaboration among many of the foremost international researchers of the physics of hot, massive stars, with the basic aim of understanding the origin, evolution and impact of magnetic fields in these objects. At the time of writing, MiMeS Large Programs have acquired over 950 high-resolution polarised spectra of about 150 individual stars with spectral types from B5-O4, discovering new magnetic fields in a dozen hot, massive stars. The quality of this spectral and magnetic matériel is very high, and the Collaboration is keen to connect with colleagues capable of exploiting the data in new or unforeseen ways. In this paper we review the structure of the MiMeS observing programs and report the status of observations, data modeling and development of related theory.
Previous research suggests, though not consistently, that maternal psychological distress during pregnancy leads to adverse birth outcomes. We investigated whether maternal psychological distress affects fetal growth during the period of mid-pregnancy until birth.
Pregnant women (n=6313) reported levels of psychological distress using the Brief Symptom Inventory (anxious and depressive symptoms) and the Family Assessment Device (family stress) at 20.6 weeks pregnancy and had fetal ultrasound measurements in mid- and late pregnancy. Estimated fetal weight was calculated using head circumference, abdominal circumference and femur length.
In mid-pregnancy, maternal distress was not linked to fetal size. In late pregnancy, however, anxious symptoms were related to fetal size after controlling for potential confounders. Anxious symptoms were also associated with a 37.73 g [95% confidence interval (CI) −69.22 to −6.25, p=0.019] lower birth weight. When we related maternal distress to fetal growth curves using multilevel models, more consistent results emerged. Maternal symptoms of anxiety or depression were associated with impaired fetal weight gain and impaired fetal head and abdominal growth. For example, depressive symptoms reduced fetal weight gain by 2.86 g (95% CI −4.48 to −1.23, p<0.001) per week.
The study suggests that, starting in mid-pregnancy, fetal growth can be affected by different aspects of maternal distress. In particular, children of prenatally anxious mothers seem to display impaired fetal growth patterns during pregnancy. Future work should address the biological mechanisms underlying the association of maternal distress with fetal development and focus on the effects of reducing psychological distress in pregnancy.
The Magnetism in Massive Stars (MiMeS) Project is a consensus collaboration among the foremost international researchers of the physics of hot, massive stars, with the basic aim of understanding the origin, evolution and impact of magnetic fields in these objects. The cornerstone of the project is the MiMeS Large Program at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope, which represents a dedication of 640 hours of telescope time from 2008-2012. The MiMeS Large Program will exploit the unique capabilities of the ESPaDOnS spectropolarimeter to obtain critical missing information about the poorly-studied magnetic properties of these important stars, to confront current models and to guide theory.
Discoveries of magnetic fields in pulsating B and Be stars have been claimed from low-resolution spectropolarimetric observations with FORS1 at VLT. We used the new generation of high-resolution spectropolarimeters, ESPaDOnS at CFHT and NARVAL at TBL, to check for the existence of these fields. We find that most of the claimed magnetic stars do not host a magnetic field. This work shows the importance of a critical analysis of FORS1 data when searching for weak magnetic fields in early-type stars and the advantage of using ESPaDOnS and NARVAL to study such type of stars.
Massive stars are those stars with initial masses above about 8 times that of the sun, eventually leading to catastrophic explosions in the form of supernovae. These represent the most massive and luminous stellar component of the Universe, and are the crucibles in which the lion's share of the chemical elements are forged. These rapidly-evolving stars drive the chemistry, structure and evolution of galaxies, dominating the ecology of the Universe - not only as supernovae, but also during their entire lifetimes - with far-reaching consequences. Although the existence of magnetic fields in massive stars is no longer in question, our knowledge of the basic statistical properties of massive star magnetic fields is seriously incomplete. The Magnetism in Massive Stars (MiMeS) Project represents a comprehensive, multidisciplinary strategy by an international team of recognized researchers to address the “big questions” related to the complex and puzzling magnetism of massive stars. This paper present the first results of the MiMeS Large Program at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope.
The slowly pulsating B3V star 16 Pegasi was discovered by Hubrig et al. (2006) to be magnetic, based on low-resolution spectropolarimetric observations with FORS1 at the VLT. We have confirmed the presence of a magnetic field with new measurements with the spectropolarimeters Narval at TBL, France and Espadons at CFHT, Hawaii during 2007. The most likely period is about 1.44 d for the modulation of the field, but this could not be firmly established with the available data set. No variability has been found in the UV stellar wind lines. Although the star was reported once to show Hα in emission, there exists at present no confirmation that the star is a Be star.
We report on spectropolarimetric observations of 7 A-type supergiants
taken with the MuSiCoS echelle spectropolarimeter mounted at the 2 m
Bernard Lyot telescope at the Pic du Midi, during June-July 1999 and
June-July 2002. We present the values of the derived longitudinal
component of the magnetic field. The significance of the results is
I Have the great honour to give the Fifth Memorial Lecture in tribute to Juan de la Cierva, a great man and pioneer in rotating wing development, whose work was predominantly done in England.
His fundamental practical achievement, resulting from a deep knowledge of aeronautical science, was the demonstration of the fact that a big airscrew with suitable pitch could serve as a lifting surface without the danger of stall which is inherent in fixed-wing aircraft.
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