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Facial expression is an independent and objective marker of affect. Basic emotions (fear, sadness, joy, anger, disgust and surprise) have been shown to be universal across human cultures. Techniques such as the Facial Action Coding System can capture emotion with good reliability. Such techniques visually process the changes in different assemblies of facial muscles that produce the facial expression of affect.
Recent groundbreaking advances in computing and facial expression analysis software now allow real-time and objective measurement of emotional states. In particular, a recently developed software package and equipment, the Imotion Attention Tool™, allows capturing information on discreet emotional states based on facial expressions while a subject is participating in a behavioural task.
Extending preliminary work by further experimentation and analysis, the present findings suggests a link between facial affect data to already established peripheral arousal measures such as event related potentials (ERP), heart rate variability (HRV) and galvanic skin response (GSR) using disruptively innovative, noninvasive and clinically applicable technology in patients reporting suicidal ideation and intent compared to controls. Our results hold promise for the establishment of a computerized diagnostic battery that can be utilized by clinicians to improve the evaluation of suicide risk.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Cognitive impairment impacts on patient outcomes  but is under-recognised in acute hospitals . Data on rates and degree of impairment among hospital inpatients remain sparse. This information is vital for strategic planning of health services as the European population ages.
To examine the rates and degree of cognitive impairment among patients aged 65 and older who were admitted to an acute general hospital and to assess its impact on patient outcomes.
All patients aged over 65 who were admitted over a 2-week period were invited to participate. Those who met the inclusion criteria were screened for delirium then underwent a cognitive screening battery. Normative values for age and level of education were obtained from the TILDA study . Demographic and outcome data were obtained from medical records.
One hundred and forty-eight patients underwent cognitive screening. Thirty-nine over 148 (26%) met the DSM-IV criteria for dementia of whom only 16 (41%) had a previously-documented impairment. Thirty over 148 (20%) had evidence of cognitive impairment that did not meet criteria for dementia, only 3 (10%) of whom were previously documented. Seventy-three over 148 (49%) were normal. Six over 148 (4%) were not classifiable. The impact of cognitive status on length of hospital stay, number of readmissions in 6 months and discharge destination was investigated. Impact on length of stay was significant (P = 0.017) but significance was not achieved against number of readmissions or discharge destination.
Cognitive impairment is pervasive and under-recognised in the acute hospital and impacts on length of hospital stay. Longer interval analysis is necessary to investigate further implications.
References 1–3 available upon request.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Indicators are necessary to monitor national progress toward commitments made to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), but countries often struggle to mobilize quantitative indicators for many biodiversity targets. Assessing the extent to which countries are using measurable indicators from global and national sources by surveying 5th National Reports to the CBD, we found that nationally generated indicators were used 11 times more frequently than global indicators and only one-fifth of indicators matched those recommended by the CBD, suggesting that countries and indicator experts should work more closely to agree upon measurable, scalable, fit-for-purpose indicators for the next generation of CBD targets.
Introduction: Emergency Departments (EDs) are frequently the first point of entry to access health services for First Nation (FN) members. In Alberta, FN members visit EDs at almost double the rate of non-FN persons. Furthermore, preliminary evidence demonstrates differences in ED experience for FN members as compared to the general population. The Alberta First Nations Information Governance Centre, Maskwacis Health Services, Yellowhead Tribal Council, Treaty 8 First Nations of Alberta, and Alberta Health Services are working together to research FN members ED experiences and concerns. Methods: This is participatory research guided by a two-eyed seeing approach that acknowledges the equal value of both Western and Indigenous worldviews. FN and non-FN leaders researchers are full partners in the development of the research project. Six sharing circles will be held in February 2018 across Alberta, with Elders, FN patients, FN and non-FN clinicians and FN and non-FN administrators. Sharing circles are similar to focus groups, but emphasize everyone having a turn to speak and demonstrating respect among participants in accordance with FN protocols. Elders will select the questions for discussion based on topics that arose in initial team meetings. Sharing circle discussions will be audio recorded and transcribed. Analysts will include both Western and Indigenous worldview researchers, who will collaboratively interpret findings. Elders will review, discuss, contextualize and expand upon study findings. The research is also guided by FN principles of Ownership, Control, Access, and Possession of FN information. It is through these principles that First Nation research projects can truly be classified as FN lead and driven. Results: Based on initial team meeting discussions, results of sharing circles are expected to provide insights on issues such as: healing, patient-provider communication (verbal and non-verbal), shared decision making, respect for patient preferences, experiences leading to trust or distrust, understandings of wait times and triage, times when multiple (repeat) ED presentations occur, distances travelled for care, choosing specific EDs when seeking care, impacts of stereotypes about FN patients, and racism and reconciliation. Conclusion: Understanding FN ED experience and bringing FN perspectives to Western conceptions of the goals and provision of ED care are important steps toward reconciliation.
To compare mental health (MH) outcomes of and service use by children born under 1500 g in Ireland with a matched control group.
Using a retrospective cohort design, semi-structured and standardised MH assessments were conducted with parents, teachers and youth.
A total of 64 of 127 surviving children from a very low birth weight (VLBW) cohort from a National Maternity Hospital participated at a mean age of 11.6 years (s.d. 1.0), along with 51 matched controls. More VLBW children received clinical or borderline scores when rated by parents [χ2 (1, n=114)=7.3, p=0.007] or youths [χ2 (1, n=114)=4.83, p=0.028], but not by teachers [χ2 (1, n=114)=1.243, p=0.463]. There was no increase in the use of MH services. A main effect of birth weight remained on the parent Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire [F (1, 88)=5.07, p<0.05) after controlling for intelligence quotient (IQ) and socio-economic status (SES), but only on hyperactivity in males. SES, rather than IQ or birth weight, predicted identification of problems by teachers [F (1, 82)=6.99, p=0.01).
Teachers miss MH difficulties and are influenced more by SES than by IQ or birth weight. This has implications for MH service access. Initial perinatal investment needs to be matched with ongoing surveillance and psychoeducation to ensure that disorders are recognised early and offered appropriate interventions.
In this paper, we give an overview of our research exploring the impact of physical and chemical processing on food proteins. There are three themes, applied to the proteins of wheat, soya, egg and dairy foods. Firstly, the impact of the Maillard reaction on food proteins is discussed, with a particular focus on how the reactions might be harnessed to manipulate food texture. Secondly, the potential of enzymatic protein-protein crosslinking is considered, especially the enzyme transglutaminase. Thirdly, the broader question of how the aggregation of proteins within a food is altered by chemical and physical modification and how, in turn, this might impact on the overall nutritional quality of the food is considered.