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Women face disproportionate challenges while undertaking coastal fieldwork. We draw on 18 responses that specifically raise fieldwork issues from an international survey about perceptions and experiences of gender inequality for those working in coastal sciences to discuss two common themes. These themes are barriers to fieldwork participation and challenges for women working in coastal field settings such as boats or working on beaches, including discrimination and sexual harassment. We suggest five priority behavioural and policy changes to improve the fieldwork experience for women in coastal sciences: (i) publicise field role models and trail blazers, (ii) improve opportunities and capacity for women to undertake fieldwork, (iii) establish field codes of conduct, (iv) acknowledge the challenges women face in the field and provide support where possible, and (v) foster an enjoyable and supportive fieldwork culture.
Conduct problems and head injuries increase the risk of delinquency and share a bidirectional association. However, how they link across development is unknown. The present study aimed to identify their linked developmental pathways and associated risk factors. Latent class analysis was modeled from Millennium Cohort Study data (n = 8,600) to identify linked pathways of conduct problem symptoms and head injuries. Head injuries were parent-reported from ages 3 to 14 and conduct problems from ages 3 to 17 using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Multinomial logistic regression then identified various risk factors associated with pathway membership. Four distinct pathways were identified. Most participants displayed low-level conduct problem symptoms and head injuries (n = 6,422; 74.7%). Three groups were characterized by clinically relevant levels of conduct problem symptoms and high-risk head injuries in childhood (n = 1,422; 16.5%), adolescence (n = 567; 6.6%), or persistent across development (n = 189; 2.2%). These clinically relevant pathways were associated with negative maternal parenting styles. These findings demonstrate how pathways of conduct problem symptoms are uniquely linked with distinct head injury pathways. Suggestions for general preventative intervention targets include early maternal negative parenting styles. Pathway-specific interventions are also required targeting cumulative risk at different ecological levels.
Psychosis rates are higher among some migrant groups. We hypothesized that psychosis in migrants is associated with cumulative social disadvantage during different phases of migration.
We used data from the EUropean Network of National Schizophrenia Networks studying Gene-Environment Interactions (EU-GEI) case-control study. We defined a set of 3 indicators of social disadvantage for each phase: pre-migration, migration, and post-migration.
249 cases and 219 controls were assessed. Pre-migration (OR 1.61, 95%CI 1.06-2.44, p=0.027) and postmigration social disadvantages (OR 1.89, 95%CI 1.02-3.51, p=0.044), along with expectations/achievements mismatch (OR 1.14, 95%CI 1.03-1.26, p=0.014) were all significantly associated with psychosis. We found a dose-response effect between number of adversities across all phases and odds of psychosis (≥6: OR 14.09, 95%CI 2.06-96-47, p=0.007).
The cumulative effect of social disadvantages before, during and after migration was associated with increased odds of psychosis in migrants, independently of ethnicity or length of stay in the country of arrival. Public health initiatives that address the social disadvantages that many migrants face during the whole migration process and post-migration psychological support may be reduce the excess of psychosis in migrants.
Salmonella spp. is a common zoonotic pathogen, causing gastrointestinal infections in people. Pigs and pig meat are a major source of infection. Although farm biosecurity is believed to be important for controlling Salmonella transmission, robust evidence is lacking on which measures are most effective. This study enrolled 250 pig farms across nine European countries. From each farm, 20 pooled faecal samples (or similar information) were collected and analysed for Salmonella presence. Based on the proportion of positive results, farms were categorised as at higher or lower Salmonella risk, and associations with variables from a comprehensive questionnaire investigated. Multivariable analysis indicated that farms were less likely to be in the higher-risk category if they had ‘<400 sows’; used rodent baits close to pig enclosures; isolated stay-behind (sick) pigs; did not answer that the hygiene lock/ anteroom was easy to clean; did not have a full perimeter fence; did apply downtime of at least 3 days between farrowing batches; and had fully slatted flooring in all fattener buildings. A principal components analysis assessed the sources of variation between farms, and correlation between variables. The study results suggest simple control measures that could be prioritised on European pig farms to control Salmonella.
Waterhemp has evolved resistance to seven herbicide modes of action in the United States and to five in Canada, which limits weed control options for producers. The objective of this research was to quantify the level and duration of residual control of multiple herbicide-resistant (MHR) waterhemp with five Group 15 herbicides (acetochlor, dimethenamid-p, flufenacet, pyroxasulfone, and S-metolachlor) applied preemergence in a non-crop area. Four field trials were conducted over a 2-yr period (2021, 2022) in southwestern Ontario, Canada. By 4 wk after application (WAA) 91% of waterhemp had emerged in the nontreated control area. The numerical control of waterhemp with all Group 15 herbicides, with the exception of pyroxasulfone, was greatest at 4 WAA, then control declined. Flufenacet provided the lowest waterhemp control; dimethenamid-p and S-metolachlor provided intermediate control, and acetochlor and pyroxasulfone provided the highest control. Waterhemp control with pyroxasulfone peaked at 6 WAA with 99% and declined to 77% at 12 WAA. Flufenacet (low and high rates) was predicted to reduce waterhemp emergence by 50% for 42 to 44 d after application (DAA). Dimethenamid-p, S-metolachlor, and acetochlor (both formulations and three rates) were predicted to reduce waterhemp emergence by 80% for 36, 43, and 33 to 51 DAA, respectively; in contrast, pyroxasulfone was predicted to reduce waterhemp emergence by 80% for 82 DAA. This study concludes that of the Group 15 herbicides evaluated, flufenacet provides the lowest and shortest residual control of waterhemp, and pyroxasulfone provides the highest and longest residual control of waterhemp.
To examine temporal changes in coverage with a complete primary series of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination and staffing shortages among healthcare personnel (HCP) working in nursing homes in the United States before, during, and after the implementation of jurisdiction-based COVID-19 vaccination mandates for HCP.
Sample and setting:
HCP in nursing homes from 15 US jurisdictions.
We analyzed weekly COVID-19 vaccination data reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s National Healthcare Safety Network from June 7, 2021, through January 2, 2022. We assessed 3 periods (preintervention, intervention, and postintervention) based on the announcement of vaccination mandates for HCP in 15 jurisdictions. We used interrupted time-series models to estimate the weekly percentage change in vaccination with complete primary series and the odds of reporting a staffing shortage for each period.
Complete primary series vaccination among HCP increased from 66.7% at baseline to 94.3% at the end of the study period and increased at the fastest rate during the intervention period for 12 of 15 jurisdictions. The odds of reporting a staffing shortage were lowest after the intervention.
These findings demonstrate that COVID-19 vaccination mandates may be an effective strategy for improving HCP vaccination coverage in nursing homes without exacerbating staffing shortages. These data suggest that mandates can be considered to improve COVID-19 coverage among HCP in nursing homes to protect both HCP and vulnerable nursing home residents.
Childhood adversity and cannabis use are considered independent risk factors for psychosis, but whether different patterns of cannabis use may be acting as mediator between adversity and psychotic disorders has not yet been explored. The aim of this study is to examine whether cannabis use mediates the relationship between childhood adversity and psychosis.
Data were utilised on 881 first-episode psychosis patients and 1231 controls from the European network of national schizophrenia networks studying Gene–Environment Interactions (EU-GEI) study. Detailed history of cannabis use was collected with the Cannabis Experience Questionnaire. The Childhood Experience of Care and Abuse Questionnaire was used to assess exposure to household discord, sexual, physical or emotional abuse and bullying in two periods: early (0–11 years), and late (12–17 years). A path decomposition method was used to analyse whether the association between childhood adversity and psychosis was mediated by (1) lifetime cannabis use, (2) cannabis potency and (3) frequency of use.
The association between household discord and psychosis was partially mediated by lifetime use of cannabis (indirect effect coef. 0.078, s.e. 0.022, 17%), its potency (indirect effect coef. 0.059, s.e. 0.018, 14%) and by frequency (indirect effect coef. 0.117, s.e. 0.038, 29%). Similar findings were obtained when analyses were restricted to early exposure to household discord.
Harmful patterns of cannabis use mediated the association between specific childhood adversities, like household discord, with later psychosis. Children exposed to particularly challenging environments in their household could benefit from psychosocial interventions aimed at preventing cannabis misuse.
While cannabis use is a well-established risk factor for psychosis, little is known about any association between reasons for first using cannabis (RFUC) and later patterns of use and risk of psychosis.
We used data from 11 sites of the multicentre European Gene-Environment Interaction (EU-GEI) case–control study. 558 first-episode psychosis patients (FEPp) and 567 population controls who had used cannabis and reported their RFUC.
We ran logistic regressions to examine whether RFUC were associated with first-episode psychosis (FEP) case–control status. Path analysis then examined the relationship between RFUC, subsequent patterns of cannabis use, and case–control status.
Controls (86.1%) and FEPp (75.63%) were most likely to report ‘because of friends’ as their most common RFUC. However, 20.1% of FEPp compared to 5.8% of controls reported: ‘to feel better’ as their RFUC (χ2 = 50.97; p < 0.001). RFUC ‘to feel better’ was associated with being a FEPp (OR 1.74; 95% CI 1.03–2.95) while RFUC ‘with friends’ was associated with being a control (OR 0.56; 95% CI 0.37–0.83). The path model indicated an association between RFUC ‘to feel better’ with heavy cannabis use and with FEPp-control status.
Both FEPp and controls usually started using cannabis with their friends, but more patients than controls had begun to use ‘to feel better’. People who reported their reason for first using cannabis to ‘feel better’ were more likely to progress to heavy use and develop a psychotic disorder than those reporting ‘because of friends’.
The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Inventory 7.0.2 (MINI-7) is a widely used tool and known to have sound psychometric properties; but very little is known about its use in low and middle-income countries (LMICs). This study aimed to examine the psychometric properties of the MINI-7 psychosis items in a sample of 8609 participants across four countries in Sub-Saharan Africa.
We examined the latent factor structure and the item difficulty of the MINI-7 psychosis items in the full sample and across four countries.
Multiple group confirmatory factor analyses (CFAs) revealed an adequate fitting unidimensional model for the full sample; however, single group CFAs at the country level revealed that the underlying latent structure of psychosis was not invariant. Specifically, although the unidimensional structure was an adequate model fit for Ethiopia, Kenya, and South Africa, it was a poor fit for Uganda. Instead, a 2-factor latent structure of the MINI-7 psychosis items provided the optimal fit for Uganda. Examination of item difficulties revealed that MINI-7 item K7, measuring visual hallucinations, had the lowest difficulty across the four countries. In contrast, the items with the highest difficulty were different across the four countries, suggesting that MINI-7 items that are the most predictive of being high on the latent factor of psychosis are different for each country.
The present study is the first to provide evidence that the factor structure and item functioning of the MINI-7 psychosis vary across different settings and populations in Africa.
Obesity is highly prevalent and disabling, especially in individuals with severe mental illness including bipolar disorders (BD). The brain is a target organ for both obesity and BD. Yet, we do not understand how cortical brain alterations in BD and obesity interact.
We obtained body mass index (BMI) and MRI-derived regional cortical thickness, surface area from 1231 BD and 1601 control individuals from 13 countries within the ENIGMA-BD Working Group. We jointly modeled the statistical effects of BD and BMI on brain structure using mixed effects and tested for interaction and mediation. We also investigated the impact of medications on the BMI-related associations.
BMI and BD additively impacted the structure of many of the same brain regions. Both BMI and BD were negatively associated with cortical thickness, but not surface area. In most regions the number of jointly used psychiatric medication classes remained associated with lower cortical thickness when controlling for BMI. In a single region, fusiform gyrus, about a third of the negative association between number of jointly used psychiatric medications and cortical thickness was mediated by association between the number of medications and higher BMI.
We confirmed consistent associations between higher BMI and lower cortical thickness, but not surface area, across the cerebral mantle, in regions which were also associated with BD. Higher BMI in people with BD indicated more pronounced brain alterations. BMI is important for understanding the neuroanatomical changes in BD and the effects of psychiatric medications on the brain.
Cole crops including broccoli and collard contribute more than $119 million to Georgia’s farm gate value yearly. To ensure maximum profitability, these crops must be planted into weed-free fields. Glyphosate is a tool often used to help achieve this goal because of its broad-spectrum activity on weeds coupled with the knowledge that it poses no threat to the succeeding crop when used as directed. However, recent research suggests that with certain soil textures and production systems, the residual soil activity of glyphosate may damage some crops. Therefore, field experiments were conducted in fall 2019 and 2020 to evaluate transplanted broccoli and collard response to glyphosate applied preplant onto bare soil and what practical mitigation measures could be implemented to reduce crop injury. Herbicide treatments consisted oGf 0, 2.5, or 5 kg ae ha−1 glyphosate applied preplant followed by 1) no mitigation measure, 2) tillage, 3) irrigation, or 4) tillage and irrigation prior to transplanting broccoli and collard by hand. When no mitigation was implemented, the residual activity of glyphosate at 2.5 and 5.0 kg ae ha−1 resulted in 43% to 71% and 79% to 93% injury to broccoli and collard transplants, respectively. This resulted in a 35% to 50% reduction in broccoli marketable head weights and 63% to 71% reduction in collard leaf weights. Irrigation reduced visible damage by 28% to 48%, whereas tillage reduced injury by 43% to 76%, for both crops. Irrigation alleviated yield losses for broccoli but only tillage eliminated yield loss for both crops. Care must be taken when transplanting broccoli and collard into a field recently treated with glyphosate at rates ≥2.5 kg ae ha−1. Its residual activity can damage transplants with injury levels influenced by glyphosate rate, and tillage or irrigation after application and prior to planting.
Despite evidence for its efficacy, exposure therapy for anxiety is rarely used in routine care settings. Efforts to address one major barrier to its use – therapists’ negative beliefs about exposure – have included therapist-level implementation strategies, such as training and consultation. Experiential training, in which therapists themselves undergo exposures, has recently demonstrated feasibility, acceptability and preliminary effectiveness for increasing exposure use.
This study aimed to assess: (1) therapists’ perceptions of experiential training and (2) barriers and facilitators to implementing exposure following training.
Therapists who underwent experiential training (n=12) completed qualitative interviews and quantitative questionnaires. Interviews were coded using an integrated approach, combining both inductive and deductive approaches. Mixed methods analyses examined how themes varied by practice setting (community mental health versus private practice) and exposure use.
Results highlight how therapist-level factors, such as clinician self-efficacy, interact with inner- and outer-setting factors. Participants reported positive perceptions of exposure after training; they noted that directly addressing myths about exposure and experiencing exposures themselves improved their attitudes toward exposure. Consistent with prior literature, issues such as insufficient supervisory support, organizational constraints, and client characteristics made it challenging to implement exposures.
Results highlight the benefits of experiential training, while also highlighting the need to consider contextual determinants. Differences in responses across practice settings highlight areas for intervention and the importance of tailoring implementation strategies. Barriers that were specific to therapists who did not use exposure (e.g. hesitancy about its appropriateness for most clients) point to directions for future implementation efforts.
Individuals with intellectual and developmental disability (IDD) can have a high prevalence of pain, which can be managed with prescription opioids. However, the prevalence of substance use disorder is also high in this population, raising concern about opioid-related adverse events.
To assess the risk of opioid-related adverse events following opioid initiation among adults with versus without IDD.
We conducted a population-based, propensity score matched cohort study on all adults starting prescription opioid therapy in Ontario, Canada, between January 2013 and December 2018. The outcomes of interest were opioid toxicity, new opioid use disorder (OUD) diagnosis and dose escalation (≥90 mg morphine or equivalent) in the year after opioid initiation. We used Cox proportional hazards models to assess the association between IDD diagnosis and each outcome.
The hazards of opioid toxicity and OUD were significantly higher in those with IDD compared with those without IDD in unmatched analyses (opioid toxicity hazard ratio 3.19, 95% CI 2.81–5.18; OUD hazard ratio 2.36, 95% CI 2.10–2.65), whereas the hazard of dose escalation was significantly lower (hazard ratio 0.76, 95% CI 0.66–0.88). Findings were no longer significant in propensity score matched models for opioid toxicity and dose escalation, whereas the hazard of OUD diagnosis was attenuated substantially in those with IDD (hazard ratio 0.79, 95% CI 0.68–0.91).
IDD diagnosis is not a driver of opioid-related harm. The increased risk we observed is likely driven by various risk factors often present in this population.
Olive oil (OO) polyphenols have been shown to improve HDL anti-atherogenic function, thus demonstrating beneficial effects against cardiovascular risk factors. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of extra virgin high polyphenol olive oil (HPOO) v. low polyphenol olive oil (LPOO) on the capacity of HDL to promote cholesterol efflux in healthy adults. In a double-blind, randomised cross-over trial, fifty participants (aged 38·5 (sd 13·9) years, 66 % females) were supplemented with a daily dose (60 ml) of HPOO (320 mg/kg polyphenols) or LPOO (86 mg/kg polyphenols) for 3 weeks. Following a 2-week washout period, participants crossed over to the alternate treatment. Serum HDL-cholesterol efflux capacity, circulating lipids (i.e. total cholesterol, TAG, HDL, LDL) and anthropometrics were measured at baseline and follow-up. No significant between-group differences were observed. Furthermore, no significant changes in HDL-cholesterol efflux were found within either the LPOO and HPOO treatment arms; mean changes were 0·54 % (95 % CI (0·29, 1·37)) and 0·10 % (95 % CI (0·74, 0·94)), respectively. Serum HDL increased significantly after LPOO and HPOO intake by 0·13 mmol/l (95 % CI (0·04, 0·22)) and 0·10 mmol/l (95 % CI (0·02, 0·19)), respectively. A small but significant increase in LDL of 0·14 mmol/l (95 % CI (0·001, 0·28)) was observed following the HPOO intervention. Our results suggest that additional research is warranted to further understand the effect of OO with different phenolic content on mechanisms of cholesterol efflux via different pathways in multi-ethnic populations with diverse diets.
Choline is beneficial for energy metabolism and growth in various species. Choline may work similarly in kittens at risk of obesity. Direct infusion MS (Di-MS) and NMR spectroscopy were used to investigate the metabolomic signatures of kittens supplemented with or without additional dietary choline for 12 weeks. Fifteen intact male kittens consumed a base diet (3310 mg choline/kg DM) to their daily metabolisable energy requirement (DER) over an 11-week acclimation. Kittens were gonadectomised and assigned, based on body weight, to the base diet (CONTROL, n 7) or the base diet with 300 mg/kgBW0·75 additional choline as choline chloride (CHOLINE, n 8) and offered three times their individual energy requirement divided into three meals. At weeks −1 and 12, fasted blood was sampled and serum analysed for 130 metabolites via Di-MS and fifty-one metabolites via NMR spectroscopy. Changes in fasted metabolites were assessed using a repeated-measures GLIMMIX procedure with time and group as fixed effects, and time as a repeated measure. Metabolites of one-carbon metabolism and lipids increased, and medium-chain acyl carnitines decreased from week −1 to 12 for CHOLINE (P < 0·05), but not CONTROL (P > 0·05). Increases in amino acid, biogenic amine and organic compound concentrations were observed in both groups (P < 0·05). The results suggest impacts of dietary choline at greater intakes than currently recommended on one-carbon metabolism and fatty acid oxidation, and these may promote healthy growth in post-gonadectomy kittens.
Child maltreatment (CM) and migrant status are independently associated with psychosis. We examined prevalence of CM by migrant status and tested whether migrant status moderated the association between CM and first-episode psychosis (FEP). We further explored whether differences in CM exposure contributed to variations in the incidence rates of FEP by migrant status.
We included FEP patients aged 18–64 years in 14 European sites and recruited controls representative of the local populations. Migrant status was operationalized according to generation (first/further) and region of origin (Western/non-Western countries). The reference population was composed by individuals of host country's ethnicity. CM was assessed with Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. Prevalence ratios of CM were estimated using Poisson regression. We examined the moderation effect of migrant status on the odds of FEP by CM fitting adjusted logistic regressions with interaction terms. Finally, we calculated the population attributable fractions (PAFs) for CM by migrant status.
We examined 849 FEP cases and 1142 controls. CM prevalence was higher among migrants, their descendants and migrants of non-Western heritage. Migrant status, classified by generation (likelihood test ratio:χ2 = 11.3, p = 0.004) or by region of origin (likelihood test ratio:χ2 = 11.4, p = 0.003), attenuated the association between CM and FEP. PAFs for CM were higher among all migrant groups compared with the reference populations.
The higher exposure to CM, despite a smaller effect on the odds of FEP, accounted for a greater proportion of incident FEP cases among migrants. Policies aimed at reducing CM should consider the increased vulnerability of specific subpopulations.
To evaluate the construct validity of the NIH Toolbox Cognitive Battery (NIH TB-CB) in the healthy oldest-old (85+ years old).
Our sample from the McKnight Brain Aging Registry consists of 179 individuals, 85 to 99 years of age, screened for memory, neurological, and psychiatric disorders. Using previous research methods on a sample of 85 + y/o adults, we conducted confirmatory factor analyses on models of NIH TB-CB and same domain standard neuropsychological measures. We hypothesized the five-factor model (Reading, Vocabulary, Memory, Working Memory, and Executive/Speed) would have the best fit, consistent with younger populations. We assessed confirmatory and discriminant validity. We also evaluated demographic and computer use predictors of NIH TB-CB composite scores.
Findings suggest the six-factor model (Vocabulary, Reading, Memory, Working Memory, Executive, and Speed) had a better fit than alternative models. NIH TB-CB tests had good convergent and discriminant validity, though tests in the executive functioning domain had high inter-correlations with other cognitive domains. Computer use was strongly associated with higher NIH TB-CB overall and fluid cognition composite scores.
The NIH TB-CB is a valid assessment for the oldest-old samples, with relatively weak validity in the domain of executive functioning. Computer use’s impact on composite scores could be due to the executive demands of learning to use a tablet. Strong relationships of executive function with other cognitive domains could be due to cognitive dedifferentiation. Overall, the NIH TB-CB could be useful for testing cognition in the oldest-old and the impact of aging on cognition in older populations.
Despite advances in cancer genomics and the increased use of genomic medicine, metastatic cancer is still mostly an incurable and fatal disease. With diminishing returns from traditional drug discovery strategies, and high clinical failure rates, more emphasis is being placed on alternative drug discovery platforms, such as ex vivo approaches. Ex vivo approaches aim to embed biological relevance and inter-patient variability at an earlier stage of drug discovery, and to offer more precise treatment stratification for patients. However, these techniques also have a high potential to offer personalised therapies to patients, complementing and enhancing genomic medicine. Although an array of approaches are available to researchers, only a minority of techniques have made it through to direct patient treatment within robust clinical trials. Within this review, we discuss the current challenges to ex vivo approaches within clinical practice and summarise the contemporary literature which has directed patient treatment. Finally, we map out how ex vivo approaches could transition from a small-scale, predominantly research based technology to a robust and validated predictive tool. In future, these pre-clinical approaches may be integrated into clinical cancer pathways to assist in the personalisation of therapy choices and to hopefully improve patient experiences and outcomes.