To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
In recent years, unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) technology has expanded to include UAV sprayers capable of applying pesticides. Very little research has been conducted to optimize application parameters and measure the potential of off-target movement from UAV-based pesticide applications. Field experiments were conducted in Raleigh, NC during the spring 2018 to characterize the effect of different application speeds and nozzle types on target area coverage and uniformity of UAV applications. The highest coverage was achieved with an application speed of 1 m s-1 and ranged from 30 to 60%, while applications at 7 m s-1 yielded 13 to 22% coverage. Coverage consistently decreased as application speed increased across all nozzles, with extended range flat spray nozzles declining at a faster rate than air induction nozzles likely due to higher drift. Experiments measuring the drift potential of UAV applications using extended range flat spray, air induction flat spray, turbo air induction flat spray, and hollow cone nozzles under 0, 2, 4, 7, and 9 m s-1 perpendicular wind conditions in the immediate 1.75 m above the target were conducted in the absence of natural wind in Raleigh, NC. Off-target movement was observed under all perpendicular wind conditions with all nozzles tested but was non-detectable beyond 5 m away from the target. Coverage from all nozzles exhibited a concave-shaped curve in response to the increasing perpendicular wind speed due to turbulence. The maximum target coverage in drift studies was observed when the perpendicular wind was 0 and 8.94 m s-1, but higher turbulence at the two highest perpendicular wind speeds (6.71 and 8.94 m s-1,) increased coverage variability while the lowest variability was observed at 2.24 m s-1 wind speed. Results suggested that air induction flat spray and turbo air induction flat spray nozzles and an application speed of 3 m s-1 provided an adequate coverage of target areas while minimizing off-target movement risk.
We have been using the technique of pulsed neutron powder diffraction to study several problems in the physics and chemistry of the actinide elements. In these elements one often encounters very complex structures resulting from polymorphic transformations presumably induced by the presence of 5f-electrons. For exampie, at least five distinct structures of plutonium metal are found between room temperature and its melting point of 640°C, and two of the structures are monoclinic! Single crystals are usually not available, and the high resolution which is intrinsic to the time-of-flight powder technique is a powerful tool in the solution of complex structural problems. The relatively low absorption coefficients for neutrons for at least some actinide isotopes is an advantage when surface oxidation is a problem (as in high-temperature experiments) and provides good particle statistics so that high-quality data are available for Rietveld refinement. The low absorption of neutrons by other materials such as vanadium and fused silica enables the use of these materials for the containment of samples in high- and low-temperature environments, and the fixed geometry of the time-of-flight technique simplifies the design of furnaces and cryostats.
Under controlled experimental conditions, ruminally protected lipid supplements (PLS) rich in 18:2n-6 and 18:3n-3 have been successful in creating large shifts in the fatty acid composition of beef muscle (Scollan et al., 2003). However, there is a need to test methodology under commercial conditions and with a wider range of breed types. This study was conducted at a Yorkshire Farm and used Charolais Cross and the Stabiliser breed, a mix of 5 breeds designed to combine efficient production and good carcass quality.
The main question that Firestone & Scholl (F&S) pose is whether “what and how we see is functionally independent from what and how we think, know, desire, act, and so forth” (sect. 2, para. 1). We synthesize a collection of concerns from an interdisciplinary set of coauthors regarding F&S's assumptions and appeals to intuition, resulting in their treatment of visual perception as context-free.
Although most non-typhoidal Salmonella illnesses are self-limiting, antimicrobial treatment is critical for invasive infections. To describe resistance in Salmonella that caused foodborne outbreaks in the United States, we linked outbreaks submitted to the Foodborne Disease Outbreak Surveillance System to isolate susceptibility data in the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System. Resistant outbreaks were defined as those linked to one or more isolates with resistance to at least one antimicrobial drug. Multidrug resistant (MDR) outbreaks had at least one isolate resistant to three or more antimicrobial classes. Twenty-one per cent (37/176) of linked outbreaks were resistant. In outbreaks attributed to a single food group, 73% (16/22) of resistant outbreaks and 46% (31/68) of non-resistant outbreaks were attributed to foods from land animals (P < 0·05). MDR Salmonella with clinically important resistance caused 29% (14/48) of outbreaks from land animals and 8% (3/40) of outbreaks from plant products (P < 0·01). In our study, resistant Salmonella infections were more common in outbreaks attributed to foods from land animals than outbreaks from foods from plants or aquatic animals. Antimicrobial susceptibility data on isolates from foodborne Salmonella outbreaks can help determine which foods are associated with resistant infections.
A widely produced chemical, chlorine is used in various industries including automotive, electronics, disinfectants, metal production, and many others. Chlorine is usually produced and transported as a pressurized liquid; however, as a gas it is a significant pulmonary irritant. Thousands of people are exposed to chlorine gas every year, and while large-scale exposures are uncommon, they are not rare. Symptoms are usually related to the concentration and length of exposure, and although treatment is largely supportive, certain specific therapies have yet to be validated with randomized controlled trials. The majority of those exposed completely recover with supportive care; however, studies have shown the potential for persistent inflammation and chronic hyperreactivity. This case report describes an incident that occurred in Graniteville, South Carolina, when a train derailment exposed hundreds of people to chlorine gas. This report reviews the events of January 6, 2005, and the current treatment options for chlorine gas exposure.(Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2014;0:1-6)
We have investigated the effects of oxygen incorporation on cathodoluminescence (CL) and photoluminescence (PL) from sputtered amorphous films of AlN:Eu3+. Ordinarily, these materials must be activated at elevated temperatures (~1000K) before appreciable luminescence can be observed. We have shown that oxygen doping is an effective alternative to thermal activation. Studies of CL intensity versus oxygen contamination indicate that luminescence turns on if the oxygen content of the sputtering plasma exceeds a few percent. Significantly, oxygen appears to have a greater impact (>600-fold) on luminescence than does thermal activation (100-fold). The oxygen dependence of PL intensity varies slightly from that of CL intensity. A possible explanation for this observation is proposed. The results suggest that low temperature alternatives to the customary thermal activation process may be available. Such alternatives would eliminate materials constraints and would permit the facile integration of plastic components or substrates with rare-earth-doped III-N luminescent devices.
The rearing period has a key influence on the later performance of cattle, affecting future fertility and longevity. Producers usually aim to breed replacement heifers by 15 months to calve at 24 months. An age at first calving (AFC) close to 2 years (23 to 25 months) is optimum for economic performance as it minimises the non-productive period and maintains a seasonal calving pattern. This is rarely achieved in either dairy or beef herds, with average AFC for dairy herds usually between 26 and 30 months. Maintaining a low AFC requires good heifer management with adequate growth to ensure an appropriate BW and frame size at calving. Puberty should occur at least 6 weeks before the target breeding age to enable animals to undergo oestrous cycles before mating. Cattle reach puberty at a fairly consistent, but breed-dependent, proportion of mature BW. Heifer fertility is a critical component of AFC. In US Holsteins the conception rate peaked at 57% at 15 to 16 months, declining in older heifers. Wide variations in growth rates on the same farm often lead to some animals having delayed first breeding and/or conception. Oestrous synchronisation regimes and sexed semen can both be used but unless heifers have been previously well-managed the success rates may be unacceptably low. Altering the nutritional input above or below those needed for maintenance at any stage from birth to first calving clearly alters the average daily gain (ADG) in weight. In general an ADG of around 0.75 kg/day seems optimal for dairy heifers, with lower rates delaying puberty and AFC. There is some scope to vary ADG at different ages providing animals reach an adequate size by calving. Major periods of nutritional deficiency and/or severe calfhood disease will, however, compromise development with long-term adverse consequences. Infectious disease can also cause pregnancy loss/abortion. First lactation milk yield may be slightly lower in younger calving cows but lifetime production is higher as such animals usually have good fertility and survive longer. There is now extensive evidence that as long as the AFC is >23 months then future performance is not adversely influenced. On the other hand, delayed first calving >30 months is associated with poor survival. Underfeeding of young heifers reduces their milk production potential and is a greater problem than overfeeding. Farmers are more likely to meet the optimum AFC target of 23 to 25 months if they monitor growth rates and adjust feed accordingly.
Amorphous alloys of aluminum-gallium nitride doped with erbium (Er) were deposited at 300 K. The compositions ranged from 19% Al to 86% Al with optical band gaps varying linearly with composition from 3.4 eV (GaN) to 6.2 eV (AlN). The films were deposited on p-doped silicon (111) by a dc/rf dual gun system in a nitrogen/argon atmosphere at a pressure of 4.8 milli-Torr. After growth the films were thermally “activated” at 1070 K for 10 minutes in a nitrogen atmosphere. The cathodoluminescence emission intensities decreased linearly with Ga composition. This dependence suggests that the higher energy transitions in the Er ion are quenched by transitions to the conduction band of the alloys.
Amorphous thin films of AlN doped with Cu (blue luminescence), Tb (green luminescence) and Cr (red luminescence) were deposited on p-doped Si (111) substrates using RF magnetron sputtering in a nitrogen atmosphere and made luminescent active by heat treatment at 1000°C. Single layered amorphous AlN films deposited with Tb and Cu showed cathodoluminescence from only the Tb3+ ions. Presumably, energy is transferred from Cu luminescence centers to Tb centers in close proximity. In contrast to this, double layered amorphous AlN films doped with Cu (∼200 nm) on top of Tb (∼50 nm) emits from both ions. This behavior is observed in a double layered amorphous AlN film doped with Cu (∼200 nm) on top of a Cr (∼200 nm) doped film. Secondary-ion mass spectrometry depth profiling revealed that the incorporated metals moved from one layer into the other during the heat treatment step necessary for luminescence activation.
Luminescence studies of amorphous AlN doped with Cu, Mn, or Cr were performed at 300 K. Thin films of Cu, Mn, and Cr doped amorphous AlN, ∼200 nm thick, were grown on p-doped silicon (111) substrates using RF magnetron sputtering in a nitrogen atmosphere. Cathodoluminescence (CL) showed that pure Cu doped amorphous AlN has strong emission in the blue (∼420 nm) and Mn and Cr doped films luminesce in the red (∼690 nm). Cr+3 emission is more intense than Mn+4 because chromium does not suffer from incomplete charge compensation in the III-V semiconductor. Luminescence studies of crystalline and amorphous AlN:Mn thin films showed a red shift in the emission peak by almost 100 nm and is believed to be caused by the different crystal field of the amorphous host compared to the crystalline host material. Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) depth profiling was conducted to confirm the presence of the Cu and Cr in the films and to show the amount of dopant in relation to the Si substrate.
High-temperature treatments are necessary for luminescence ‘activation’ of sputterdeposited, RE-doped, III-nitride phosphor materials. We report an investigation of the activation process in crystalline and amorphous Tb-doped AlN films. These films were characterized before and after thermal activation at temperatures up to 1000° C by cathodoluminescence (CL), static and time-resolved photoluminescence (PL), and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). The results suggest that the absence of luminescence in unactivated and in old activated samples is due to rapid quenching of the RE excited state. Furthermore, the quenching in the activated, aged samples appears to be due to sorption of ambient water vapor. Energy transfer to a harmonic of the O-H vibration is a likely quenching pathway in these samples. Unfortunately, this water-related quenching mechanism is implausible as a candidate in freshly-made, unactivated samples since water is excluded from the growth chamber.