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The science of studying diamond inclusions for understanding Earth history has developed significantly over the past decades, with new instrumentation and techniques applied to diamond sample archives revealing the stories contained within diamond inclusions. This chapter reviews what diamonds can tell us about the deep carbon cycle over the course of Earth’s history. It reviews how the geochemistry of diamonds and their inclusions inform us about the deep carbon cycle, the origin of the diamonds in Earth’s mantle, and the evolution of diamonds through time.
Nearly 50 million people around the world live with dementia, with statistics predicting a steady increase in prevalence for the foreseeable future. There is a need for comprehensive and compassionate dementia care. Long-term care homes have built special care units for people living with middle- to late-stage dementia. Among other services, these care units often use innovative security technologies that monitor and curtail movement beyond unit exit doors. As care-givers and technology developers grapple with the ethical dilemma of autonomy and risk management, researchers are beginning to investigate the social impact of these security technologies. The present research contributes to this line of inquiry. Fieldwork was carried out on two secure long-term care units for people living with dementia. Ethnographic accounts will illustrate how security technology creates socialities of securitisation on a secure dementia unit. Using securitisation theory, I will argue that dementia has been redefined, shifting it from a health issue to a security issue. The discursive construction of dementia as a security issue will be considered in terms of the co-constructed notions of vulnerability, risk, security threat and security challenge with respect to people living with dementia. The paper investigates how securitisation influences the ethics of dementia care.
The rocky shores of the north-east Atlantic have been long studied. Our focus is from Gibraltar to Norway plus the Azores and Iceland. Phylogeographic processes shape biogeographic patterns of biodiversity. Long-term and broadscale studies have shown the responses of biota to past climate fluctuations and more recent anthropogenic climate change. Inter- and intra-specific species interactions along sharp local environmental gradients shape distributions and community structure and hence ecosystem functioning. Shifts in domination by fucoids in shelter to barnacles/mussels in exposure are mediated by grazing by patellid limpets. Further south fucoids become increasingly rare, with species disappearing or restricted to estuarine refuges, caused by greater desiccation and grazing pressure. Mesoscale processes influence bottom-up nutrient forcing and larval supply, hence affecting species abundance and distribution, and can be proximate factors setting range edges (e.g., the English Channel, the Iberian Peninsula). Impacts of invasive non-native species are reviewed. Knowledge gaps such as the work on rockpools and host–parasite dynamics are also outlined.
The goals of the present study were to examine the associations between depressive symptoms, sleep problems and the risk of developing heart disease in a Canadian community sample.
Baseline data were from the CARTaGENE study, a community health survey of adults aged 40–69 years in Quebec, Canada. Incidence of heart disease was examined in N = 33 455 participants by linking survey data with administrative health insurance data. Incident heart disease was identified using the World Health Organization's International Classification of Diseases, 9th or 10th edition (ICD-9 and ICD-10) diagnostic codes for heart disease. Sleep problems were assessed with diagnostic codes for sleep disorders within the 2 years preceding the baseline assessment. Average sleep duration was assessed by self-report. Depressive symptoms were assessed with the nine-item Patient Health Questionnaire.
In total, 2448 (7.3%) participants developed heart disease over an average follow-up period of 4.6 years. Compared to those without depressive symptoms and with no sleep disorders, those with elevated depressive symptoms and a sleep disorder (HR = 2.60, 95% CI 1.83–3.69), those with depressive symptoms alone (HR = 1.40, 95% CI 1.25–1.57) and those with sleep disorders alone (HR = 1.33, 95% CI 1.03–1.73) were more likely to develop heart disease. Test of additive interaction suggested a synergistic interaction between depressive symptoms and sleep disorders (synergy index = 2.17 [95% CI 1.01–4.64]). When sleep duration was considered, those with long sleep duration and elevated depressive symptoms were more likely to develop heart disease than those with long sleep alone (HR = 1.77, 95% CI 1.37–2.28; and HR = 1.16, 95% CI 0.99–1.36, respectively).
Depression and diagnosed sleep disorders or long sleep duration are independent risk factors for heart disease and are associated with a stronger risk of heart disease when occurring together.
This trial compared weight loss outcomes over 14 weeks in women showing low- or high-satiety responsiveness (low- or high-satiety phenotype (LSP, HSP)) measured by a standardised protocol. Food preferences and energy intake (EI) after low and high energy-density (LED, HED) meals were also assessed. Ninety-six women (n 52 analysed; 41·24 (SD 12·54) years; 34·02 (sd 3·58) kg/m2) engaged in one of two weight loss programmes underwent LED and HED laboratory test days during weeks 3 and 12. Preferences for LED and HED food (Leeds Food Preference Questionnaire) and ad libitum evening meal and snack EI were assessed in response to equienergetic LED and HED breakfasts and lunches. Weekly questionnaires assessed control over eating and ease of adherence to the programme. Satiety quotients based on subjective fullness ratings post LED and HED breakfasts determined LSP (n 26) and HSP (n 26) by tertile splits. Results showed that the LSP lost less weight and had smaller reductions in waist circumference compared with HSP. The LSP showed greater preferences for HED foods, and under HED conditions, consumed more snacks (kJ) compared with HSP. Snack EI did not differ under LED conditions. LSP reported less control over eating and reported more difficulty with programme adherence. In conclusion, low-satiety responsiveness is detrimental for weight loss. LED meals can improve self-regulation of EI in the LSP, which may be beneficial for longer-term weight control.
Tang et al. (2019) described new specimens of carbonaceous compression fossils from the early Cambrian Hetang Formation in South China, for which they established the new taxon Cambrowania ovata Tang and Xiao in Tang et al., 2019. Tang et al. (2019) interpreted these fossils as the remains of metazoans, representing either the carapaces of bivalve arthropods, or early life-cycle stages of sponges. We contest the animal affinity of these fossils; instead, we propose that the specimens described as Cambrowania ovata are actually large Leiosphaeridia—in other words, collapsed hollow organic spheroidal acritarchs. The features described by Tang et al. (2019) all fall into the morphology of carbonaceous compressions of Leiosphaeridia with pyritized/baritized folds and compaction wrinkles. Such Leiosphaeridia are a common component of Cambrian (and older) siliciclastic deposits, and frequently exhibit such a pattern of pyritization, baritization, and encrustation with other diagenetic minerals.
Using existing data from clinical registries to support clinical trials and other prospective studies has the potential to improve research efficiency. However, little has been reported about staff experiences and lessons learned from implementation of this method in pediatric cardiology.
We describe the process of using existing registry data in the Pediatric Heart Network Residual Lesion Score Study, report stakeholders’ perspectives, and provide recommendations to guide future studies using this methodology.
The Residual Lesion Score Study, a 17-site prospective, observational study, piloted the use of existing local surgical registry data (collected for submission to the Society of Thoracic Surgeons-Congenital Heart Surgery Database) to supplement manual data collection. A survey regarding processes and perceptions was administered to study site and data coordinating center staff.
Survey response rate was 98% (54/55). Overall, 57% perceived that using registry data saved research staff time in the current study, and 74% perceived that it would save time in future studies; 55% noted significant upfront time in developing a methodology for extracting registry data. Survey recommendations included simplifying data extraction processes and tailoring to the needs of the study, understanding registry characteristics to maximise data quality and security, and involving all stakeholders in design and implementation processes.
Use of existing registry data was perceived to save time and promote efficiency. Consideration must be given to the upfront investment of time and resources needed. Ongoing efforts focussed on automating and centralising data management may aid in further optimising this methodology for future studies.
Describe the epidemiological and molecular characteristics of an outbreak of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)–producing organisms and the novel use of a cohorting unit for its control.
A 566-room academic teaching facility in Milwaukee, Wisconsin.
Solid-organ transplant recipients.
Infection control bundles were used throughout the time of observation. All KPC cases were intermittently housed in a cohorting unit with dedicated nurses and nursing aids. The rooms used in the cohorting unit had anterooms where clean supplies and linens were placed. Spread of KPC-producing organisms was determined using rectal surveillance cultures on admission and weekly thereafter among all consecutive patients admitted to the involved units. KPC-positive strains underwent pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and whole-genome sequencing.
A total of 8 KPC cases (5 identified by surveillance) were identified from April 2016 to April 2017. After the index patient, 3 patients acquired KPC-producing organisms despite implementation of an infection control bundle. This prompted the use of a cohorting unit, which immediately halted transmission, and the single remaining KPC case was transferred out of the cohorting unit. However, additional KPC cases were identified within 2 months. Once the cohorting unit was reopened, no additional KPC cases occurred. The KPC-positive species identified during this outbreak included Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter cloacae complex, and Escherichia coli. blaKPC was identified on at least 2 plasmid backbones.
A complex KPC outbreak involving both clonal and plasmid-mediated dissemination was controlled using weekly surveillances and a cohorting unit.
Introduction: Tobacco smoking is a priority public health concern, and a leading cause of death and disability globally. While the smoking prevalence in Canada is approximately 13-18%, the proportion of smokers among emergency department (ED) patients has been found to be significantly higher. This disparity primes the emergency department as a critical environment to provide smoking cessation counselling and support. Methods: A verbal questionnaire was administered to adult patients (18+) presenting to Royal University, Saskatoon City, and St. Paul's Hospital ED's. Patients were excluded if they were underage, too ill, or physically/mentally unable to complete the questionnaire independently. Patients’ smoking habits were also correlated with Fagerstrom tobacco dependence scores, chief complaints, Canadian Triage Acuity Scale (CTAS) scores, and willingness to partake in ED specific cessation counselling. Data were analyzed using IBM SPSS software to determine smoking prevalence and compared to Statistics Canada data using chi-square tests. Results: In total, 1190 eligible patients were approached, and 1078 completed the questionnaire. Adult Saskatoon ED patients demonstrated a cigarette smoking prevalence of 19.6%, which is significantly higher than the general adult Saskatchewan public at 15.1% (p < 0.0001). Comparing smoking and non-smoking cohorts, there are no significant differences in CTAS scores (p = 0.60). Of the proposed cessation interventions, ED cessation counselling was most popular among patients (62.4%), followed by receiving a pamphlet (56.2%), and being contacted by a smokers’ quit line (49.5%). Out of the smoking cohort, 51.4% indicated they want to quit smoking, and would be willing to partake in ED-specific cessation counselling, if available. Additionally, 88.1% of current smokers started smoking when they were less than 19 years old. Conclusion: The higher smoking prevalence demonstrated in ED patients highlights the need for a targeted intervention program that is feasible for the fast-paced environment. Quit attempts have been demonstrated to be more efficacious with repeated interventions, which could be achieved by training ED staff to conduct brief motivational interviews and faxing referrals to a smokers' quit line for follow-up. Furthermore, pediatric ED's could be a valuable location for cigarette smoking screening, as the majority began smoking in their adolescence.
In Arabidopsis, seed germination is a biphasic process involving rupture of the seed coat followed by emergence of the radicle through the micropylar endosperm. Embryo expansion results in seed coat rupture and removal of seed coat imposed dormancy with DELLA proteins blocking embryo expansion in the absence of gibberellins. Exogenous abscisic acid (ABA) treatment does not block seed coat rupture but does block radicle emergence. We used this limited effect of exogenous ABA to further investigate the mechanism by which it blocks the onset of germination marked by seed coat rupture. We show that physical nicking of the seed coat results in exogenous ABA treatment blocking both seed coat and endosperm rupture and this block requires the transcription factors ABI3 and ABI5, but not ABI4. Furthermore, we show that the repression of expression of several EXPANSIN genes (EXPA1, EXPA2, EXPA3, EXPA9 and EXPA20) by exogenous ABA requires ABI5. We conclude that ABI5 plays an important role in the ABA-mediated repression of germination through prevention of seed coat rupture and propose that this involves EXPANSIN related control of cell wall loosening.
This paper describes a model of electron energization and cyclotron-maser emission applicable to astrophysical magnetized collisionless shocks. It is motivated by the work of Begelman, Ergun and Rees [Astrophys. J. 625, 51 (2005)] who argued that the cyclotron-maser instability occurs in localized magnetized collisionless shocks such as those expected in blazar jets. We report on recent research carried out to investigate electron acceleration at collisionless shocks and maser radiation associated with the accelerated electrons. We describe how electrons accelerated by lower-hybrid waves at collisionless shocks generate cyclotron-maser radiation when the accelerated electrons move into regions of stronger magnetic fields. The electrons are accelerated along the magnetic field and magnetically compressed leading to the formation of an electron velocity distribution having a horseshoe shape due to conservation of the electron magnetic moment. Under certain conditions the horseshoe electron velocity distribution function is unstable to the cyclotron-maser instability [Bingham and Cairns, Phys. Plasmas 7, 3089 (2000); Melrose, Rev. Mod. Plasma Phys. 1, 5 (2017)].
Gastropods often show signs of unsuccessful attacks by durophagous predators in the form of healed scars in their shells. As such, fossil gastropods can be taken as providing a record of predation through geological time. However, interpreting the number of such scars has proved to be problematic—Would a low number of scars mean a low rate of attack or a high rate of success, for example? Here we develop a model of population dynamics among individuals exposed to predation, including both lethal and nonlethal attacks. Using this model, we calculate the equilibrium distributions of ages and healed scars in the population and among fossilized specimens, based on the assumption that predation is independent of age or scar number. Based on these results, we formally show that the rates of attack and success cannot be disambiguated without further information about population structure. Nevertheless, by making the assumptions that the non-durophagous predatory death rate is both constant and low, we show that it is possible to use relatively small assemblages of gastropods to produce accurate estimates of both attack and success rates, if the overall death rate can be estimated. We consider likely violations of the assumptions in our model and what sort of information would be required to solve this problem in these more general cases. However, it is not easy to extract the relevant information from the fossil record: a variety of important biases are likely to intervene to obscure the data that gastropod assemblages may yield. Nonetheless, the model provides a theoretical framework for interpreting summary data, including for comparison between different assemblages.
Enhanced solid state reactivity of materials both during and after shock compression has been attributed to the introduction of large numbers of defects into the crystalline lattices and to reduction in the particle and crystallite size of powders . In particular, orders of magnitude increases in the catalytic activity has been observed In shock-modified TiO2 . Line broadening of x-ray diffraction profiles provides a means to determine the coherent crystallite size and the residual lattice strain resulting from defect concentrations. The present study on shock-loaded rutile is a detailed Investigation of the influence of shock loading on residual lattice strain and coherent crystallite size. Annealing of shock-modified rutile powders is also studied.
Enhanced solid state reactivity of materials both during and after shock compression has been attributed to the introduction of large numbers of defects into the crystalline lattices and to reduction in the particle and crystallite size of powders [1,2]. Line broadening of x-ray diffraction profiles provides a means to determine the residual lattice strain resulting from such defect concentrations as well as a means to determine the coherent crystallite size. Various diffraction studies on shock-loaded powder materials have previously been reported and much of this work primarily by Soviet and Japanese scientists has recently been reviewed . Cohen has reported results on shock-loaded copper . In prior work, however, shock, pressures have not typically been quantified and there are few detailed line broadening investigations of refractory inorganic powders [1,4,5]. The present study on shock-loaded alumina powders is a detailed investigation of the influence of shock loading on residual lattice strain and coherent crystallite size.
The Upper Famennian (Upper Devonian) Strud locality has yielded very abundant and diversified flora as well as vertebrate and arthropod faunas. The arthropod fauna, mostly recovered from fine shales deposited in a calm, confined floodplain habitat including temporary pools, has delivered a putative insect and various crustaceans including eumalacostracans and notostracan, spinicaudatan and anostracan branchiopods. Here we present the Strud eurypterids, consisting of semi-articulated juvenile specimens assigned to Hardieopteridae recovered from the pool and floodplain deposits, as well as larger isolated fragments of potential adults recovered from stratigraphically lower, coarser dark sandy layers indicative of a higher-energy fluvial environment. The Strud fossils strongly suggest that, as proposed for some Carboniferous eurypterids, juvenile freshwater eurypterids inhabited sheltered nursery pools and migrated to higher-energy river systems as they matured.
The secular poetry of Philippe Desportes (1546-1606) is most often characterized as précieux. One may wish to distinguish between préciosité as an historical phenomenon and précieux as a recurring literary tendency, and one may quarrel about the exact definition of the term, but when examples are needed none are any better than those chosen from the works of Desportes. This no one would deny, but when the extreme view is taken that Desportes is nothing but an insincere and clever versifier who crassly imitates Italian models and hawks his wares to the highest bidder, then one must protest.