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The giant gypsum crystals of Naica cave have fascinated scientists since their discovery in 2000. Human activity has changed the microclimate inside the cave, making scientists wonder about the potential environmental impact on the crystals. Over the last 9 years, we have studied approximately 70 samples. This paper reports on the detailed chemical–structural characterization of the impurities present at the surface of these crystals and the experimental simulations of their potential deterioration patterns. Selected samples were studied by petrography, optical and electronic microscopy, and laboratory X-ray diffraction. 2D grazing incidence X-ray diffraction, X-ray μ-fluorescence, and X-ray μ-absorption near-edge structure were used to identify the impurities and their associated phases. These impurities were deposited during the latest stage of the gypsum crystal formation and have afterward evolved with the natural high humidity. The simulations of the behavior of the crystals in microclimatic chambers produced crystal dissolution by 1–4% weight fraction under high CO2 concentration and permanent fog, and gypsum phase dehydration under air and CO2 gaseous environment. Our work suggests that most surface impurities are of natural origin; the most significant anthropogenic damage on the crystals is the extraction of water from the caves.
The excitability of local surface plasmon modes in radial trimers composed of gold nanorods was mapped using hyperspectral cathodoluminescence (CL) in the scanning electron microscope. In symmetric trimers, the local plasmon resonances could be excited most effectively at the ends of individual rods. Introducing asymmetry into the structure breaks the degeneracy of the dipole modes and changes the excitability of transverse dipole modes in different directions. CL in the scanning electron microscope has great potential to interrogate individual nanophotonic structures and is a complement to electron energy loss spectroscopy and optical microscopy.
This article is a summary of perspectives on training curricula from child and adolescent psychiatry trainees globally. We aimed to identify the relative strengths, weaknesses and gaps in learning needs from a trainee's perspective. The 20 early-career child psychiatrists who contributed are from 16 countries and represent all the five continents. We could identify some global challenges as well as local/regional challenges that need to be addressed to develop competent child psychiatrists.
Due to the growing interest in the role of dietary patterns (DPs) on chronic diseases, we assessed the association between a posteriori identified DPs in the Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra (SUN) Project – a prospective cohort study in a Mediterranean country – and breast cancer (BC) risk.
DPs were ascertained through a principal component analysis based on 31 predefined food groups. BC cases were initially identified through self-report or, if deceased, from death certificates or by notification by the next kin. Women reporting BC were asked to provide a copy of their medical report and diagnoses for confirmation purposes. We fitted Cox regression models to assess the association between adherence to the identified DPs and BC risk.
Spanish university graduates.
We included 10 713 young and middle-aged – mainly premenopausal – women.
After a median follow-up of 10·3 years, we identified 100 confirmed and 168 probable incident BC cases. We described two major DPs: ‘Western dietary pattern’ (WDP) and ‘Mediterranean dietary pattern’ (MDP). A higher adherence to a WDP was associated with an increased risk of overall BC (multivariable-adjusted HR for confirmed BC Q4 v. Q1 1·70; 95 % CI 0·93, 3·12; P for trend = 0·045). Contrarily, adherence to a MDP was inversely associated with premenopausal BC (multivariable-adjusted HR Q4 v. Q1 0·33; 95 % CI 0·12, 0·91). No significant associations were observed for postmenopausal BC.
Whereas a higher adherence to the WDP may increase the risk of BC, a higher adherence to the MDP may decrease the risk of premenopausal BC.
Reproductive traits have a major influence on the economic effectiveness of horse breeding. However, there is little information available. We evaluated the use of reproductive traits as selection criteria in official breeding programs to increase the reproductive efficiency of breeding studs, analysing 696 690 records from the pedigree data of eight Spanish horse populations, with different breeding purposes. The reproductive parameters studied in both sexes were age at first foaling (AFF), age at last foaling, average reproductive life and generational interval. In the females, the average interval between foaling (AIF) and interval between first and second foaling were also studied. There were clear differences between sexes and breeds, which may be due to management practices, breeding purposes and the status of the populations, rather than to differences in actual physiological conditions. Riding mares were the most precocious (AFF, 1937.64 to 2255.69 days) and had a more intensive reproductive use (AIF, 625.83 to 760.07 days), whereas sires used for meat production were the most precocious males (AFF, 1789.93 to 1999.75 days), although they had a shorter reproductive life (1564.34 to 1797.32 days). Heritabilities (0.02 to 0.42 in females and 0.04 to 0.28 in males) evidenced the genetic component of the reproductive traits, with Sport Horses having the higher average values. These results support the selection by AFF to improve reproductive aspects because of its medium–high heritability and its positive correlations with other important reproductive traits. The inclusion of the AIF is also recommended in sport populations, because this determines the length of the breaks between foaling and conditions the reproductive performance of the dams, as well as their selective intensity, genetic gain and genetic improvement. It is therefore an important economic parameter in breeding studs.
The 3-valued paraconsistent logic Ciore was developed by Carnielli, Marcos and de Amo under the name LFI2, in the study of inconsistent databases from the point of view of logics of formal inconsistency (LFIs). They also considered a first-order version of Ciore called LFI2*. The logic Ciore enjoys extreme features concerning propagation and retropropagation of the consistency operator: a formula is consistent if and only if some of its subformulas is consistent. In addition, Ciore is algebraizable in the sense of Blok and Pigozzi. On the other hand, the logic LFI2* satisfies a somewhat counter-intuitive property: the universal and the existential quantifier are inter-definable by means of the paraconsistent negation, as it happens in classical first-order logic with respect to the classical negation. This feature seems to be unnatural, given that both quantifiers have the classical meaning in LFI2*, and that this logic does not satisfy the De Morgan laws with respect to its paraconsistent negation. The first goal of the present article is to introduce a first-order version of Ciore (which we call QCiore) preserving the spirit of Ciore, that is, without introducing unexpected relationships between the quantifiers. The second goal of the article is to adapt to QCiore the partial structures semantics for the first-order paraconsistent logic LPT1 introduced by Coniglio and Silvestrini, which generalizes the semantic notion of quasi-truth considered by Mikeberg, da Costa and Chuaqui. Finally, some important results of classical Model Theory are obtained for this logic, such as Robinson’s joint consistency theorem, amalgamation and interpolation. Although we focus on QCiore, this framework can be adapted to other 3-valued first-order LFIs.
This study aimed to evaluate the effects of toxic baits and attractants for fruit flies on the biology of its parasitoid Fopius arisanus. We tested two food-based attractants; hydrolysed corn protein (Biofruit® 3%) and sugarcane molasses (7%), their mixtures with spinosad and malathion-based insecticides, and a ready-to-use commercial bait (Success 0.02 CB®). Malathion-based lures were used as references for mortality (i.e., positive control), while negative control was honey. The formulations Biofruit® + malathion (T1), molasses + malathion (T2), and spinosad + molasses (T3) were toxic to F. arisanus, being classified as harmful (class 4). In addition, toxic baits composed of Biofruit + spinosad (T4) reduced parasitism by 97.99%, being rated as moderately harmful (class 3). Yet, Success 0.02 CB® (T7) was considered slightly toxic (class 2), causing a 64.55% reduction in parasitism. Regarding the biological parameters of F. arisanus, offspring number and parasitoid longevity were significantly reduced by using hydrolysed protein attractants when compared to the control (honey). However, sugarcane molasses improved parasitoid reproduction and longevity, as did the honey. Lastly, ingestion tests showed the major role of attractants in toxic-bait formulations against F. arisanus.
The aim of this study was to describe individuals seeking care for injury at a major emergency department (ED) in southern Puerto Rico in the months after Hurricane Maria on September 20, 2017.
After informed consent, we used a modified version of the Natural Disaster Morbidity Surveillance Form to determine why patients were visiting the ED during October 16, 2017–March 28, 2018. We analyzed visits where injury was reported as the primary reason for visit and whether it was hurricane-related.
Among 5 116 patients, 573 (11%) reported injury as the primary reason for a visit. Of these, 10% were hurricane-related visits. The most common types of injuries were abrasions, lacerations, and cuts (43% of all injury visits and 50% of hurricane-related visits). The most common mechanisms of injury were falls, slips, trips (268, 47%), and being hit by/or against an object (88, 15%). Most injury visits occurred during the first 3 months after the hurricane.
Surveillance after Hurricane Maria identified injury as the reason for a visit for about 1 in 10 patients visiting the ED, providing evidence on the patterns of injuries in the months following a hurricane. Public health and emergency providers can use this information to anticipate health care needs after a disaster.
The design of mixed-technology quasi-reflectionless planar bandpass filters (BPFs), bandstop filters (BSFs), and multi-band filters is reported. The proposed quasi-reflectionless filter architectures comprise a main filtering section that determines the power transmission response (bandpass, bandstop, or multi-band type) of the overall circuit network and auxiliary sections that absorb the reflected radio-frequency (RF) signal energy. By loading the input and output ports of the main filtering section with auxiliary filtering sections that exhibit a complementary transfer function with regard to the main one, a symmetric quasi-reflectionless behavior can be obtained at both accesses of the overall filter. The operating principles of the proposed filter concept are shown through synthesized first-order BPF and BSF designs. Selectivity-increase techniques are also described. They are based on: (i) cascading in-series multiple first-order stages and (ii) increasing the order of the filtering sections. Moreover, the RF design of quasi-reflectionless multi-band BPFs and BSFs is discussed. A hybrid integration scheme in which microstrip-type and lumped-elements are effectively combined within the filter volume is investigated for size miniaturization purposes. For experimental validation purposes, two quasi-reflectionless BPF prototypes (one- and two-stage architectures) centered at 2 GHz and a second-order BSF prototype centered at 1 GHz were designed, manufactured, and measured.
We investigated the distribution of comorbidities among adult tuberculosis (TB) patients in Chiapas, the poorest Mexican state, with a high presence of indigenous population, and a corridor for migrants from Latin America. Secondary analysis on 5508 new adult TB patients diagnosed between 2010 and 2014 revealed that the most prevalent comorbidities were diabetes mellitus (DM; 19.1%) and undernutrition (14.4%). The prevalence of DM in these TB patients was significantly higher among middle aged (41–64 years) compared with older adults (⩾65 years) (38.6% vs. 23.2%; P < 0.0001). The prevalence of undernutrition was lower among those with DM, and higher in communities with high indigenous presence. Immigrants only comprised 2% of all TB cases, but were more likely to have unfavourable TB treatment outcomes (treatment failure, death and default) when compared with those born in Chiapas (29.5% vs. 11.1%; P < 0.05). Unfavourable TB outcomes were also more prevalent among the TB patients with undernutrition, HIV or older age, but not DM (P < 0.05). Our study in Chiapas illustrates the challenges of other regions worldwide where social (e.g. indigenous origin, poverty, migration) and host factors (DM, undernutrition, HIV, older age) are associated with TB. Further understanding of these critical factors will guide local policy makers and health providers to improve TB management.
The present study investigated the adsorption of fluorides in natural zeolites clinoptilolite-type, sourced in Sonora, Mexico, and modified with Fe. Characterization of the material was carried out along with determination of kinetic parameters varying time and concentration of reagents to calculate maximum adsorption capacity. To determine thermodynamic parameters temperature was varied for accurate characterization of the adsorption process. It was found that the zeolite fixed Fe in its structure without model significant modification, likewise when put in contact with a fluoride solution (F-), it was capable of taking up these ions through adsorption due to the interaction between the sorbato and the pollutant. The kinetics best fit Pseudo-second-order model with Qmax=0.91 mgg-1, therefore it indicates that the process is reversible, spontaneous and endothermic what can favor the reuse of the material.
The precise control of curing reaction parameters allows a better crosslinking polymer. Modelling and optimization of this process require a correct kinetic of curing model. The kinetics of the crosslinking reaction is studied for the ethylene propylene diene monomer (EPDM) synthetic elastomer by mobile die rheometer (MDR). The kinetic parameters of reaction were calculated from Kamal-Ryan, Sestak-Berggren, and the Isayev-Deng methods at different temperatures. An Arrhenius-type function for the order of reaction n is introduced to improve the adjusting. Finally, a graphical and analytical description of the cure kinetics was developed. The order of reaction is predicted to better establishment of processing time. It was noted that for EPDM at higher temperatures, the increase of the rate of reaction occurs in short period of time, which could cause premature curing if the supply system is inadequate.
We study the propagation of uncertainty from a class of priors introduced by Arias-Nicolás et al. [(2016) Bayesian Analysis, 11(4), 1107–1136] to the premiums (both the collective and the Bayesian), for a wide family of premium principles (specifically, those that preserve the likelihood ratio order). The class under study reflects the prior uncertainty using distortion functions and fulfills some desirable requirements: elicitation is easy, the prior uncertainty can be measured by different metrics, and the range of quantities of interest is easily obtained from the extremal members of the class. We illustrate the methodology with several examples based on different claim counts models.
As the interest of the Semantic Web and computational linguistics communities in linguistic linked data (LLD) keeps increasing and the number of contributions that dwell on LLD rapidly grows, scholars (and linguists in particular) interested in the development of LLD resources sometimes find it difficult to determine which mechanism is suitable for their needs and which challenges have already been addressed. This review seeks to present the state of the art on the models, ontologies and their extensions to represent language resources as LLD by focusing on the nature of the linguistic content they aim to encode. Four basic groups of models are distinguished in this work: models to represent the main elements of lexical resources (group 1), vocabularies developed as extensions to models in group 1 and ontologies that provide more granularity on specific levels of linguistic analysis (group 2), catalogues of linguistic data categories (group 3) and other models such as corpora models or service-oriented ones (group 4). Contributions encompassed in these four groups are described, highlighting their reuse by the community and the modelling challenges that are still to be faced.
Swan Point in central Alaska contains the oldest recognized human occupation in Alaska (Cultural Zone 4b [CZ4b]), dating to circa 14,000 cal BP. This component consists of a microblade and burin industry with clear technological ties to the Siberian Upper Paleolithic Diuktai Culture. Through the systematic use of the Yubetsu method for the production of microblades, Swan Point is technologically more similar to Siberian microblade sites than to later-age (Denali complex) microblade sites in Alaska. The Yubetsu method is the hallmark of the Diuktai Culture, and in Alaska, Swan Point CZ4b is the only component with systematic production of microblades using the Yubetsu method. Other late Pleistocene and Holocene microblade sites in Alaska have an industry based on Campus-style, conical, or tabular microblade cores. Analysis of the collection furthers our understanding of how CZ4b relates to previous Siberian Diuktai-related assemblages and to later Alaskan Denali-related sites. We interpret the CZ4b component as representing a brief single event that has major cultural and technological implications for the early colonization process of North America.
Resonant soft x-ray scattering (RSoXS) leverages chemical specificity to characterize thin films but is limited near the nitrogen edge. The challenge is that commercially available x-ray transparent substrates are composed of Si3N4 and thereby absorb incident x-rays and generate incoherent fluorescence. To overcome this challenge, we designed and fabricated Al2O3 free-standing films for use as RSoXS windows. Al2O3 films offer higher x-ray transmittance and minimal fluorescence near the nitrogen edge. As an example, Al2O3 windows allow for nitrogen RSoXS of conjugated block copolymer thin films that reveal domain spacings, which are not apparent with commercially available Si3N4 substrates.