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The climate crisis requires nations to achieve human well-being with low national levels of carbon emissions. Countries vary from one another dramatically in how effectively they convert resources into well-being, and some nations with low levels of emissions have relatively high objective and subjective well-being. We identify urgent research and policy agendas for four groups of countries with either low or high emissions and well-being indicators. Least studied are those with low well-being and high emissions. Understanding social and political barriers to switching from high-carbon to lower-carbon modes of production and consumption, and ways to overcome them, will be fundamental.
It is known that supplementing dairy cow diets with full-fat oilseeds can be used as a strategy to mitigate methane emissions, through their action on rumen fermentation. However, direct comparisons of the effect of different oil sources are very few, as are studies implementing supplementation levels that reflect what is commonly fed on commercial farms. The objective was to investigate the effect of feeding different forms of supplemental plant oils on both methane emissions and milk fatty acid (FA) profile. Four multiparous, Holstein-Friesian cows in mid-lactation were randomly allocated to one of four treatment diets in a 4×4 Latin square design with 28-day periods. Diets were fed as a total mixed ration with a 50 : 50 forage : concentrate ratio (dry matter (DM) basis) with the forage consisting of 75 : 25 maize silage : grass silage (DM). Dietary treatments were a control diet containing no supplemental fat, and three treatment diets containing extruded linseed (EL), calcium salts of palm and linseed oil (CPLO) or milled rapeseed (MR) formulated to provide each cow with an estimated 500 g additional oil/day (22 g oil/kg diet DM). Dry matter intake (DMI), milk yield, milk composition and methane production were measured at the end of each experimental period when cows were housed in respiration chambers for 4 days. There was no effect of treatment diet on DMI or milk protein or lactose concentration, but oilseed-based supplements increased milk yield compared with the control diet and milk fat concentration relative to control was reduced by 4 g/kg by supplemental EL. Feeding CPLO reduced methane production, and both linseed-based supplements decreased methane yield (by 1.8 l/kg DMI) and intensity (by 2.7 l/kg milk yield) compared with the control diet, but feeding MR had no effect on methane emission. All the fat supplements decreased milk total saturated fatty acid (SFA) concentration compared with the control, and SFA were replaced with mainly cis-9 18:1 but also trans FA (and in the case of EL and CPLO there were increases in polyunsaturated FA concentration). Supplementing dairy cow diets with these oilseed-based preparations affected milk FA profile and increased milk yield. However, only the linseed-based supplements reduced methane production, yield or intensity, whereas feeding MR had no effect.
The effect of botanical diversity on supply of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) to ruminants in vitro, and the fatty acid (FA) composition of muscle in lambs was investigated. Six plant species, commonly grown as part of UK herbal ley mixtures (Trifolium pratense, Lotus corniculatus, Achillea millefolium, Centaurea nigra, Plantago lanceolata and Prunella vulgaris), were assessed for FA profile, and in vitro biohydrogenation of constituent PUFA, to estimate intestinal supply of PUFA available for absorption by ruminants. Modelling the in vitro data suggested that L. corniculatus and P. vulgaris had the greatest potential to increase 18:3n-3 supply to ruminants, having the highest amounts escaping in vitro biohydrogenation. Biodiverse pastures were established using the six selected species, under-sown in a perennial ryegrass-based sward. Lambs were grazed (~50 days) on biodiverse or control pastures and the effects on the FA composition of musculus longissimus thoracis (lean and subcutaneous fat) and musculus semimembranosus (lean) were determined. Biodiverse pasture increased 18:2n-6 and 18:3n-3 contents of m. semimembranosus (+14.8 and +7.2 mg/100 g tissue, respectively) and the subcutaneous fat of m. longissimus thoracis (+158 and +166 mg/100 g tissue, respectively) relative to feeding a perennial ryegrass pasture. However, there was no effect on total concentrations of saturated FA in the tissues studied. It was concluded that enhancing biodiversity had a positive impact on muscle FA profile reflected by increased levels of total PUFA.
Prospective data on the associations between vitamin D intake and risk of CVD and all-cause mortality are limited and inconclusive. The aim of the present study was to investigate the associations between vitamin D intake and CVD risk and all-cause mortality in the Caerphilly Prospective Cohort Study.
The associations of vitamin D intake with CVD risk markers were examined cross-sectionally at baseline and longitudinally at 5-year, 10-year and >20-year follow-ups. In addition, the predictive value of vitamin D intake for CVD events and all-cause mortality after >20 years of follow-up was examined. Logistic regression and general linear regression were used for data analysis.
Participants in the UK.
Men (n 452) who were free from CVD and type 2 diabetes at recruitment.
Higher vitamin D intake was associated with increased HDL cholesterol (P=0·003) and pulse pressure (P=0·04) and decreased total cholesterol:HDL cholesterol (P=0·008) cross-sectionally at baseline, but the associations were lost during follow-up. Furthermore, higher vitamin D intake was associated with decreased concentration of plasma TAG at baseline (P=0·01) and at the 5-year (P=0·01), but not the 10-year examination. After >20 years of follow-up, vitamin D was not associated with stroke (n 72), myocardial infarctions (n 142), heart failure (n 43) or all-cause mortality (n 281), but was positively associated with increased diastolic blood pressure (P=0·03).
The study supports associations of higher vitamin D intake with lower fasting plasma TAG and higher diastolic blood pressure.
Supplementing dairy cow diets with oilseed preparations has been shown to replace milk saturated fatty acids (SFA) with mono- and/or polyunsaturated fatty acids (MUFA, PUFA), which may reduce risk factors associated with cardio-metabolic diseases in humans consuming milk and dairy products. Previous studies demonstrating this are largely detailed, highly controlled experiments involving small numbers of animals, but in order to transfer this feeding strategy to commercial situations further studies are required involving whole herds varying in management practices. In experiment 1, three oilseed supplements (extruded linseed (EL), calcium salts of palm and linseed oil (CPLO) and milled rapeseed (MR)) were included in grass silage-based diets formulated to provide cows with ~350 g oil/day, and compared with a negative control (Control) diet containing no supplemental fat, and a positive control diet containing 350 g/cow per day oil as calcium salt of palm oil distillate (CPO). Diets were fed for 28-day periods in a 5×4 Latin Square design, and milk production, composition and fatty acid (FA) profile were analysed at the end of each period. Compared with Control, all lipid supplemented diets decreased milk fat SFA concentration by an average of 3.5 g/100 g FA, by replacement with both cis- and trans-MUFA/PUFA. Compared with CPO, only CPLO and MR resulted in lower milk SFA concentrations. In experiment 2, 24 commercial dairy farms (average herd size±SEM 191±19.3) from the south west of the United Kingdom were recruited and for a 1 month period asked to supplement their herd diets with either CPO, EL, CPLO or MR at the same inclusion level as the first study. Bulk tank milk was analysed weekly to determine FA concentration by Fourier Transform mid-IR spectroscopy prediction. After 4 weeks, EL, CPLO and MR all decreased herd milk SFA and increased MUFA to a similar extent (average −3.4 and +2.4 g/100 g FA, respectively) when compared with CPO. Differing responses observed between experiments 1 and 2 may be due in part to variations in farm management conditions (including basal diet) in experiment 2. This study demonstrates the importance of applying experimental research into commercial practice where variations in background conditions can augment different effects to those obtained under controlled conditions.
Habit formation is a fixture of contemporary new Keynesian models. The vast majority assume that agents form habits strictly over consumption of an aggregate good, leaving open the question of whether it might be preferable to have them form habits over differentiated products instead–an arrangement known as deep habits. I answer this question by estimating a model that nests both habit concepts as special cases. Estimates reveal that the data favor a specification in which consumption habits are stronger at the product level than at the aggregate level. A mix of significance tests and simulation results indicate that including deep habits greatly improves model fit, most notably with regard to inflation dynamics.
Over the past fifteen years, concerns related to immigration and the integration of immigrants have risen to the forefront of European politics (e.g., Givens and Luedtke 2005; Guild, Groenendijk, and Carrera 2009). As anti-immigrant nationalist parties have gained ground, European governments have closed borders and even deported immigrants en masse. At the same time, countries throughout the European Union (EU) have increasingly stressed the importance of the social, economic, and cultural integration of immigrants. As immigration has become increasingly politicized across Europe, many governments have restructured themselves. Some countries have created new cabinet ministries designed to focus on immigration and immigrant integration. Other countries have assigned new immigration-related tasks to existing political bodies. In the face of new or radically transformed governance structures, one important question emerges: To what extent do women serve in immigration ministry leadership?
A 2010 survey of 1,299 corn, cotton, and soybean growers was conducted to determine their attitudes and awareness regarding glyphosate-resistant (GR) weeds and resultant implications on weed management practices. An additional 350 growers included in the current study participated in a 2005 survey, and these answers were compared across time so that cross-sectional and longitudinal comparisons of responses could be made. Most growers surveyed in 2010 were aware of the potential for weeds to evolve resistance to glyphosate; however, many growers were not aware of glyphosate resistance in specific weeds in their county or state. Growers in the South were different from growers in other geographic regions and were significantly more aware of local cases of GR weeds. Awareness of GR weeds did not increase appreciably from 2005 to 2010, but the percentage who reported GR weeds as problematic was significantly higher. Grower reports of GR weeds on-farm in 2010 were up considerably from 2005, with growers in the South reporting significantly more instances than growers in other regions. Growers in the South were also more likely to consider glyphosate resistance a serious problem. Overall, 30% of growers did not consider GR weeds to be a problem. It appears that most growers received information about glyphosate resistance from farm publications, although in the South this percentage was less than for other geographic regions. Growers in the South received more information from universities and extension sources.
Approximately 1,300 growers from 22 states were surveyed during 2010 to determine herbicide use. Cropping systems included continuous glyphosate-resistant corn, cotton, and soybean, and various combinations of these crops and rotations with non–glyphosate-resistant crops. The most commonly used herbicide for both fall and spring applications was glyphosate followed by synthetic auxin herbicides. Herbicide application in spring was favored over application in the fall. The percentage of growers in a glyphosate-only system was as high as 69% for some cropping systems. Excluding glyphosate, the most frequently used herbicides included photosystem II, mitotic, and protoporphyrinogen oxidase inhibitors. A higher percentage of growers integrated herbicides other than glyphosate during 2010 compared with 2005. Extensive educational efforts have promoted resistance management by increasing the diversity of herbicides in glyphosate-resistant cropping systems. However, a considerable percentage of growers continued use of only glyphosate from the period of 2005 to 2010, and this practice most likely will continue to exert a high level of selection for evolved glyphosate-resistant weed species.
We inhabit a thoroughly globalized world. People are increasingly and visibly connected by a “World Wide Web,” by a world market, and by universalist discourses of human rights and democracy. At the same time, full citizenship in a political community—and the rights conferred by such citizenship—is an exclusive status that remains, remarkably, tied to accidents of birth and historical circumstance. And what one has a right to—gainful employment, education, health care, political voice, mere presence—is largely a function of whether one has the precious status of citizenship or is, alternatively, regarded as an alien. Ayelet Shachar's The Birthright Lottery: Citizenship and Global Inequality is a compelling account of the moral arbitrariness of this state of affairs. A study in “normative political theory,” it is a work of political science that incorporates legal theory, moral philosophy, political economy, and public policy. The author tackles issues of increasing global political importance—global disparities of wealth; unequal access to clear air, water, and a secure place to live; and the increasingly contentious politics of immigration and immigrant rights.
So it seems fitting to invite a range of political science scholars who work on these topics to comment on the book. The basic editorial charge of this symposium is thus straightforward: How do you assess Shachar's arguments and the attention she focuses on the phenomenon of “birthright lottery”? How does this argument bear upon the topics and approaches that characterize your own scholarship? And how do these topics and approaches shed light on the book and its arguments? While the focus of the symposium is this provocative book, the discussion of it should also be regarded as an opportunity to address the question of whether or not the bases of citizenship need to be fundamentally reconceived, and in what ways political science can and should contribute to such a rethinking.—Jeffrey C. Isaac, Editor
Based on potential benefits to human health, there is increasing interest in altering the composition of ruminant-derived foods. Including rapeseeds in the dairy cow diet is an effective strategy for replacing medium-chain saturated fatty acids (SFA) with cis-monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) in bovine milk, but there is limited information on the optimum level of supplementation. Decreases in SFA due to plant oils are also accompanied by increases in milk trans fatty acid (FA) content and it is possible that high oleic acid rapeseeds may result in a higher enrichment of cis-9 18:1 and lower increases in trans FAs in milk compared with conventional varieties. Seven multiparous lactating Holstein–Friesian cows were allocated to one of seven treatments in an incomplete Latin square design with five 28-day experimental periods, to evaluate the effect of replacing calcium salts of palm oil distillate (CPO; 41 g/kg diet dry matter, DM) with 128, 168 or 207 g/kg diet DM of conventional (COR) or a high oleic acid (HOR) rapeseed fed as a supplement milled with wheat. Rapeseed variety and inclusion level had no effect (P > 0.05) on DM intake, milk yield and composition. Both rapeseed varieties decreased linearly (P < 0.001) milk fat SFA content, which was partially compensated for by a linear increase (P < 0.001) in cis-9 18:1 concentration. Reductions in milk SFA were also associated with increases (P < 0.05) in trans 18:1 and total trans FA content, with no difference (P > 0.05) between rapeseed varieties. Replacing CPO in the diet with milled rapeseeds had no effect (P > 0.05) on total milk conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) concentration. Relative to a COR, inclusion of a high oleic acid variant in the diet increased (P = 0.01) the ratio of trans-MUFA : trans-polyunsaturated fatty acids in milk that may have implications with respect to cardiovascular disease risk in humans. In conclusion, data indicated that replacing CPO with milled rapeseeds at levels up to 1150 g oil/day could be used as a nutritional strategy to lower milk SFA content without inducing adverse effects on DM intake and milk production. HOR reduced milk fat SFA content to a greater extent than a conventional variety, but did not minimise associated increases in trans FA concentrations. However, the high oleic acid variant did alter the relative abundance of specific trans 18:1, CLA and trans 18:2 isomers compared with conventional rapeseeds.