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Quality of life in patients with schizophrenia has been associated with severity of psychotic symptoms, adverse events and insight.
Determine variables related to quality of life. This communication is focused on variables directly related to pharmacological treatment.
Non-interventional, multicentre, cross-sectional study. Outpatients with stable schizophrenia (according to clinical criteria) who had the last acute episode at least 2 months before were included. EuroQol-5D was used to assess quality of life, and GAF to assess functioning.
941 patients were included in the study and 931 patients were analyzed. Mean index EuroQol-5D score (range: from -0.594 to1) was 0.7 (CI95%: 0.7,0.8), on EuroQol-5D Visual Analog Scale (VAS) was 65.4 (CI95%: 64.2,66.6) and GAF mean score was 59.7 (CI95%: 58.7,60.8).
Variables with correlations statistically significant (p < 0.05) on quality of life and functioning were: no. of antipsychotics, length on antipsychotic treatment, no. of non-antipsychotic drugs, no. total of drugs, no. of adverse events (AEs), no. of moderate AEs, no. of severe AEs and severity of AEs (sum of severity of every AEs from 1 to 5).
In this sample a difference in quality of life and functioning in patients based on the number of treatments (antipsychotic and non-antipsychotic), length with antipsychotic treatment and adverse events (any severity) was shown. In order not to impair quality of life and functioning, the least number of drugs should be used and attitude towards medication should be worked.
Attitude towards medication has been associated with compliance, but different variables have been associated with them.
Assess relationship between attitude towards medication and compliance, and to evaluate variables related to treatment associated with them.
Non-interventional, multicentre, cross-sectional study. Outpatients with stable schizophrenia (according to clinical criteria) who had the last acute episode at least 2 months before were included.
941 patients recruited were included in the study, 931 patients were included in the statistical analysis.
Mean score on DAI was 4.2 and in its subscales: 1.6 on general attitude 2.8 on subjective effect 2.8. Mean score on compliance (a component of David's scale of insight), with range from 0 to 4, was: 3.0.
There were statistically significant (p < 0.0001) correlations between this subscale of David's insight scale and total DAI score (r = 0.495), with general attitude (r = 0.480) and with subjective effect (r = 0.419).
Variables related to medication with association statistically (p < 0.005) with DAI (total score and both subscales) were: length of treatment with current antipsychotic, number of total adverse events (AEs), moderate AEs, severe AEs, and total severity of adverse events (sum of severity of each one). All of them, except number of severe AEs, had statistically significant relationship (p < 0.05) with compliance.
Variables related to attitude towards medication (DAI total and both subscale) were very similar to those related to compliance (construct of David's insight scale). Adverse events and length of antipsychotic treatment had a clear clinical relevance. Study sponsored by AstraZeneca Spain, S.A.
A growing number of studies have explored overall health during ageing in a holistic manner by investigating multidimensional models of healthy ageing (HA). However, little attention has been given to the role of adherence to national nutrition guidelines in that context. This study aimed to investigate the prospective association between adherence to the French nutrition guidelines and HA. The authors analysed data from 21 407 participants of the NutriNet-Santé study with a median baseline age of 55·6 years (2009–2014) and initially free of major chronic diseases. HA was defined as not developing major chronic disease, no depressive symptoms, no function-limiting pain, independence in instrumental activities of daily living, good physical, cognitive and social functioning, as well as good self-perceived health. Adherence to guidelines of the French Nutrition and Health Programme (Programme National Nutrition Santé or PNNS) was measured via the PNNS Guideline Score (PNNS-GS), using baseline data from repeated 24-h dietary records and physical activity questionnaires. After a median follow-up of 5·7 years, 46·3 % of participants met our HA criteria. Robust-error-variance Poisson regression revealed that higher PNNS-GS scores, reflecting higher adherence to nutrition recommendations (including both diet and physical activity guidelines), were associated with a higher probability to age healthily (relative riskquartile 4 v. quartile 1 = 1·17 (95 % CI 1·12, 1·22)). Supplementary analyses revealed that this association may, to a small part, be mediated by weight status. The results suggest that high adherence to the French national nutrition recommendations may be linked to better overall health throughout ageing.
We introduce the Galaxy IFU Spectroscopy Tool (GIST), a convenient, all-in-one and multi-purpose tool for the analysis and visualisation of already reduced (integral-field) spectroscopic data. In particular, the pipeline performs all steps from read-in and preparation of data to its scientific analysis and visualisation in publication-quality plots. The code measures stellar kinematics and non-parametric star formation histories using the pPXF routine (Cappellari & Emsellem 2004; Cappellari 2017), performs an emission-line analysis with the GandALF procedure (Sarzi et al. 2006; Falcón-Barroso et al. 2006), and determines absorption line-strength indices and their corresponding single stellar population equivalent population properties (Kuntschner et al.2006; Martín-Navarro et al. 2018). The dedicated visualisation routine Mapviewer facilitates the access of all data products in a sophisticated graphical user interface with fully interactive plots.
A posteriori healthier dietary patterns and several nutrients have been associated with lower risks of depression in various studies; however, evidence is lacking with regard to the prospective association between adherence to nutritional recommendations (food-based and nutrient-based recommendations) and incident depression or depressive symptoms. In this study, we investigate such associations in the NutriNet Santé cohort. The study sample included 26 225 participants (aged 18–86 years) who were initially free of depressive symptoms. Adherence to nutritional recommendations was measured by four scores namely modified French Programme National Nutrition Santé-Guideline Score (mPNNS-GS), Alternative Healthy Eating Index-2010 (AHEI-2010), Probability of Adequate Nutrient Intake Dietary Score (PANDiet) and Diet Quality Index-International (DQI-I), using non-consecutive dietary record data during the first 2 years of follow-up (mean number of recording days=8, sd 2). Depressive symptoms were defined by a Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) score ≥17 for men and ≥23 for women. We used Cox proportional hazards models to estimate hazard ratios and 95 % CI, modelling the dietary scores as standardised continuous variables and as tertiles. Over a mean follow-up of 6 years, we identified 2166 incident cases of depressive symptoms. All dietary scores with the exception of the AHEI-2010 were significantly inversely associated with incident depressive symptoms. In the fully adjusted model, an increase of 1 sd in the mPNNS-GS, PANDiet and DQI-I was, respectively, associated with an 8 % (95 % CI 4, 13), 5 % (95 % CI 1, 9) and 9 % (95 % CI 5, 13) reduction in the risk of depressive symptoms. Overall, these findings suggest that diet in accordance with national or international guidelines could have beneficial effects with regard to mental health.
High-throughput sequencing technologies now allow for rapid cost-effective surveys of multiple pathogens in many host species including rodents, but it is currently unclear if the organ chosen for screening influences the number and identity of bacteria detected. We used 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing to identify bacterial pathogens in the heart, liver, lungs, kidneys and spleen of 13 water voles (Arvicola terrestris) collected in Franche-Comté, France. We asked if bacterial pathogen assemblages within organs are similar and if all five organs are necessary to detect all of the bacteria present in an individual animal. We identified 24 bacteria representing 17 genera; average bacterial richness for each organ ranged from 1·5 ± 0·4 (mean ± standard error) to 2·5 ± 0·4 bacteria/organ and did not differ significantly between organs. The average bacterial richness when organ assemblages were pooled within animals was 4·7 ± 0·6 bacteria/animal; Operational Taxonomic Unit accumulation analysis indicates that all five organs are required to obtain this. Organ type influences bacterial assemblage composition in a systematic way (PERMANOVA, 999 permutations, pseudo-F4,51 = 1·37, P = 0·001). Our results demonstrate that the number of organs sampled influences the ability to detect bacterial pathogens, which can inform sampling decisions in public health and wildlife ecology.
A lower BMI has been reported among consumers of organic foods, but this relationship has never been examined in a prospective design study. Our aim was to prospectively investigate the association between frequency of organic food consumption and weight change. We analysed data from 62 224 participants of the NutriNet-Santé cohort (78 % women, mean age=45 years) with information on consumption frequency of organic foods, dietary intake and repeated anthropometric data. For sixteen products, participants reported their consumption frequency of labelled organic foods (never, occasionally, most of the time). An organic score (OS) with a maximum of thirty-two points was computed. The associations of the OS (modeled as quartiles (Q)) with change in BMI during follow-up (on average 3·1 years) and with the risk of overweight and obesity were estimated by ANCOVA and multivariable logistic regression. A lower BMI increase was observed across quartiles of the OS (mean difference Q4 v. Q1=−0·16 (95 % CI −0·32, −0·01). An increase in the OS was associated with a lower risk of overweight and obesity (among non-overweight and non-obese participants at inclusion): OR for Q4 v. Q1 were 0·77 (95 % CI 0·68, 0·86) and 0·69 (95 % CI 0·58, 0·82), respectively. Concerning obesity risk, the association was stronger among participants with higher adherence to nutritional guidelines. This study supports a strong protective role of consumption frequency of organic foods with regard to the risk of overweight and obesity that depends on overall dietary quality. Upon confirmation, these results may contribute to fine-tune nutritional guidelines by accounting for farming practices in food production.
Previous studies demonstrate that boys' monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) genotype interacts with adverse rearing environments in early childhood, including punitive discipline, to predict later antisocial behavior. Yet the mechanisms by which MAOA and punitive parenting interact during childhood to amplify risk for antisocial behavior are not well understood. In the present study, hostile attributional bias and aggressive response generation during middle childhood, salient aspects of maladaptive social information processing, were tested as possible mediators of this relation in a sample of 187 low-income men followed prospectively from infancy into early adulthood. Given racial–ethnic variation in MAOA allele frequencies, analyses were conducted separately by race. In both African American and Caucasian men, those with the low-activity MAOA allele who experienced more punitive discipline at age 1.5 generated more aggressive responses to perceived threat at age 10 relative to men with the high-activity variant. In the African American subsample only, formal mediation analyses indicated a marginally significant indirect effect of maternal punitiveness on adult arrest records via aggressive response generation in middle childhood. The findings suggest that maladaptive social information processing may be an important mechanism underlying the association between MAOA × Parenting interactions and antisocial behavior in early adulthood. The present study extends previous work in the field by demonstrating that MAOA and harsh parenting assessed in early childhood interact to not only predict antisocial behavior in early adulthood, but also predict social information processing, a well-established social–cognitive correlate of antisocial behavior.
Although nutrition has been advocated as a major determinant of healthy ageing (HA), studies investigating the link between dietary quality and HA are scarce. We investigated the association between adherence to French food-based and nutrient-based guidelines at midlife, as assessed by three dietary scores, and HA. HA was assessed in 2007–2009, among 2329 participants of the SUpplémentation en Vitamines et Minéraux AntioXydants study aged 45–60 years at baseline (1994–1995) and initially free of diabetes, CVD and cancer. HA was defined as not developing any major chronic disease, good physical and cognitive functioning, no limitations in instrumental activities of daily living, no depressive symptoms, no health-related limitations in social life, good overall self-perceived health and no function-limiting pain. Data from repeated 24-h dietary records provided at baseline permitted the computation of the modified French Programme National Nutrition Santé-Guideline Score (mPNNS-GS), the Probability of Adequate Nutrient Intake Dietary Score (PANDiet) and the Diet Quality Index-International (DQI-I). Associations of these scores with HA were assessed by logistic regression. In 2007–2009, 42 % of men and 36 % of women met our criteria of HA. After adjustment for potential confounders, higher scores of the mPNNS-GS (ORquartile 4 v. quartile 1 1·44; 95 % CI 1·10, 1·87; Ptrend=0·006) and the PANDiet (1·28; 95 % CI 1·00, 1·64; Ptrend=0·03) were associated with higher odds of HA. We observed no association between DQI-I and HA. In conclusion, this study suggests a beneficial long-term role of high adherence to both food-based and nutrient-based French dietary guidelines for a HA process.
25-Hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) insufficiency is very common in many countries. Yet, the extent to which 25(OH)D status affects cognitive performance remains unclear. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the cross-time association between midlife plasma 25(OH)D concentrations and subsequent cognitive performance, using a subsample from the French ‘SUpplémentation en Vitamines et Minéraux AntioXydants’ randomised trial (SU.VI.MAX, 1994–2002) and the SU.VI.MAX 2 observational follow-up study (2007–9). 25(OH)D concentrations were measured in plasma samples drawn in 1994–5, using an electrochemoluminescent immunoassay. Cognitive performance was evaluated in 2007–9 with a neuropsychological battery including phonemic and semantic fluency tasks, the RI-48 (rappel indicé-48 items) cued recall test, the Trail Making Test and the forward and backward digit span. Cognitive factors were extracted via principal component analysis (PCA). Data from 1009 individuals, aged 45–60 years at baseline, with available 25(OH)D and cognitive measurements were analysed by multivariable linear regression models and ANCOVA, stratified by educational level. PCA yielded two factors, designated as ‘verbal memory’ (strongly correlated with the RI-48 and phonemic/semantic fluency tasks) and ‘short-term/working memory’ (strongly correlated with the digit span tasks). In the fully adjusted regression model, among individuals with low education, there was a positive association between 25(OH)D concentrations and the ‘short-term/working memory’ factor (P= 0·02), mainly driven by the backward digit span (P= 0·004). No association with either cognitive factor was found among better educated participants. In conclusion, higher midlife 25(OH)D concentrations were linked to better outcomes concerning short-term and working memory. However, these results were specific to subjects with low education, suggesting a modifying effect of cognitive reserve.
Micromegas detectors, thanks to their good spatial and temporal discrimination capabilities, are good candidates for rare event search experiments. Recent X-ray background levels achieved by these detectors in the CAST experiment have motivated further studies in the nature of the background levels measured. In particular, different shielding configurations have been tested at the Canfranc Underground Laboratory, using a microbulk type detector which was previously running at the CAST experiment. The first results underground show that this technology, which is made of low radiative materials, is able to reach background levels down to 2 × 10-7 keV-1 s-1 cm-2 with a proper shielding. Moreover, the experimental background measurements are complemented with Geant4 simulations which allow to understand the origin of the background, and to optimize future shielding set-ups.
The T-REX project aims at developing novel readout techniques for Time Projection Chambers in experiments searching for rare events. The enhanced performance of the latest Micromegas readouts in issues like energy resolution, gain stability, homogeneity, material budget, combined with low background techniques, is opening new windows of opportunity for their application in this field. Here we review the latest results regarding the use and prospects of Micromegas readouts in axion physics (CAST and the future helioscope), as well as the R&D carried out within NEXT, to search for the neutrinoless double-beta decay.
Kogure and co-workers have published several papers reporting the stacking structures of various 2:1 layer phyllosilicates (e.g. aspidolite, Kogure et al. (2004); wonesite, Kogure et al. (2005); pyrophyllite, Kogure et al. (2006)), mainly by using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM). However, there is ambiguity in wording that refers to the lateral displacement between two tetrahedral sheets across the interlayer regions. Zvyagin et al. (1969) used the symbol “τ” for this displacement, which describes the structures of pyrophyllite and talc, but no universally accepted wording was used for other 2:1 phyllosilicates or 1:1 phyllosilicates.