To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
The principle and practice of pro bono, or volunteer legal services for poor and other marginalized groups, is an increasingly important feature of civil justice systems around the world. Recent surveys have identified pro bono initiatives in more than eighty countries - including Colombia, Portugal, Nigeria, and Singapore - and the list keeps growing. Covering the spread of pro bono in across five continents, this book provides a unique comparative dataset permitting the first-ever analysis of pro bono's growing role in access to justice globally. The contributors are leading experts from around the world, whose chapters explore both the internal roots of and global influences on pro bono in transnational context. Global Pro Bono explores the dramatically expanding geographical and political reach of pro bono: documenting its essential contribution to bringing more justice to those on the margins, while underscoring its complex and contested meaning in different parts of the world.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the fermentative characteristics and chemical composition of cochineal nopal cactus silage additives with urea or Lactobacillus buchneri (LB), as well as the association of both additives in four storage times (7, 15, 60 and 120 days) and during aerobic stability, with evaluations at 0, 48 and 96 h. Four silages were used: no additive, addition of 2% urea, addition of LB and addition of 2% urea and LB. The study was divided into two experiments: the first experiment evaluated the silages at different storage times, and the second experiment evaluated the silages during the aerobic stability test. In both experiments, the experimental design was completely randomized in a factorial scheme (4 × 4 and 4 × 3) with three replicates per treatment. After the ensiling process, lactic acid bacteria predominated in all treatments. The concentration of lactic acid increased significantly from 60 days of ensiling. The concentration of acetic acid varied significantly between the storage times only for the silages treated with urea and LB alone. The silage treated with urea maintained a constant pH value up to 120 days of storage. During the 96 h aerobic stability test, no breaking in the stability of silages was observed. The exclusive or associated use of urea and LB promotes improvement in the fermentative characteristics of cochineal nopal cactus silage, without major alterations in the chemical composition or interfering with the aerobic stability of the silages.
Protein supplementation may be beneficial for patients with chronic liver disease (CLD). This study compared the effects of whey protein isolate (WP) and casein (CA) supplementation on nutritional status and immune parameters of CLD patients who were randomly assigned to take 20 g of WP or CA twice per d as a supplement for 15 d. Body composition, muscle functionality and plasmatic immunomarkers were assessed before and after supplementation. Patients were also classified according to the model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) into less (MELD < 15) and more (MELD ≥ 15) severe disease groups. Malnutrition, determined by the Subjective Global Assessment at baseline, was observed in 57·4 % and 54·2 % of patients in the WP and CA groups, respectively (P = 0·649). Protein intake was lower at baseline in the WP group than in the CA group (P = 0·035), with no difference after supplementation (P = 0·410). Both the WP and CA MELD < 15 groups increased protein intake after supplementation according to the intragroup analysis. No differences were observed in body composition, muscle functionality, most plasma cytokines (TNF, IL-6, IL-1β and interferon-γ), immunomodulatory proteins (sTNFR1, sTNFR2, brain-derived neurotrophic factor and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor) or immunomodulatory hormones (adiponectin, insulin and leptin) after supplementation in the WP groups at the two assessed moments. WP supplementation increased the levels of interferon-γ-induced protein-10/CXCL10 (P = 0·022), eotaxin-1/CCL11 (P = 0·031) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1/CCL2 (P = 0·018) and decreased IL-5 (P = 0·027), including among those in the MELD ≥ 15 group, for whom IL-10 was also increased (P = 0·008). Thus, WP consumption by patients with CLD impacted the immunomodulatory responses when compared with CA with no impact on nutritional status.
Accurate estimates of methane (CH4) production by cattle in different contexts are essential to developing mitigation strategies in different regions. We aimed to: (i) compile a database of CH4 emissions from Brazilian cattle studies, (ii) evaluate prediction precision and accuracy of extant proposed equations for cattle and (iii) develop specialized equations for predicting CH4 emissions from cattle in tropical conditions. Data of nutrient intake, diet composition and CH4 emissions were compiled from in vivo studies using open-circuit respiratory chambers, SF6 technique or the GreenFeed® system. A final dataset containing intake, diet composition, digestibility and CH4 emissions (677 individual animal observations, 40 treatment means) obtained from 38 studies conducted in Brazil was used. The dataset was divided into three groups: all animals (GEN), lactating dairy cows (LAC) and growing cattle and non-lactating dairy cows (GCNL). A total of 54 prediction equations available in the literature were evaluated. A total of 96 multiple linear models were developed for predicting CH4 production (MJ/day). The predictor variables were DM intake (DMI), gross energy (GE) intake, BW, DMI as proportion of BW, NDF concentration, ether extract (EE) concentration, dietary proportion of concentrate and GE digestibility. Model selection criteria were significance (P < 0.05) and variance inflation factor lower than three for all predictors. Each model performance was evaluated by leave-one-out cross-validation. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (2006) Tier 2 method performed better for GEN and GCNL than LAC and overpredicted CH4 production for all datasets. Increasing complexity of the newly developed models resulted in greater performance. The GCNL had a greater number of equations with expanded possibilities to correct for diet characteristics such as EE and NDF concentrations and dietary proportion of concentrate. For the LAC dataset, equations based on intake and animal characteristics were developed. The equations developed in the present study can be useful for accurate and precise estimation of CH4 emissions from cattle in tropical conditions. These equations could improve accuracy of greenhouse gas inventories for tropical countries. The results provide a better understanding of the dietary and animal characteristics that influence the production of enteric CH4 in tropical production systems.
This study aimed to examine the effects of re-ensiling time and Lactobacillus buchneri on the fermentation profile, chemical composition and aerobic stability of sugarcane silages. The experiment was set up as a repeated measure design consisting of four air-exposure periods (EP)(0, 6, 12, and 24 h) microbial additive (A) (L. buchneri; or lack of there), with five replicates. Sugarcane was ground through a stationary forage chopper and ensiled in four plastic drums of 200-L capacity. After 210 days of storage, the drums were opened and half of the silage mass was treated with L. buchneri at the concentration of 105 cfu/g of forage. Subsequently, the silages were divided into stacks. The re-ensiling process was started immediately, at 0, 6, 12 and 24-hour intervals, by transferring the material to PVC mini-silos. Silos were opened after 120 days of re-ensiling. The use of L. buchneri reduced butyrate concentration but did not change ethanol or acetic acid concentrations and aerobic stability. An interaction effect between L. buchneri and re-ensiling time was observed for dry matter (DM) losses and composition. Lactobacillus buchneri is not effective in improving aerobic stability in re-ensiled sugarcane silages. However, less DM is lost in silages treated with L. buchneri and exposed to air for 24 h. Re-ensiling sugar cane in up to 24 h of exposure to air does not change final product quality.
Raw milk cheeses are commonly consumed in France and are also a common source of foodborne outbreaks (FBOs). Both an FBO surveillance system and a laboratory-based surveillance system aim to detect Salmonella outbreaks. In early August 2018, five familial FBOs due to Salmonella spp. were reported to a regional health authority. Investigation identified common exposure to a raw goats' milk cheese, from which Salmonella spp. were also isolated, leading to an international product recall. Three weeks later, on 22 August, a national increase in Salmonella Newport ST118 was detected through laboratory surveillance. Concomitantly isolates from the earlier familial clusters were confirmed as S. Newport ST118. Interviews with a selection of the laboratory-identified cases revealed exposure to the same cheese, including exposure to batches not included in the previous recall, leading to an expansion of the recall. The outbreak affected 153 cases, including six cases in Scotland. S. Newport was detected in the cheese and in the milk of one of the producer's goats. The difference in the two alerts generated by this outbreak highlight the timeliness of the FBO system and the precision of the laboratory-based surveillance system. It is also a reminder of the risks associated with raw milk cheeses.
The World Health Organization (WHO) Somatoform Disorders Schedule (SDS) is a highly standardized instrument for the assessment of somatoform disorders according to the tenth revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10) and the fourth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-IV). The SDS was produced in the framework of the WHO International Study of Somatoform Disorders and tested for its reliability in Brazil, India, Italy, the USA and Zimbabwe. A sample of 180 patients from general psychiatry, primary care and general medical settings were interviewed with the SDS within a three-day interval by nonclinician and clinician interviewers. The agreement between the two interviews was tested using the intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) and kappa statistic. The test-retest reliability of the SDS was found to be very good (the ICC for all the centres was 0.76; overall kappa value for SDS questions was 0.58; one-third of SDS questions had a kappa value of 0.60 or higher). The field test results of the SDS indicated that the instrument may be administered in larger studies by non-clinician interviewers without compromising the ability to document the prevalence of somatoform disorders in different cultures.
Atypical antipsychotic use in youth has increased. Adverse metabolic effects on weight, lipids, and glucose are evident in adults, but inadequately studied in youth. This report focuses on the metabolic effects of these agents in psychiatrically hospitalized youth.
Inpatient subjects were assessed at admission, 3 weeks, and discharge. Weight, body mass index, blood pressure, fasting glucose levels, high and low density lipoproteins (HDL and LDL, respectively), and triglycerides were measured.
N=112 subjects, diagnosed as: Affective Disorders (26.4%), Disruptive Behavior Disorders (32.6%), Pervasive Development Disorders (9.3%), Psychotic Disorders (5.4%), and Others (26.3%). Ages ranged from 4-17 years. Patients received: risperidone (N=41), olanzapine (N=13), quetiapine (N= 15), aripiprazole (N=22), while 34 patients received no medication. Average length of hospital stay (LOS) was 55.9 days (1-289). For the sample as a whole, trends of statistical differences were noted in weight at the time of discharge (+3.79 lbs). Weight gain at discharge was significantly correlated with only olanzapine (r=.553, p<0.0001), multiple regression analysis controlling for LOS is also significant (Beta .558, p < 0.0001) for olanzapine. For the medication treated group, statistically significant increases in HDL are noted at three weeks (+ 5 mgs/dl, p = 0.023); at discharge the difference was not significant. A similar trend was observed for glucose. There was a statistical trend for decrease in triglycerides at 3 weeks (15 mg/dl, p = 0.054), discharge difference was non-significant (-9 mg/dl).
Certain agents may carry greater propensity for inducing certain metabolic changes, but further study is required.
Over the last two decades, through the voices of groups including non-governmental organizations, persons bearing sex differentiation disorders have begun to question when and how one should decide in favor of or against surgical intervention following diagnosis.
Semi-structured interviews were held with seven adult patients who showed sex differentiation disorders at birth: Two with 5-alpha-reductase type-2 deficiency and five with congenital adrenal hyperplasia.
To investigate both how sexual identity is structured and the relationship between sexual identity, choice of sex object and sexual difference.
There is no ideal moment to perform surgical reassignment interventions on intersex patients, since the depth of the trauma can be neither predicted nor avoided. Traumatic events and their numerous occurrences are overdetermined, and depend on how parents, medical teams and subjects themselves cope with them throughout life. This fact is closely related to the question of how and when to operate, and who makes any decision to operate in order to “normalize” “abnormal” sex organs. The subject should never be left out of this decision.
This most complex discussion involves many variegated factors, including X and Y chromosomes, testosterone levels, hormone receptor sensitivities, sexual practices, the gender of partners, mannerisms, clothing, accessories, dream content and sexual fantasies, and none of them determine individuals’ identification nor their preferences for this or that sexual object.
Sex is trauma. Neither male nor female nor any other gender identification implies the choice of sex object, genders of partners or sexual practices.
Approximately 74 ka, Toba caldera in Sumatra, Indonesia, erupted in one of the most catastrophic supereruptions in Earth's history. Resurgent uplift of the caldera floor raised Samosir Island 700 m above Lake Toba, exposing valuable lake sediments. To constrain sediment chronology, we collected 173 discrete paleomagnetic 8 cm3 cubes and 15 radiocarbon samples from six sections across the island. Bulk organic 14C ages provide an initial chronostratigraphic framework ranging from ~12 to 46 ka. Natural and laboratory magnetizations were studied using alternating field demagnetization. A generally well-defined primary magnetization is isolated using principal component analysis. Comparison of inclination, and to a lesser degree declination, across independently dated sections suggests paleomagnetic secular variation (PSV) is recorded. Average inclination of −6° is more negative than a geocentric axial dipole would predict, but consistent with an eastward extension of the negative inclination anomaly observed in the western equatorial Pacific. The 14C- and PSV-derived age model constrains resurgent uplift, confirming faster uplift rates to the east and slower rates to the west, while suggesting that fault blocks moved differentially from each other within a generally trapdoor-type configuration.
There is an increased risk to develop mental disorder during adolescence and early adulthood. Given this vulnerability, and in order to facilitate the transition from child and adolescent to adult mental health services, specific services for this age group have been developed in the last years, focusing on accessibility and early referral of young mental patients. Our Psychiatry Department (Coimbra Hospital and University Centre, Portugal) created a specific unit for young adults in order to provide better care, in accordance with the specificities of this subpopulation. The team consists of psychiatrists, psychiatry residents, nurses and a clinical psychologist. Referred patients are under 20 years old, presenting clinically relevant psychopathology or behavior disturbances.
We aimed to characterize help-seeking outpatients regarding socio-demographic variables and its relation to depressive and anxiety symptoms.
Socio-demographic characterization was undertaken with young adult psychiatric outpatients observed during eleven months (1st January to 30th November 2015). Multivariate analyses were performed to identify a relationship among socio-demographic and psychopathology variables (assessed with the Portuguese version of Brief Symptom Inventory–53 itens).
One hundred and sixty-two outpatients were observed: 97 females (59,9%) and 65 males (40,1%), ages between 17 and 31 years old (average: 19,9; median: 20). We found a positive correlation between depressive and anxiety symptoms and the education level. A negative correlation was found between depressive and anxiety symptoms and male gender and presence of mental illness in the family.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Smoking is an addictive and chronic disease. Twenty-four percent of the Spanish population in 2012 smoked daily.
Aims and objectives
To evaluate a smoking cessation program in a Primary Care Center.
Observational, prospective study. We describe an individualized smoking cessation in Plaza del Ejército Health Center (Valladolid). Inclusion criteria: active smoker, ≥ 18 years old and belonging to the Health Center. Exclusion: severe mental illness. Included patients from November 2013 until January2014. Ended in July 2014. Four Medical residents participated, we present the results of one of them. During the first consultation motivational interviewing was conducted, physical examination and treatment was prescribed (cognitive behavioral therapy or drug treatment: varenicline). In subsequent consultations interview and follow-up. Variables: age, gender, pack-years, nicotine dependence (Fagerstrom) and Prochaska and DiClemente phase, weight, treatment used, dropout rate and final withdrawal of snuff.
Eleven patients, mean age 48.18 (13.61), 7 (63.6) women. Comorbidity: 6 (54.5) anxious-depressive pathology, 1 (9.1) dysthymia, 2 (18.2) endocrine pathology and 1 (9.1) respiratory disease. Four (36.4) showed high dependency and 2 (18.2) extreme. Media packages 20.50/year (19,20). Seven (63.6) were in action phase of Prochaska and DiClemente and 2 (18.2) in preparation. Visits range: 1-11. The average was 4.55 (3.64). Three (27.27) patients attended only the first visit. Four (36.4) achieved complete abstinence, 3 (27.27) met maintenance phase. One (9.1) reduced consumption in half. Patients gained average 0.5 kg (2.47).
The results are similar to those reported in other series. Modest dropout rate. No pharmacological treatment was used due to high coexistence of comorbidities, the only patient who used varenicline suffered insomnia. Average age and media packages were superior to other series.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
To estimate the nutritional requirements of hair sheep, knowledge about the animal’s weight and its relationships with growth performances is essential. A study was carried with the objective to establish the relationships between BW, fasting BW (FBW), empty BW (EBW), average daily gain (ADG) and empty BW gain (EBWG) for hair sheep in growing and finishing phases in Brazilian conditions. Databases were obtained from 32 studies, for a total of 1145 observations; there were 3 sex classes (non-castrated male, castrated male and female) and 2 feeding systems (pasture and feedlot). The most representative breeds in the database were Santa Ines (n = 473), Morada Nova (n = 70) and Brazilian Somali (n = 47). The other animals in the database were crossbreeds (n = 555). The FBW (kg), EBW and EBWG (kg/day) were estimated according to linear regression. A random coefficient model was adopted, considering the study as a random effect and including the possibility of covariance between the slope and the intercept. The coefficients obtained from the linear regression of the FBW against the BW, EBW against the FBW and EBWG against the ADG did not differ between sex class (P > 0.05) and genotype (P > 0.05). The equations generated to estimate FBW from the BW, EBW from the FBW and EBWG from the ADG are as follows: FBW = −0.5470 (±0.2025) + 0.9313(±0.019) × BW, EBW = −1.4944 (±0.3639) + 0.8816 (±0.018) × FBW and EBWG = 0.906 (±0.019) × ADG, respectively. The low mean squared error values found in the cross-validation confirmed the reliability of these equations. Considering a sheep with a BW of 30 kg and a 100 g ADG, the estimated FBW, EBW and EBWG calculated using the generated equations are 27, 22.65 and 0.090 kg, respectively. In conclusion, the generated equations can be used in growing hair sheep. The validation procedure applied to the generated equations showed that its use for hair sheep seems to be appropriate.
Tropical soils tend to harden during drying due to the generally low content of free-iron and organic carbon, combined with high fine sand and silt proportions. It was hypothesized that the change in soil physical condition induced by the addition of a leguminous mulch in cohesive tropical soil enriched with calcium may mitigate soil hardening through wetting and drying cycles by rain or irrigation, thereby improving the soil rootability. A leguminous mulch was added in different concentrations to a structurally fragile tropical soil enriched with calcium, which then had different irrigation intervals. The treatments were with or without mulch (10 t/ha), with or without added nitrogen (100 kg/ha at 2 intervals) and two irrigation intervals. In 2015 the irrigation intervals were either 4 or 8 days, and in 2016 they were either 6 or 9 days. Two years were used in the attempt to achieve greater differences, as for tested variables, between treatments. Maize planted in these soil treatments was measured for physiological performance, water use efficiency and yield. Mulch used on structurally fragile tropical soil enriched with calcium was found to delay increased penetration resistance from hardening by wet/dry cycles. In this context, an improved soil rootability led to an enlargement of the leaf area index, greater nitrogen uptake and increased CO2 assimilation. This had important physiological consequences due to the positive effect on increased dry matter production and maize yield. In addition, these results suggested that mulch, used with urea, can delay the water supply for 3 or 4 days due to improvements in soil rootability caused by calcium and organic matter interactions. This may be crucial to a region where small intervals without rain are increasingly common due to global climate change. Therefore, due to a greater water use efficiency, this strategy may be a profitable way to increase crop productivity in tropical conditions rather than increasing water and nutrient application alone.
Tuberous sclerosis complex is a rare genetic disorder leading to the growth of hamartomas in multiple organs, including cardiac rhabdomyomas. Children with symptomatic cardiac rhabdomyoma require frequent admissions to intensive care units, have major complications, namely, arrhythmias, cardiac outflow tract obstruction and heart failure, affecting the quality of life and taking on high healthcare cost. Currently, there is no standard pharmacological treatment for this condition, and the management includes a conservative approach and supportive care. Everolimus has shown positive effects on subependymal giant cell astrocytomas, renal angiomyolipoma and refractory seizures associated with tuberous sclerosis complex. However, evidence supporting efficacy in symptomatic cardiac rhabdomyoma is limited to case reports. The ORACLE trial is the first randomised clinical trial assessing the efficacy of everolimus as a specific therapy for symptomatic cardiac rhabdomyoma.
ORACLE is a phase II, prospective, randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind, multicentre protocol trial. A total of 40 children with symptomatic cardiac rhabdomyoma secondary to tuberous sclerosis complex will be randomised to receive oral everolimus or placebo for 3 months. The primary outcome is 50% or more reduction in the tumour size related to baseline. As secondary outcomes we include the presence of arrhythmias, pericardial effusion, intracardiac obstruction, adverse events, progression of tumour reduction and effect on heart failure.
ORACLE protocol addresses a relevant unmet need in children with tuberous sclerosis complex and cardiac rhabdomyoma. The results of the trial will potentially support the first evidence-based therapy for this condition.
The current study evaluated the effects of dietary roughage:concentrate (R:C) ratios and water supply on the carcass characteristics and yield of lambs. Forty Santa Inês crossbred lambs with an average body weight (BW) of 19 ± 2.8 kg were evaluated in a completely randomized design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement consisting of two proportions of roughage and concentrate (30:70 and 70:30) and two levels of water supply (ad libitum and restricted to 0.5). The animals were slaughtered at an average weight of 28 ± 31 kg. Centesimal composition, colour parameters (L*, a* and b*), shear force, cooking losses and pH were determined on the Longissimus lumborum muscle. There was no interaction effect between the R:C ratio and water supply on the evaluated variables. Total BW gain, average daily gain and final BW were affected by water restriction and R:C ratio. Water restriction reduced total BW gain, average daily gain and final BW. No effect of water restriction was detected on slaughter weight, centesimal composition, colour variations, shear force, pH, weight or yield of carcass. No effect of water restriction and diets was observed on the cuts, except for neck weight. Carcass weight and yield were affected by the R:C ratios. Restricting the water supply to 0.5 does not affect the carcass weight or yield of Santa Inês crossbred lambs or their meat quality characteristics (centesimal composition, colour, shear force and pH measurements). A higher proportion of concentrate in the diet results in heavier hot and cold carcass weights.
The rocky shores of the north-east Atlantic have been long studied. Our focus is from Gibraltar to Norway plus the Azores and Iceland. Phylogeographic processes shape biogeographic patterns of biodiversity. Long-term and broadscale studies have shown the responses of biota to past climate fluctuations and more recent anthropogenic climate change. Inter- and intra-specific species interactions along sharp local environmental gradients shape distributions and community structure and hence ecosystem functioning. Shifts in domination by fucoids in shelter to barnacles/mussels in exposure are mediated by grazing by patellid limpets. Further south fucoids become increasingly rare, with species disappearing or restricted to estuarine refuges, caused by greater desiccation and grazing pressure. Mesoscale processes influence bottom-up nutrient forcing and larval supply, hence affecting species abundance and distribution, and can be proximate factors setting range edges (e.g., the English Channel, the Iberian Peninsula). Impacts of invasive non-native species are reviewed. Knowledge gaps such as the work on rockpools and host–parasite dynamics are also outlined.
The search for life in the Universe is a fundamental problem of astrobiology and modern science. The current progress in the detection of terrestrial-type exoplanets has opened a new avenue in the characterization of exoplanetary atmospheres and in the search for biosignatures of life with the upcoming ground-based and space missions. To specify the conditions favourable for the origin, development and sustainment of life as we know it in other worlds, we need to understand the nature of global (astrospheric), and local (atmospheric and surface) environments of exoplanets in the habitable zones (HZs) around G-K-M dwarf stars including our young Sun. Global environment is formed by propagated disturbances from the planet-hosting stars in the form of stellar flares, coronal mass ejections, energetic particles and winds collectively known as astrospheric space weather. Its characterization will help in understanding how an exoplanetary ecosystem interacts with its host star, as well as in the specification of the physical, chemical and biochemical conditions that can create favourable and/or detrimental conditions for planetary climate and habitability along with evolution of planetary internal dynamics over geological timescales. A key linkage of (astro)physical, chemical and geological processes can only be understood in the framework of interdisciplinary studies with the incorporation of progress in heliophysics, astrophysics, planetary and Earth sciences. The assessment of the impacts of host stars on the climate and habitability of terrestrial (exo)planets will significantly expand the current definition of the HZ to the biogenic zone and provide new observational strategies for searching for signatures of life. The major goal of this paper is to describe and discuss the current status and recent progress in this interdisciplinary field in light of presentations and discussions during the NASA Nexus for Exoplanetary System Science funded workshop ‘Exoplanetary Space Weather, Climate and Habitability’ and to provide a new roadmap for the future development of the emerging field of exoplanetary science and astrobiology.
The dietary inclusion of feed additives to improve the carcass characteristics of the final product is of great importance for the pork production chain. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effects of the association of ractopamine (RAC) and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on the performance traits of finishing pigs during the last 26 days prior to slaughter. In total, 810 commercial hybrid barrows were used. Animals were distributed among treatments according to a randomised block design in a 3 × 3 factorial arrangement, with three RAC levels (0, 5 or 10 ppm) and three CLA levels (0, 0.3 or 0.6%). Pigs fed the diet with 5 ppm RAC had higher average daily feed intake (ADFI) (2.83 kg; P < 0.05) when compared with those fed 10 ppm RAC and the control diet (2.75 and 2.74 kg, respectively). Lower ADFI values (P < 0.01) were observed with the diets containing CLA compared with the control diet with no CLA (2.73 and 2.75 v. 2.85 kg/day, respectively). The average daily weight gain of pigs fed 5 and 10 ppm RAC was +148 and +173 g/dayhigher (P < 0.001), respectively, than those fed the control diet. Dietary RAC levels influenced (P < 0.001) feed conversion ratio (FCR), which was reduced as RAC levels increased, with the pigs fed 10, 5 and 0 ppm RAC presenting FCR values of 2.57, 2.71 and 3.05, respectively. FCR also improved (P < 0.05) with the inclusion of 0.6% CLA relative to the control diet (2.70 v. 2.84, respectively). There was a significant interaction between CLA × RAC levels (P < 0.01) for final BW, loin eye area (LEA) (P < 0.05) and backfat thickness (BT) (P < 0.05). The treatments containing 10 ppm RAC + 0.6% or 0.3% CLA increased LEA and reduced BT. In conclusion, the level of 10 ppm inclusion of RAC increased the overall performance parameters of pigs and therefore improved production efficiency. The combined use of RAC and CLA promoted a lower feed conversion ratio as well as better quantitative carcass traits, as demonstrated by the higher LEA and lower BT. The dietary inclusion of CLA at 0.3% improved feed efficiency, however, without affecting LEA or BT yields.
Tuberculosis (TB) is the leading cause of death among infectious diseases worldwide. Among the estimated cases of drug-resistant TB, approximately 60% occur in the BRICS countries (Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa). Among Brazilian states, primary and acquired multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) rates were the highest in Rio Grande do Sul (RS). This study aimed to perform molecular characterisation of MDR-TB in the State of RS, a high-burden Brazilian state. We performed molecular characterisation of MDR-TB cases in RS, defined by drug susceptibility testing, using 131 Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) DNA samples from the Central Laboratory. We carried out MIRU-VNTR 24loci, spoligotyping, sequencing of the katG, inhA and rpoB genes and RDRio sublineage identification. The most frequent families found were LAM (65.6%) and Haarlem (22.1%). RDRio deletion was observed in 42 (32%) of the M.tb isolates. Among MDR-TB cases, eight (6.1%) did not present mutations in the studied genes. In 116 (88.5%) M.tb isolates, we found mutations associated with rifampicin (RIF) resistance in rpoB gene, and in 112 isolates (85.5%), we observed mutations related to isoniazid resistance in katG and inhA genes. An insertion of 12 nucleotides (CCAGAACAACCC) at the 516 codon in the rpoB gene, possibly responsible for a decreased interaction of RIF and RNA polymerase, was found in 19/131 of the isolates, belonging mostly to LAM and Haarlem families. These results enable a better understanding of the dynamics of transmission and evolution of MDR-TB in the region.